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Prof. S. S. SATHVON, Sditor. 



LANCASTER, PA., .JANUARY, lS7o. 



|1|0 farmery' frintinj pice, ^-^ 

THE LANCASTER EZPRE5S, ^ 



?£AI130L k GEI37, Pablishors. 



THE FARMERS' HOME ORGAN, 



% \mmi tamer; 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY, 
AND MISCELLANY. 

tiiiiished uiuler the .luspices of the Lancaster Ctounty 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 

Edited ty Prof. S. S. SATHVOIT. 



With iho.Tanuiirj- issue (187r0 The Karmf.b pnttrM upon 
.ts Boveuth jfur, under a ri»»n^*^ of jiroiirictorh;, the pulilica- 
tion ha\iuK bfcu tranyiVm-d to tbe iiinlt>rsiKnPd. who jiro- 
nose to make it in all resperlH a fiift-ela.-'H \*^y\\ orgau of tbe 
important iulvrestw to whi»Th it ifs fsj)eeiall> devoted. 

With thin view The KAitMF.n has been enl»rf;ed aud its 
fonn chun^fd to the Imi»erial Magazine style, eaeli niunhpr 
4wnt)ti)iinK twenty iiagpn Imp. J<vo., earh payt- meaPiirinfr '.>| j 
by i:t inchcK, sixteen of whicli will be cxcliiBiv^ly d»-voted to 
rendiuK matter, tbe ad%ertisenieiit« and "'^raudiag matter " 
txring limited to the remainiiiR jiayes. Thin increase of Bize 
and chauRO of form, together with the use of a more uwmpaet 
type, will enable tin to j^ve alK>ut peventy-fivo j.er cent. 
^lore reading matter than wae contained iu the old form. 

If thin efTort to give the atfricultnral community of lifin- 
■ustermnnty a pubUcation worthyof their honorable (lalliuti 
;s lilxrally Hecouded, we ]>i'opo«e to add other ijnprovf- 
mentH from time to time, including illustintious of imi^or- 
, tant topiw of general iutofei-t, and papers from si-ecial con- 
tributorB on the more iinjiortant local industries aud re- 
••ourccs of the county — a wide tUOd, which has l>eeu very 
little cultivated by our local press. 

The contributions of our able editor, Prof. Rathvon, on 
jubjects cnniipcted with the science of farming, and partio 
'darl> that specialty of which he is bo thorougtdy a master — 
t^ntomological twieuee — Bome knowledge of which has become 
a necosHity to the f>ui'ceHBful fanner, arc alone worth much 
more than the price of thiw magazine. 

Thk Farvkr will he published on the 15lh of every 
nonth, printed on good j'aper with clewr type, in con- 

enicnt form for reading and binding, aud m'aikd to sub- 
•<cribers on tbe following 

TEHMS: 

To fiubucriber*. renidiug nithin the county — 

One coi)y, one year, - - - . . $i.oo 

Six copies, one year, - - - , . . 5.00 

To Bubscribers outwide of Lancaster county, including 
oMtago pre-paid by the I'Ublishers: 

One copy, one year, - - . . , $1.35 

Five copies, one year, - ..... goo 

All subscriptions will commence with the Januarj- num- 
ber nule.'iB otherw)t<o ordered. 

All ixtmrnunicfttiona intended for piiblication Bhould be 
iddrcBsed to the Kditor, and. to secure iuscrtJon, nhould be 
n his bands by the fln^t of t^** month of imblication. 

All buHinesH lettfrs, containing Mubfcriptions and adver- 
).'«<-n>eutf), should be addreBsed to the publishery. 



PEARSOL & GEIST, 



Express Buildings, 22, South Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



RATi:M OK ADVERTISING.— Trn Oiitu a 

line for rnrta InHPrtlon. Twelve linen ocrupy one 
•U'*b cf Hpnc'-, N<> rcTH wtfler thftu a niu^le eolumu taken. 



CONTENTS OT THIS NUMBER. 



EDITORIAL ARTICLES. lAf.F.. 

Our New Departure, - - i 

The rul>lishers to the Reader, • i 

Entomological, 2 

' )vcr- Production — Under-Consuinption, 2 

Large Emigration to Germany, - 2 

# Prussian Maiuifaijtiirers Sending to 
Amcric.t for Workmen. 
The Opening Month of the Year, ■ 2 

Jol\nson Miller's Annual Address, 3 

r.'.-fort: the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticnilural Society. 
Illustrations for the Farmer, - • 3 

Answers to Correspondents, 3 

Eggs of tlie Katydiil. 
Specimen Copies of the Farmer. 3 

The Patrons of Husbandly, - - 3 

Comparative Value of Fruits, - j 

Dr. Habel on Guano, - - - 5 

The Future of The Lancaster Farmer, 3 

Hlnky M. Engle. 
Carnivorous Plants, . . . . .^ 

PROH.5SOR S. .S. RATIIvriN. 

Wheat Gleanings, J. Staii fkr. 5 

Results of Iinproved Culture, G. 5 

The Fruit Growers Society, -6 

Proceedings of their Annual Scs-^ion.. 
at York. 

Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society, • 7-9 

The Cultivation of Flowers, - • - 7 
An Kssav, r.Y U. L. Resh. 

Annual Address liy President Miller, of the 

Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 7-9 

Professor Riley on the Birds, 9 

Letter from a Farmer's 'Wife, Q 

Kecipe^ for Weevils and the ll-te of 
a Cattish. 

The Hay Crop and Hay Trade, • 10 

A Kind Word for Farmers, 10 

Agricultural Miscellany, io--i2 

Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture. — Proper 
Mfdc of Feeding Horses. — .Agriculture and Spanish 
Civilization. — Potato I>iet — How to Treat Swamp Muck 
for Manure. — Soaking Seeds — (>vage Orange. — A ItinK- 
eye View of Asricnllurc. — The Potato lilight. — Costring 
Manure from the Weather. — Plowing I.and in the Autumn. 

Horticultural Miscellany, - - 12-13 

Winlerini; Plants in Rooms and Cellar*. — Winter Care of 
Trees. — Spring Radishes. — Persimmons as Market Frt'iit. 
— l>ise.a8c-Proof Potatoes,— A Handy t',ardcn Roller. — 
Pras Three Thousand \'eani \ >ld. — t >rcluir(l and Nursciy. 
— Cultivation of Roses. 

Domestic Economy, - - 13-14 

To M.akc Hens Lay. — Philosophy of Cookery, — Our 
RL-,ipe for Curing Meal. — RoatI IJust.— Corn anil Hogs, 
— Brilliant Whitewash. — Hay Tea for Olives. — Friar's 
Oinlet. — Good Pudding. — Preparing and Packing Poul- 
try. — New Style of Ilarrels, — Insects on Cattle. 

General Miscellany, - 14- IS 

Destniction of the Canada Thistle, — The Reason Why 
ofSevcral Things. — Turning Points in Physical Life. — 
Long-Lcgged Horses. — Training Young Stock. — Proper 
MiHle ofr'ceding Horses. — Sulphur for Fowls, &c. — 



Healing Power of Glue. — railui- 
Hairs Numhcrc'i. 



in lUisiness, — Our 



(DAIl-'r AND •WTEEKLT,: 

Tl)» Leadiijg Local Family and Busin»ss Newspaper, and Ihe 
oijlyjndependeijt Ropiiblicai; Journal iq the County. 

THE , FOX7NDED I "^HE 

WEEKLY,! iiY rm: - DAILY, 

1S43. I PRESENT PROPRIETORS. ( 1856. 



\ 



Literary and Personal Items. - i6 

IliiKtinoHM Aniionncc^moiitM, - - II, 111, Iv 

This department it* a tiirt-ctorjr to o\-er forty Qmt-clatM 
huHUH'f-; ht'ijptt^, to whirh wein\U** fpeoial Attention. 



Thk Wkkki.y Kxthkhh han brf^n before tho rltlzenn of ,j 
Ijaneitpter eoujiiy iy>v a ) »•> iml oi lliiriy-tuu yi-ttiN, unii Tm8 
I>AiL.y Exi'KKss iVir o%er fi^litf-n ye^irf. \i\\x\\\v. *>ii« l<^i:R 
pei-iod, and without ednnge ot nniDi«K*^n*'nt, Tpk Fippv.*! 
liHH fairly (tarned u Lirge shar.- of imtruDHKo and tirmly^' n 
fbtiiblinh<'d it*^^" iu Ibf iilhliroo ilidem-e. nt^ aunpri^htKndr ^ 

independent jnnrnid, m-ver lifftilHtin^ to defend tbf ri«ht ^^ 
and dfrnmnee the wr'tn^, no mutter when- fuund to exiat. 
It haH alway« been y jonrual ol proj:reHn, aud thr nutMj'okon 
friend of *'dne:dion. tenii-f-miM-e, nuund m(»mlii aiid n>kt{ion. 
A"* ill Ih" phst, HO it will cniiniii.' in the futm-H. 

limS OF THE EXPRESS. 

The ^Veekly Express, one year. $1.00 

The Daily Express, one year, 5.00 

The Express and The Farmer: Tomuv renton rehtdiug 
within the limits of Liii>i;i(»l*^r mnuty we will luuil — 
The ^VeekIy and the Lancaster Farmer, one year, $2.50 
The Daily and the Farmer, one year, 5.00 

Or, two copies, each, of the Weekly and Farmer, 5.00 

REAL ESTATE ADVERTISING. 

The extended cireulation of Thk Kxrni'«H makefi It thn 
>H*Ht nn-dium fi->r Hdvfrti>^in8 lieul Knt^ite and I'enional 
Property in thn eonuty, a fa«-i whi<'h *'«n l»e uttivted by th© 
niaHv fitrment and othent who bave Hvailed thcoim-UM) of 
tlie lise of its I'OluniuH, lind to which we iuvltn the atteoUoD 
of all having jiropei-ty to dispose of. 

PRINTING SALE BILLS. 

Thk KxPiiK*.'* printiuK offli-^' in one of tfaf Ijent furtUiibM 
eHtabliNhm'-ntH for turnniK ""t all kindn of pnntlnff to bo 
found in the interior of the State. We are prepared to 
print any job from the Miiall vitiitinfr rsrd to the larffent sale 
or bor>4r bill, poi'tfr, or broadnide, plnin or in colore, aa 
(|UiekIy hk it can Iw done at any uth«T vHtabliHbment, and on 
an reiiHuuable tennn. We make tbe ptiniinR of SaU'bilU 
/lyr Fann^rtt a Ni>eciaUyf aud fmaruXiliV! aatiafaction to our 
oufltouiers. 

OUR STEAM POWER PRESSES 

include the \ar:oU!* ii.itl«rnw ad.Tptit) to printing Itockii, 
pamphletH. jvoxtrr^, Rale-ldlU, hand-btllH, millem' receiptw, 
eiitalofruefl of live stix'k, and nny kind of work douo in a 
rtrHt-ol»»»« i»rintin>; ottWe; iu nhort anything that may hn 
enlh'd for by the fanner, merrbant. tmnker. merhanic, or 
l)nKlue«R man, and we fruarsni'-** lo <lo the work a^ Hatlipftc- 
torr BM it can be done in rhilaib-lphia or eb«»'wbrre. 

With one of tbe mont complete Job omoe« in the State, 
and nnHurj'anHcd convpidruced forexp«'ditiouKly turning #ui 
work by tlie U-Nt worknieu. und<T tbe ixiraonaj t)Uper\iMion 
of tbe proi'rielt>r«. who are lioth practical print«rn, all p#ir- 
Honi) in ne<Ml of I'rintiug will find it to their inten-Ht to givo 
n» a trial. 

PEARSOL L GEIST, 

BOOK. NEWSPAPER AND JOB PRINTERS, 

Express Buildings, 22, South Quecn-st. 
LANCASTER. PA. 

Oar Pre«t<* Koomw are open to VlKitor«, and ttiey ar« 
alway* ^'di-onii* t<> lix^k at our mnchlaery la op>*ratioo. 



u. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 




A reUstWe Ume -piece should >)e In rhe posgeiislon of 
every farmer, and nowhere can a better, more correct 
and reliable Watch, either American or Swiss, he ob- 
tained, warranted in every respect as represented, than 

H. L. ZAHM&CO. 

NO. 20 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 



KEXT DOUK TO nARISI.K KROSiT. 



SILVER ami SILVER I^LATED WAltE, 
KNIVES, FORKS AND SPOONS. 

A LARGE STOCK. 

Farmers, tls a plea.sure to have a pood time-piece; 'Us 
also a pleasure toe^joy the lieautltul la agriculture and 
horticulture, and to see tli'" latest Improvements In 
these, and all thlng;s nature has blessed us with. There- 
fore, GOOD EYE SIGHT Is neccssary for the enjoyment of 
these pleasures. The eye is often strained and weak- 
ened from dlffereut causes and should be helped In 
time. Call on H. L. ZAHM s. ( O., where H. L. Zahm, the 
oldest and most experienced optician, with \ PRACTICE 
OF THIRTY Tli.\RK. vrtll lit you with g^lasses warran- 
ted to strengthen and renew the sight without a doubt. 

DO NOT FORGKT THE PL.^.CE. 

NO. 22 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

OPPOSITE BAER'.S BOOK STORE. 

Sl»i;t'IAl.TY : Spectacles, Jewelry and Watches. 

Repairing — Warranted First-class. 



BOOKS ! 



E. L I 



'J 



■ Til IIST EAS 

AKK MADK BV 

THOS. W. BROWN, 

(SDCCrEI^SUR TO KI>. BLU'KESrnKRFEK.i 

COVERLET AND CARPET WEAVER. 

STORE, 542 EAST KING ST, 

FACTORY, :A\ & 543 E, MIFFLi:>f ST., 

LANCASTEK, PA. 

GD8TOMER WORK A SPECIALTY, 

J. F. FRUEAUFF, 

Attomey-at-liiw. 

Office-zo4 Locust-st. House-27 S. Second-st. 

Notes, Bonds, 

Mortgages, Wills, 

Deeds, Leases, 

Building Contracts, 

And all manner of ,\GREKMF.NTS neatly and Pxpeditionsly 
clruwu. Caaee carelully and thoroughly tried before 

JUSTICES OF THE PEACE, 

ARBITRATORS. ROAD-VIEWERS. AUDITORS. 

Or in any CourtH ol' Ljuirustcr County, 
COUNSEL GIVEN TO 

EKECUTORS, ADMINISTRATORS & ASSIGNEES, 

Or Trust eeB of any kind. 

CoUectionp, large or »^maU, made upou a uniform table of 
rates, in all parts of the (Tnitod Htuteu. 

Special facilities for CoUectiouB of Estates «r Debts in 
Europe, . 

ConeuJtatiouB and C'orvefipondonr* conducted in either the 
French, Gfnuan or Ent<hsb Ianguagi.'H. 

J. F. FRUEAUFF, 

<;:olunibia, Pcjiiui. 



JOHN BAER'S SONS 

No. 15 North Queen Street, 

LANCASTER, PA., 

invite tlie utirntion of the public to tlifirlarge arid wtlj b"- 
l»'<-tfd i^toek of 

Miscellaneous M Scliool Boots, 

Fnglish and German Publications, 
BLANJi BOOKS, 

<'oni)iriHiu*T Lt-dgfr«. Day Books, Cagh Books. JouvLals, 
Pans Boukh. &c., Fuieign and 

Domestic Writing Papers, 

AND STATIONERY, 

lla\ing many veArs' experience in th^ bubinefiti. ample 
ea] ital and a ^paciouis store, we 

HA\/E THE BEST FAGIUtlES 

for conduct iuK ourbusiui;68, and tiffer special induct'Djents to 
ali whi.. may favur us with, their patiouajje. 
»'a^ Agents for 



Excelsior School Furniture. 



GEO.W.BIDWn 

FORNITDRE WAREROOMS, 

No. 13 EAST KING STREET, 



Over LIpp's Tin Storo, next door ti) First 
Katlonal Bank. 



AVI) 



KITCHEN FURNITURE, 

UPIIOLSTEIUNG DONE IN 
ALL ITS BRANCHES. 



HAIR, HUSK & COMMON MATTRESSES. 

CANE AND WOOD-SEAT 

All kinds of Furniture made to Order. 
t»"Repali'lng ol all kinds promptly attended to. 
GEO. W. EROWN. 



d 

H 

d 

9) 





Established 1770! Established 1770! 

H.C. DEMUTH, 

MANUFACTUKEi; OF 



FINK CIGARS. 

JOBBER IN CHEWING & FINE-CUT TOBACCOS. 

All the bcHt tohiicc.:uiu "'e market at the Ic west re- 
tail prices. 

114 E. King St., Lancaster, Pa. 



liatlivonftPiglier, 

CHEAP, FASHIONABLE AND DURABLE 

ESTA.BLISH2VIENT. 

Cor N. aUEEN and ORANGE STS., 

LANCASTER, PENN'A. 





ENGLISH WORSTED, TRICOT, 

GRANITE, CASTORS AND 

CASSIMERE COATINGS 

AND VESTINGS. 

All the Fine and Common Grades of 

EMlisli & American PantaloouinEs and VestlnEs 

SILK, VELVET, MERINO, CHALLEE. 

AND VELENTIA VESTINGS. 

Plain and Figured. 

Keadj-roHde riotlilngof home manufacture lor Men 
and Bo.vs. Hosiery, a tuU line of shirts, collars, shams, 
and Neck FIxId^js, etc. 

Clothing made to order promptl.v, and waiTanted to 
(five satlslaetion. Agents for the sale of Scott's Fa.shlons. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

l*rii<-ti<-Hl Tttllors. 



E. J. ERISIif AIT, 

The Shirt Maker, 

AND UEALFIH IN 

FINE SHIRTS. SLEEVE BUTTONS, COL- 
LARS, CUFFS. DRAWERS. NECK- 
TIES. UMBRELLAS. GLOVES. 
SUSPENDERS. EMBROI- 
DERED SHIRT FRONTS. 

SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER. 

WARRANTED TO FIT. 

118 ZSrOK-TH Q,TJEElNr ST., 

■,Nc5t door to Horting & ScblutiV Uolel), 
LANCASTER, PA. 

FL:0ilST km &ABSEISB, 

lire^'tihoitst's Olid lianifu on the Hiirnsburg Tuju 
pike, near Krauklin and MaiHhall <.'oUeKt;. 

li^'Catah>f]ue>i nent free. 

MAKSHALLS' 



m 



Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 

For Freuch Kip Pools, For French Calf Boots, For (.'id!' ftiii.1 
Kip BouiH, lor heavy Boots and Shoes. 

GO TO MARSHALLS'. 

BOVS- AND YOUTHS KIP BOOTS, 

RIBBEKS or liVEKY STYU:. 

Ladies', MiBBes and CliiUreu's line Button Work. .K\m. 
particular attention paid to cuetomers leavin;? their meas- 
ure. We UBO nothinu but the best of material, and umvloj 
uoue but the beet of workmen. 

jy Kepairing promptly attended to. 



BiTOsriEaas &c s:F'DE^3ECI3:aEI^, 

DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF 

1AMII.Y and UME-BIRNINO COAI. I 

Orders received at 

Office, No, 15 East King street, and at the 
Yard, >0. 61? NORTH TiaNCE .STKKKT. 



"THE FARMER IS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION."~WEBSTER. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER, 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER : 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE, PRACTICAL ENTO- 
MOLOGY, DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND GENERAL 

MISCELLANY. 



EDITED BY PROF. S. S. RATHVON. 



VOLUME VII.-1875. 






LANCASTER, PA.: 

PEARSOL & GEIST, PRINTERS AND PUBLISHERS, 

EXPRESS BUILDINGS, n SOUTH QCEES STREET. 



" THE FARMER IS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION."-WEBSTER. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER, 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER : 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE, PRACTICAL ENTO- 
MOLOGY, DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND GENERAL 

MISCELLANY. 



EDITED BY PROF. S. S. RATHVON. 



VOLUME VII.-1875. 






LANCASTER, PA.: 

PEARSOL & GEIST, PRINTERS AND PUBLISHERS, 

EXPRESS BUILDINGS, 22 SOUTH QUEEN STREET. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME SEVEN. 



.Animal Address Pres't ]Miller, 7 
A Kind \Vfircl (nr Fanners, . . 10 
AL'ricultural Miscellany, 10, 1],!",) 
A Handy (iarden Roller, . . 12 
A Word for The Far.micr ... 20 

A Cheap Condnetor, 24 

A Frii;id Record, 3cS 

An Eclio from Tennessee, . . 44 
A Potato that Resists Col. Bug, 47 
About (iround Hofrs, . . . t . 53 
Anotlier Rem. for I'otato-beetle, 53 
Alfalla Clover, Barley, &c., . . 56 

A Useful Table, 56 

Appreciation of The Farmer, . 00 
A Little Advice to Farmers, . 63 
About Housework and Help, . 63 
An Early Bait for Col. Beetle, 66 
Afrricultural Statistics, .... 68 
A F"amous .Short-Horn, .... 09 

A Good Cov; 70 

Adaptation to Climate, .... 72 
Agricultural Progress in Italy, 90 
Advantages of Mulching, . . . 93 

A Little Garden 94 

A Hint to Farmers, 94 

A Preventive Against Moths, . 95 
A New Horse Disease, . . . 101 
Abortive Strawberries, . . 861,07 

Artiiirial Waterings, 120 

Aurora, 124 

A Wonderful Flower, 124 

Ashes in Orchards 124 

A Beautiful Tree of Fruit, . . .132 
About Egyptian Wheat, ... 134 

Answers to Querists, 137 

Adulteration Com. Manures, . 1.54 
A Lancaster Co. Stock F'arm, . 155 
A New CauseTrichiinein Pork, 158 

A Woman's Answer, 159 

A Test for Eggs, 1.59 

A Farmer's Library, 160 

A Perfect Cure for JPhylloxera, 170 
A New Veterinary Device, . . 171 
A Remedy for Dodder, . . . .171 
A Vast Estate in Kansas, . . . 173 

All the World, 174 

A Case for Investigation, ... 25 

Arbor Vitte, The 30 

Apple Pudding, 31 

Apple Butter, . 31 

A Happy Home, 32 

Apparatus for Paris Green, . 36 
About Farmers' Wives, .... 44 
A Good Waj' to Keep Hams, . 47 
Artificial Swarming of Bees, . 76 
A Home-Made Bee-Hive, . . . 76 
An Appeal to Mothers, . ... 79 
A Word for Clean Cellars, . . 79 
A Magnificent Horse, .... 86 
Asparagus Trade — Lorlg Island, 94 

Apple Tree Borer, 97 

A Convenient Meth. for Labels,144 

Army Worm, The, 145 

About Wheat and Bread, . . . 73 
Agricultural District of Amiens,122 
A Farm of 22,000 Acres, . . .155 
Age which Live Stock Mature, 170 
A Word on the Dairy Question, 171 
A Good Way to Pickle 1 Ham, 174 
Agricultural Department, The, 27 
Apple, the History of, .... 116 

A Garden of Herbs, 77 

American Poultry Association, 100 
Agr'e andfipanish Civilization, 11 

All-Summer Apple 23 

Art (iallery, . . .55 

A Part oif Miscellaneous Ret'rns, 68 

Ant Pest, The 47, J21, 137 

A Land Mark of 3 iOounties, 133 

Artichokes, ' 143 

Brdliant Whitewash 13 

Blackberries, 18 

Butter Making, 20 

Belmont Apple 23 

Best Mode Extracting Stumps, 25 
Best Rem.forWintering Cattle, 25 
Binding Grain, ....... 29 

Best Field Beans, The, .... 30 

Blanching Celery 30 

Baked Sweet Apple, 47 



Best Mode Wintering Cattle, . 61 ! 
Build Nests for Birds, .... 78 
Beautifying our Homes, ... 79 j 
Balloon Jleteorology, .... SO ' 

Buckwheat for Bees, 91 

Board Fences, the Best, . ... 94 i 

Bogus Potato-Beetle, 98 j 

Berries, 1< 3 | 

Bone J^Ieal for Poultry, . . . .109 

Blackberry Syrup, Ill 

Blackl jerry Jam, Ill 

Bits and Dimes, 115 

Breeding Poultry for Profit, . . 124 

Butter Making, 125 

Bran for Milk Cows, 138 

Bird Instinct 139 

Bee Keeping for Farmers, . . 142 
Bantams as a specialty, . . . 142 
Borgians of our Kitchens, . . .143 

Brighton Biscuit, 144 

Berries and Brains, 152 

Blooming Dutch Bulbs, .... 1,53 
Broom Corn Market, The . . .157 

Bronze Turkies, 157 

Bee Culture for Ladies, .... 158 

Buckwheat, 164 

Blue Bird, The 164 

Buckwheat, c*cc., as Fodder, . .170 
Best Time to Plow Corn Land, . 171 
Bees and Bee Culture, 70, 89, 91, 

126, 142, 172 
Beet, The History of the . . . 147 
Bean, The History of the . . .161 

Barley, 164 

Button-hole Bouquets, &c., . . 93 

Birds of Paradise, 179 

Butter Ball (Duck), 181 

Buck Wheat Cakes, 189 

Bran and Corn Meal for Cows, 191 

Correspondents, To, 3 

Carniverous Plants, 4 

Comparative Value of Fruits, . 5 
Cultivation of Flowers, The . . 7 
Coveri'g Manure from Weather, 12 

Cultivation of Roses, 13 

Corn and Hogs, 13 

Cure the Stingii'of a Catfish, To, 9 

Cow, The, 20 

Canaries, 21 

Cultureof the Grape, 22 

Colorado Potato Beetle, 25, 42, 49, 

65 
Cultivation of Native Tree.s, . . 26 
Culture of Flowers, The, ... 30 

Charcoal for Poultry, 32 

Curative Potato, The, 32 

Cabbage, its Cultivation , . . ■ 39 

Clover and ( ut-wornis 45 

Centennial and Exhibitors, . . 46 
Charcoal for Sick Animals, . . 47 

Cocoanut Pie 31 

Conestoga Puflfs, 47 

Cabbage a la Cauliflower, ... 47 

Cooking Celery, 47 

Coffee Cake, 47 

Cure for Toothache, 48 

Clean Oil Cloths, To, 48 

Catalogue s of Seed,Plants,&c.,48, 64 
Cost of our Recent War, . . . 51 

Chinese Yam, The, 59 

Chemical Manures in Powder,.. 61 
Caoutchouc in Harness, ... 61 
Condition &c., of the Crops,. ..61, 74 
Comparative Value of Food, . 61 

Cultivation of Corn, 62 

Cropping Oats on Corn Ground, 62 
Cotemi)orary Press, The, 48, 64, 80 
Condition of Cattle and Sheep, 68 
Cattle Interestsof the U.S., . . 69 
Cabbage Pest and its Parasite, 70 

Culture of Roses, The 74 

Cabbage Worms, 79, 103 

Curious Thingsin Housekeep'g, 79 

Cooking a Shad 79 

Cheap Pudding, 80 

Conserving Green Maize, &c., 90 

Caterpillars 93 

Cut Worm in Cabbages, The, - 93 
Cure for Kicking Cows, ... 94 
Clierry Jam, 95 



California Beer, 95 

(Vioking ( 'aulifiower, 95 

Cement for Petroleum Lamps, 95 

Crackers, 95 

Cure Summer Complaint, To, . 96 

Cut Worms, The, 98 

Centennial Grounds on the 4th,105 
Cultivation of Celery, The, . . 1(16 
Cro|isin North Carolina, The, . 106 
Cut off the Decayed Blooms, . 106 
Cause of the Laving of Corn, . 107 
Cure for the Vine Bug, .... 107 
Clover and Lucern Pests, The, 107 
Cultivation of Buckwheat, . 107 
Cultivation of Hungarian Moha,107 

Care of Lawns, The 109 

Culture of Peppermint, The, . 110 
Chea]) Food and Good Food, . Ill 
Clean Out Your Cellars, . . .111 

Codling Moth, T' e, 114 

Condition of the Wheat Crops, 115 

City Bee Culture, 127 

Cold Tomato Sauce, 127 

Clean Lime Out of Tea Kettle, 127 
Caution to Stock Raisers, . . . 128 
Curculio, or Plum Weevil, The, 129 
County Fi.irs in Pennsylvania, 137 
Correspondents, To, .... 137 
Cattle Breeding in Mayenne, . 138 
Continued Ravages of Vine Bug,l 38 
Conservatory and House Plants,140 
C^hicks in the Garden, .... 141 

Cucumbers, 143 

Cauliflowers, 143 

Canning Peaches, 143 

Cooking Rice 143 

Churning Butter, 144 

Coflee ]\laking, 144 

Cultivated Vegetables, . . . .147 

Curious Facts, 149 

Correspondence, Cogitations, . 151 

Coleman Estate, The, 155 

Conservatory and House PIants,1.50 
Concrete for Walks, etc., . . • 159 

Corn Batter Cakes, 159 

Corn, Preparations of, . . . . 159 

Cockroaches, 159 

Cream Cake, 1-59 

< ider may be Purified 100 

Clean Straw Matting, &c., To, 100 
Clean Walls and Ceilings, To, . 160 
Cultivated Vegetables, . ". . . 101 
Crops of the L'uited States, . . 103 
Centennial and Agricultural, ■ 104 
Centennial Ornamental Park, . 105 

Curriiut Worm, The 1(>7 

Chinch-bug, orMormon Louse, 108 

Corn-stalk Weevil, 169 

Commercial Manures, .... 170 
Corn and Fruit Presented, . . 171 
Corn Crop in the Lower End, . 171 
Commencing Bee Keeping, . . 172 

Clarify Honev, To, 127 

Cherry, The, ." 78 

Cuckoo and Hedge Sparrow, . 179 

Chicken Croquetes 189 

Centennial Nat. Cook Book, . 191 

Cai)ital and Labor 191 

Colorado Cattle Range, a . . . 184 
Disease-proof Potatoes, .... 12 
Destruction of Canada Thistle, 14 

Dying for Our Country 20 

Disccussion on Orchard Ques., 41 
Do Plants Need Water, . . . • 46 

Diphtheria, 47 

Distinguishing Sex in Eggs, . . 51 
Destroy Bngson ' 'ucumbers,To, 94 
Drive Awway Mosquitoes, To, 96 

Destructive Worms, 134 

Depredations of the Vine Bug, 1.54 
Disinfecting Properties Hemp, 170 
Dairy Interestsat Centennial, . 173 
Domestic Economy, 13, 34, 47, 03, 
79, 94, 110, 137, 143, 159, 174, 189 

Dogs, Good and Bad, 175 

Daniel V>'ebster, 19 

Duke of Hillhurst, Second, . . 69 

Drop Worm, The, 113 

Destroying Cutworms, .... 121 
Decay of Apple Trees, .... 123 



Dividing Bees for Winter, . . 126 

Delicious Rolls, • 144 

Dark Brahmas, 163 

Dog Story, A, 180 

Decrease in Streams and Wells, 183 

Eags of the Katydid, 3 

Essay. An, by I). L. Resb, . . 7 
Experim't and Report Results, 26 
F^ducation of Farmers' Child'n, 29 

Evergreen Trees, 30 

Everyday Pudding, 47 

Enemies to Col. Potato-Beetle, 65 

F:ntomological, 2, 33, 70 

Enemies of Cabbage Butterfly, 70 
F^nemies of Bees, The, . ... 76 
Entomological Correspondence,106 

Egg ControTers}', 106 

Eggs versus Meat, Ill 

Experiments Fattening Cattle, 122 
Exterminating Live-F'oreyer, . 124 

r:ating Fruit 127 

Early Peaches from Mr. Engle, 141 

Election (.'ake, 174 

■ Fruit Growers' Society, Penna., 6 

F>iar's Omelet, 13 

Failures in Business, 15 

Farming in Illinois, 21 

Forty Years have Passed, ... 21 
Farmers' Northern Market, . . 21 
Fanny and Fronclin Apples, 23,44 
Farmer John, a Poem, .... 24 

F"ruit-can Opener, A, 32 

Farmers, Write for Your Paper, 33 

Farmers' Sons 39 

Farmers's ^\'ives. About, ... 44 

Fancy Dish, 47 

Fences, The Construction of . 54 
FacSim. Centennial Medals,. 55 
Fermentation in Trenches, . . 60 
French Mode Selecting Horses, 61 
F"armandDome.sticEcononiy, . 63 
Famous Short Horn, A, . . . 69 
Farmers and the Centennial, . 71 
F'ire and Water-proof Paint, . 80 

Furniture Polish 80 

Fruit Pudding, 80 

Fattening Calves for Veal, . . 90 
Fruit Trees by the Road-side, . 90 
Flowers, How to Pre.serve, . . 92 
Fruit and Vegetable Garden, . 93 
Farming as a Business, .... 103 
Forage Plants — Their Culti va'n,107 
Farmers and Farmers' Sons, . 107 
Frauds in Com. Fertilizers, . . 110 
Fruit Culture, Gossip on, . . . 119 

Flower tulips, 121 

Fruit Cans, tin, 121 

Flavor and Colorin Milk, . . .122 
Farm an<l Dairy, The, 63, 125, 139 
Feeding Wheat to Horses, . . 126 
Facts of Natural History, The, 

66, 84, 90, 131, 167, 180 

Fruit Gr,rdcn, 140 

Flower Garden, 59, 140 

Floral Novelties 141 

Future of Peach Tra le, The, . 152 
Farnung on Cont.of Europe, 60, 90, 

107,122, 154, 170, 187 
Flower Garden, .... 59, 92, 156 

Farmer's Ijibrarv, A, 160 

Ferns and Palm's, 167 

Foot and Mouth Disease, . . 170 
Fattening Fowls in Ten Days, 171 
Farmers and Grain Dealers, . 173 

Farm and Dairy, 174 

French Way of Salting Pork, 174 

Feeding Cornstalks, 191 

Guano, 5 

Good Pudding 13 

Good Butter 19 

Griddle Cakes, 31 

Glycerine for Preserv'g Fruit, 32 

Grangers, The, 39 

Gallinoculture et Ovsfculture, . 50 
Cxood Correspondents, .... 54 
Great Centennial of 1876, The,. 55 
Great Lilium Auratum, The, . 58 
Garden Culture cs.FieldCulture, 70 

Gleanings, . 73 

Grease Your Nails 79 



INDEX. 



III. 



Green Wdoil 8H 

(iood I'uMic Koii.ls KS 

Green Fly, The Ill' 

Gouil Apple |)uinpllii[.'S, . . . !»1 

Green I'e;! Scilip "J>'i,!lli 

Grape Vine I'lnnie Moth, . . . 10(> 

Grnluu.i Fl.i\n- I'lills, 112 

Gravenslein Ap|ile lll> 

GossiiMin I'rnil Cuhure, . . .]]!• 
Griiwini; Hye-GrassSeeil, . • • 1--' 

Gre;il Iniindatinn, Till! 121.' 

Geraiiinnis, 124 

Green I'eppers, 14:i | 

Gherkins 14;> 

Getting n|) a Kelisli, 14;> ; 

(ilosseil Shirt liii.sonis, .... 144 ^ 
General I'tilily of .Shi)H-lIorns,l.')() ! 

Grant Kstate.The l.')(> j 

Garden and Gnhard, The, 124, 141), ! 
l.">(i, 172 

Good Ci'lery 172 

(iipmlie Farming iu Penn'a . 17S 

(iood Kindlin;;s, 17."> 

General Miscellany, • 14, 17.5, 191 
Go into I'.xiierinientin^, . . .171 
llayCropanil Hay Trade, The, 1(1 
Iln'riiiullnral Misci'llanv, . • . 12 
Hay Tea for Calves, .".... IS 

lleidin'.' Power of (iUie l."> 

Here and There 21 

How to Restore Fertility, . . . 21> 
IhjWto.Makethe Farm" I'ay, . 2!» 
Hav Troilueinjiand .Marketing, 30 
Hay I'ressint; or I'.alint;, ... 30 

Howto.Vpply Lime, 30 

IIor.se .'^hoeint:, 30 

HvaeinthsinCilas-ses, 31 

Horticnltural Hall, The, ... 37 

Hor.se's Foot, Tlie, 4.5 

How to Destroy Kiirth Worms, 47 

Home Interiors, 04 

Honey Bee in Farm Economy, 64 

Hungarian Grass 7C 

How to Italianize Your Bees, . 76 

Horseradish Sance 80 

Honey-Bee, Instincts of the, . 91 
How Scientitic FarniingPavs, . 94 
How to Dress .*^alad, ...'.. 94 
How to JIake Maryland Biscuits 95 
Household Hecipes, . . 9."), 144, l.')9 

Hatchinu' l'V'<rs 109 

How to Fatten Fowls, 109 

How to (an Fruit, 110 

Huhhardston Nonesuch, . . .llfi 
Heifers and First Calves, . . .122 

llunfrarian Gras.s, llio 

How Drains Act, 12(i 

Historic Tree V.V.'i 

How I'hil'a Kutteris Made, . . 139 
How Ivisilv ButttT is .Spoiled, . 140 

Hyacinth.s" in Winter 140 

How to(iather Cider Apples, . 141 
How Bets Know Their llomes, 142 
Jlonev I'rodu<t of California, ■ 142 

Hand'lin- liee.s 142 

llintson .Makinfx Pickles, . . . 143 
Hav Farniin<;and I'.alin}.', . . . l.")4 
How Much liens Will Kat, . . 1.58 
How to Telia Goose from a Gan- 
der, ■ . . . _ 158 

Horse F'pideniio, The, .... 158 
How to Kcep."~w«x't Potatoes, . 1.59 
Hens' Teeth— iioncDast, . . . 1(>9 

Harnes.s to Pre.servo 171 

Handling Bees, 172 

How to Cure Haeon, Ham,«&c., 174 

Hint.s Ahout Meat, 174 

How to Boil KfTjis 175 

How to Clean Car]X"t.s, . . . .17.5 

liogColera, Coal for 1R.5 

]Ior>,eKadish Culture, . . . .190 

Hints in .Season 190 

Hen Mamire, I'se of, 192 

Horses, Curious Deaths of, . . 1!»2 
How to Treat !>watnp Muck . . II 
How to Drive Weevils out . . 9 

Hlastralions, 3 

Inseet.s on Cattle 14 

In)|K>rtant Invention, .... 29 
Irrigation in the Valley of the 

Kio<;rande .58 

Information .\houl Bees, . . (U 
Influeniv of Country Life,. . 7(i 
Improved Hardy Hybrid Kho- 
dodendrons, ........ 78 

Indian Pudding, 80 

Insects, No.\iousand Beneficial, 82 
Insect Fertiliza'n and Hybrids,. 83 



Iinprov'g the Breed of Horses, 90 
Insects on House Plants, . . . 92 
Im|iortance ol (iood Feeding, . 107 
Indian Cakes Without Fggti, . 112 

Improved lice I lives liJS 

Iniligest'n in Horses and Cattle, 1")8 

Improved Sandwiches 144 

Importat'n of \'alualile Horses, 14-I 
Increasing the Ureeil of Hor.-ves,1.54 

Italian Pees 158 

Improve't in Out -door Closets, 160 
Institute IC.Kperinii'nts, .... 171 
Information Wanle<l, . . . .172 

Indian Summer, 182 

Is the Bee a Nuisance? . . . . 181 

Incubation 182 

Information AVanted, .... 179 
Imperfect Potato Tests, . . . 191 
.lac. Conkling, An (Jld Digger, . 31 
.lohn P.nll Alter Colorado Bugs, .56 
.lohnson Miller's .Vnn'l -Vddress, 3 
.loining Swarms of Bees, ... 76 

.lennv Lind Sou]), 80 

Jersey Cattle 144 

.lots and Tittles from Dauphin 

County 74-170 

Klaproth .\pple 2.3' 

Keep the Birthdays 32 

Keep .\way Cntwonns, To, . . 93 

Killing Potato-Beetles 100 

Kindly (Ireetings, 136 

Keep Milk from Curdling, To, 138 
Keep the Farm an<l Home Tidy, 140 
Keei)ing Winter .\pi)les, . . .157 
Large Kmigration to (iermany, 2 
Lancastkr F.ah.micr, The, . 3, 26, 43 

Long-legged Horses, 15 

Literary Items, Ki 

Letter from a Farmer's Wife,. 9 
Letter From Our Old Home, . 21 
Lancaster County Apples, . . 23 
Leaves the Lungs of tlie Plant, 26 
Letters, (Jueries and .Vnswers, 44 
Lemon Orange Custard, ... 47 
Laneaster County to the Front, 48 
Lancaster Park Association, . 63 
Live-stock at the Centennial, . 71 
Love and Culture of Flowers, . 77 
Literary or Classic Side of Gar- 
den Culture, The 77 

Landsca|)e Gardening, .... 78 
Lime Water for Burns, . ... 79 

Literary Notices, 32, 96 

Lemonade, Ill 

Lilies .58, 121 

Letter from North t'arolina, . . 121 

Live Stock and Flies, 123 

Loss by Weeds and Insects, . . 126 
Luscious Tomato, The, .... 127 
Live Slock Miscellany. 128, 144, 1.58 
Lancaster's Op|iortunitv, . . .129 
Length of Boot Growth". . . . 172 

Look to the Forests, 175 

Limit Your Wants 190 

Land Measure, .\ Convenient, 192 

.Make Hens Lav, To 13 

Milk Room, The, 20 

Manuring Corn Stubble Land, 26 

Milk (.iucsliim. The, 4(1 

Main Fxhibition Building, . . ,55 

Milk Cows, . . (i2 

Miscellaneous Statis'l Circulars, 68 
.Memories, Centennial, .... 71 

Mountain Tea, .58, 73 

Minute Pudding, ..... . . 8(1 

Mnshroonis, Morels,. . ... 84 

Making up the Deficiency, . . 85 

Making Land Produce 88 

Mulberries, 89 

Meat versus Wool 90 

iManiires for Sugiir Beet . . . 90 

.Market Gardening 94 

Make Farm Lite Attractive, . . 94 

i Mend your Own Tinware, . . 95 

Manufiictureof Dutch Cheese, . 107 

Mulching 108 

Maiuigenient of Silting Hens, 109 
Making Butter in Winter, . . 110 

Method 117 

.Make .Jellies, To 121 

Manufacture of Cheese, The, . 122 
Meterological Observations, . 131 
Making Lawns in Autumn, . .141 
Movable Comb Frames, . • . 142 

Mixed Blood 151 

Mineral Resources of Southern 

Lancaster County 153 

Miscellaneons Items, 43, 60, 110, 1,54 



Mississi|i])i Corn Bread, . . . 1.59 

Mushroom, The 101 

.Moths in Carijcts, 175 

.Mad Itch — new cattle disea«e,..185 

Managing the(irate, 3] 

Mush Cakes, 159 

Mingling .Manure 191 

.\ew Style of Barrels 14 

Nuudier of ( iranges. The, . . . 44 
New " Butcher Ship," The, . . 61 
Native Seedling .\pples, ... 62 
Native I'lowcrs and Fruits,. . (>2 

Nutrition of Oatmeal 63 

Now- fin- House (lea in ng, . . . (i3 
Notes onthe Colorado Beetle, . 9!) 
New Agricultural Build'g, The, 104 
Nights Hawks vs. Whip-poor- 
wills 131 

Nasturtiums, 14:! 

New Processof Plant 'g Potatoes, 1.59 

Newly Married, The I(i9 

Natural History for the Young, 179 
Nevada's Petrified Forest, . . 191 
Noted .\niiuals. Selection of, . 192 

Our New Departure, 1 

Ovi'r Production, 2 

Opening Month of the Year, . 2 

Osage ( )raiige 11 

(,)rchard and .Nursery, .... 13 
Our l!ecei])t for Curing Metit, . 13 

Omelet, Frier's 13 

<!)ur Hairs are Numbered, . . 15 

Our Situation, 17 

(Jdors 20 

Our Home Market, 21 

Our National Centennial, 27, 37, 

104, 164, 186 
Our Public Reception,. ... 28 

Our Illustrations, 38 

Our Orchards, 41 

Official List of Patents, 48, 64, 80, 96, 

112, 128, 17t), 192 
Our Paris Letter, 51, (iO, 90, 107, 122, 
138, 1.54,170,187 

Our Feme Corners, 51 

Old aixl the Niiw, The, .... 71 
Our Farmers and the ('enten'l, 71 
Obtain Fruit from liarrcn Trees, 72 
Old Horse's Lament, The, . . 74 

Our Wheat Trade, 85 

Our Share of the Kxpenses, . . 104 

Our State K.xposilion 105 

Orchard and (hirden 108 

Oatmeal vs. Beefsteak Ill 

Ornamental Gardening, . . .120 

Order Lciiidoptera 130 

Ornamental Horticulture, . . i:!6 
Oleomargarine Cheese, . 139, 166 

Onions, 143 

Our Cult i vated Vegetables, 147, 161, 
178 

Old and New 148 

(hits, 163 

Our Cheese Industry '? . . . . 166 
Publishers to the U'ca.ler, The, I 
Prussian Manufacturers, &c., . 2 
Patrons of Husbandry, The, . 3,43 
Proceedings Lancaster .Vgrieul- 
tural and Horticultural .So- 
cietv„7, -.'5, 41.61,74,90, 107, 
122," 128. 1.54,171. 
Proceedings Penna. F. G. Soc'y, 6 

Prof. Riley on Birds, 9 

Projier .Mode of feed'gHor8es,ll,15 

Potato Diet, 11 

Plow iiig Land in .\utumn, . . 12 
Philo.sophy of Cixikery, ... 13 
Preparing and Paek'g Poultry, 14 

PersiMial Items, 15 

Persimmons as Market Fruit, . 12 

Peas 3,000 Years Old, 13 

Potato Bliuht, The 11,17 

Patrons of llu.sbandry. The, . 18 
Persimmon, Sex, X'arieties, . 19, 4.5 
Planting and Train'g the Vine, 22 

Persimmon, The 23 

Prize Milk Cow 24 

Pear anil Rose Slug 25 

Plowing 29 

Perennials and Bedding Plants, 30 

Prevent Rii.sting 32 

Pear Sings, 35 

Paris (ireen, .35, 36 

Penna. R. R. and Centennial, 37 
Potato and Paw-Paw, The, . . 4(t 

Peaches, The 41 

Potato Beetle, The, 44 

Plums and the Cureulio, ... 46 



Plum Pudding. . 47 

Progress of Invention, 48, 64, 

80,96, 112, 128, 176, 192 
Planting Potatoes F.arly, . . . .56 
Persimmon and the Scupper- 

nong (irape, 59 

Potato Planting,F.arly and Late, 60 
Peonies and the Rose Bug, . . 60 
Pri'paralion of Food for Cattle, 60 
Phosphorus in Oil Cake, &c., . 60 
Parasites in Bird-Cages, ... 63 

Past and Present, The 67 

Plant Trees 78 

Provide (iood Tools 79 

Potato Beetles 60,81,97 

Position of the Hive, 91 

Pear Trees, Retentive Soil, . . 93 
Propagation of Celery, The, . . 93 

Plowing Orchards, ." 93 

Perpetual Paste 95 

Potato Stalk Weevil 97 

Preserve TiiK Fahmku, . . . . KXt 
Poultry Yard, The, 109. 124,141, 1.57 

Poidtry Interest, The 109 

Pennsylvania Crops, The, . .115 
Primitive i'arming, . . .118,134 
Public Watering Troughs, . .120 
Poultry at Intern'l Kxhibil'n, . 125 
Practical Cattle- Breeding, . . 125 

Pot-au-Feu, 133,153 

Peaches, . .' 133, 143 

Plenty of Potatoes, 134 

Preservation of Fodder, . . . 1.38 
Pic-nic of Patron.--- Husbandry, 139 
Poultry and Kggs forCenten'l, 141 
Poultry Raising in Cities, . . .142 

Pea.-h Mangoes, 143 

Purple or Red Cabbage, . . .143 
Present ami the Future, The, 149 
Pure and Mixed Blood, .... 1.50 
Prolitsof Farming on Prairies, 156 

Public Poisoning, 157 

Propagating lOvergreens, . . .157 

Poland (.'hina Pigs 158 

Preparations from Corn Meal, 1.59 

Potatoes, 164 

Preservation of Green Maize, . 170 
Plowing (iuest'n Resumed,The, 171 
Packing .\pples for Winter, . 172 

Practical Hint.s 173 

Parlor .Vilornnients, 175 

Peculiarities of Spiders, . . . 177 
Preservation of Fruit, &c., . . 184 

Practical Brevities 190 

Protecting .\nimals from Cold, 191 
(Queries Answered, (>4, 89, 118,181 

(Jueen of Puililings 47 

Results of Improved Culture,. 5 

Reily. Prof, on Birds 9 

Rei>ort of Com. of .\griculture, 10 
Receipt for Curing .Meat, Our, . 13 

Koa.l Dust 13 

Reason Wliy, The 14 

Returning Prodigals 21 

Reports on Crops, .... 25,171 

Results of Hygiene, etc 2S 

Raising Pota'toes 30 

Remedy for Pear Blight, ... 31 
Roasting a Sirloin of Beef, . . 31 
Roa.sting Turkey and Carving, 31 
Remedies f(.r Potato Beetle, . 50,53 

Rose Culture 53 

Remedy for the Cureulio, . 60, 130 

Rose-bugs and Peonies 60 

Ripeiiingoflhe Sugar-beet, . . 61 
Remedies for Chilblains, ... 79 
Remedy for .\i)ple-lree Borer, . 81 

Rose slugs 121 

Rose. The Double White Moss, 124 
Raising Chestnut Trees, . . .126 
Rules for Piuving Horses, . . .128 

Rascal Leaf ■(runipler 130 

Rich anil Rare Tree 132 

Rejiair'g Damages from FIood8,138 
Root-pits for Winter Veg't'ble8,140 
Rheumatism in Horses, . . . 144, 

Remove Mildew, To, 144 

Reapers, .Mowers, Threshers, . 154 

Rice Blanc Mange, 159 

Remedy for Dodder, A . . . .171 

Sulphur, 15 

Soaking Seeds— Osage Orange, 11 

Spring Radishes, 12 

Savior .\pple • ■ 23 

Strawberry Pest, The 26 

So Far as Practical, &c. 26 

Soup Making, 32 

Sparrows — Finches 33 



lY. 



INDEX. 



Shall we raise Osage Orange ? . 40 
Something About Blackberries, 45 
Scuppernong Grape, The . . 46 
SalesofChester County Stock, . 47 
Selection of Breeds of Cattle, . 47 
Susquehanna Shad, The, ... 52 
Super-phosphate, Raw Bones,.. 52 

Soap, 5S 

Separation of Butter in Churn 61 
State Agricultural Fair, .... 62 
Setting and Skinmiiug Cream, (J3 
Summary of Winter Wheat, . . 68 
Second Duke of Hilhurst, . . . 69 

Sing More 72 

Something About Grapes, . . 74 
Scabby-legged Chickens, ... 74 

Shorts Pudding, 80 

Striped Apple-tree Borer, . .. . 81 

Short Hay Crops, 85 

Sulphuret of Lead, 86 

Soils as Filterers, 90 

Scale Insect, 92 

Skeletonizing Leaves, .... 94 

Shade Trees, 94 

Study to Save Steps 95 

Saratoga Potatoes, 95 

Short-horn Durham Cattle, . . 101 
Strawberry Question, .... 102 
Something about Eggs, .... 106 
Sheep-farming for Wool . . . 107 
Sit and Set, Lay and Lie, . . . 109 

Snails, 117 

State Fair Committees, . . . .118 

Seasonable Hints, 121 

Strawberries, 121 

Sudden Decay in Apple Trees, 123 
State Agricultural Fair, .... 123 

Story of a Rose, 124 

Sheep on the Farm 128 

State Fair Again, 132 

State and County Fairs, . . . 137 
Shade-trees for Stock and Profit,137 



Some Exp'ts with Gr'nd Bones,137 
Sheep in the Lower Alps . . . 138 
Salt, Preservation of Lucern, . 138 
Sowing Flower-seeds in Fall, . 141 
September Manage't of Bees, . 142 

Spanish Pickles, 144 

State Fair Reflections, .... 146 

Sheep and Wool, 154 

Simple Dyspepsia Remedies, . 159 

Slap-jacks, 159 

Sweet Potatoes, . . . . . . .164 

Save the Soapsuds, 175 

Simple-interest Rules, .... 175 
Something to Set us Thinking, 181 

Spirit Duck, 181 

Skirmishes, 184 

Snows of Last Vear, 185 

Stick to Your Trade, 192 

Turning Points in Physical Life, 14 
Training Young Stock, .... 15 

To Prevent Rusting 32 

This Number of The Farmer, . 38 

Three Good Recipes, 47 

Timber for Fences, 59 

Trees for Fencing and Fuel, . 62 

Testing Eggs 73 

Truffles, 84 

Testing the Fecundity of Eggs, 89 
Tan Bark for Potato Bugs, . . 89 
That Invitation to Dinner, . . 89 
Treatment of Lambs for Market, 90 
Treatment of Hoven, ... .90 

Thrips 92 

Tap-Root,The, 93 

Treasury Depar't Whitewash, . 95 
Traps and the Potato-Beetle, . 103 

Tea-Pot Assailed, The Ill 

The Drop Worm 113 

To Make Jellies, 121 

Tin Fruit Cans, 121 

Thoroughbred Stock Sales, . . 126 
Tomato Recipes, 127 



To Preserve Posts 128 

To Rid Wheat of Must and Rust,138 

Take Care of the Tools 140 

To Beginners with Poultry . .142 

Three Grand Points, 151 

Three Model Stock Farms, . . 155 

Tree Planting, 157 

Training Heifers to be Milked, 158 

Tobacco, 164 

Testing Richness of Potatoes, . 170 
To Fatten Fowls Quickly ... 171 
To Destroy Smut, Rust, &c., ■ 171 
Thousands of Sheep atid Cows, 173 
To Our Patrons and the People, 177 

The Pea, 178 

The Sheep — The Lambs, . . . 179 
Things Worth Knowing, . . . 190 
Teamsters, An Idea for, . . . 192 

Under Consumption 2 

Unaired Rooms, 32 

Utilizing Potato-Beetles, &c., 34, 85 
Unclaimed Premiums, .... 42 
Useful and Ornamental, ... 78 
Use of Paris Green, The, ... 99 
Utilizing Damaged Fodder, . 107 
Utilizing Water by Irrigation, 110 

Useful Information, 157 

Useful Hints, 160 

Utilizing Raw Material, . . .191 

Voices from Abroad, 21 

Valueof Fish Food, The, . . . 52 
Varieties of the Tree Borers, . 62 

Valuable Milk Cows 63 

Varieties and Cultivat'n Corn, 75 
Valuable Recipes, . . .31, 80, 111 
Vine Bug Disease, The, ... 90 

Violets, 93 

Value of Our Crops for 1874, . 140 
Victoria Colony, Kansas, . . . 156 
Vegetable Garden, .... 140, 156 

Vienna Yeast, 159 

Vegetable Ivory 181 



Wintering plants in rooms, &c., 12 

Winter care of Trees 12 

What is Auguentum? .... 19 

Wheat-gleanings, 5, 24 

Wh.at our Farmers ought to do, 26 
What others say of us, . . . . 28 

Wheat and Cheat, 41 

Words of cheer from a veteran, 46 

White Gems, 47 

White Custards, 47 

What Fertilizers are used? . . 56 

Weather, the, 72 

AVeather two years ago, the, . 72 

Waifs of Society, the 72 

Why the Wheat was win'r kl'd 75 

Winterkilled Vines, 86 

Wife, Mistress and I/ady. . . 95 
Way to Cultivate Flowers, the, 109 

Wine Making 121 

Winter Irrigation of Farms, . 122 
We are growing Old together, . 126 
What and How to Feed Bees, . 127 
Write and Talk for the Farnier,134 
Work to be Done in October, . 140 
Winter Protection of Roses, . 140 
Work to be Done in November, 156 
Work to be Done in December,156 
Women as Horticulturists, . . 156 

Wheat 193 

What is Good Grape Culture? 172 

Window Adornnienls 174 

Weight of Pigs for Market, . . 175 
Winter-care of Pigeons, . . . 184 
When I Mean to Marry, ... 182 

Woodpeckers 180 

Water Question, the, 179 

Whitewash, a Good Durable, . 190 
Washing Woolen Clothing, . . 191 
You may Smile or be Shocked,122 
Yield of the Harvest, the . . .154 
Zinc and Boiler Incrustation, 88 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Grape Trellises, 1,2,3, 22 

Agricultural Building (Centeunial), 27 

Horticultural Hall (Ceutenaial), 37 

Henderson 's Early Summer Cabbage, .... 39 

Potato-Blight (Perouospora, infestans),. . 40 

Colorado Potato-Beetle, 49 

Doryphora 10-lineata, a, b, c, d, e, f, 49 

Poison Duster, 50 

Egg Sex Test, a. b, c, d, 51 

Susquehanna !5had, 52 

Alosa PrastabiliiS, 52 

Patent Fence and Gate, 1, 2, 3, 4, 54 

Main Hall (Centennial) , 55 

Art Gallery (Centennial), 55 

Centennial MedaU (Fac-Similies), 55 

Tachiua Fly (Lydella Doryphora), 65 

Convergent Lady-Bird, a, b, c, 65 

Hippodaima Couvergens, 65 

Spotted Lady-Bird, 65 

Hippodamia Maculata, 65 

Many Banded Robber, 65 

Harpactor Cinctue, 65 

Fiery Ground Beetle, a, b, 65 

(Calosoma Calidum,) 65 



Spined Soldier Bug, a, b, 65 

(Arma Siiinoso), 65 

Lancaster and Frederic Stage (1799), 67 

The Flying Machiue (1758), 67 

A Modern Steamboat, 67 

Second Duke of Hillhurst, 69 

Independence Hall (1S75), 71 

Independence Hall (1776), 71 

The Girl and the Flowerbed, 77 

The Girl and the Flowerpot, 77 

The Sick Girl and the Flowers, 77 

Striped Apple Tree Borer, 81 

a. Larva ; 6. Pupa; c. Imago, 81 

rf. Section of Perforated Trunk, 81 

(Lytta Vittata), 81 

Margined Blister-Beetle, 2, 82 

(Lytta Marginata), 82 

Ash Gray Blister-Beetle, 3, 82 

(Lytta Ciuerea), 82 

Black Blister- Beetle, 4, 82 

(Lytta Atrata), 82 

Morels (Morchella Esculenta), 84 

Poland China Boar, 87 

Green Fly, (Aphis), 92 



Flower Protector, 92 

Thrips, 92 

Red Spider (Accarus), 92 

Scale Insect (Coccus), 92 

The Man that Dislikes Flowers, 92 

The Man that Loves Flowers, 92 

The Woman whose Flowers don't come up,93 
The Woman whose Flowers do come up, 93 

A Bouquet Holder, 93 

Three-Striped Potato-Beetle, 97 

Fig. 1 . Imago (Lema Trivitatta) 97 

Fig. 2. Larvas and Pupa, 97 

Potato Stalk Weevil, 97 

a. Larva; 6. Pupa; c. Imago, 97 

Flat-Headed Apple Tree Borer, 97 

a. Larva ; 6. Pupa ; c. Imago, 97 

(Chrysobothris Femoratus,) 97 

Bogus Potato- Beetle, 98 

(Doryphora Juncta), 98 

6. Larva ; a. Eggs ; d. Wing ; c. Imago ; 

e. One of the legs, 98 

" Old Sam "—Short-Horn Bull, 101 

Strawberry Flower, 102 

Agricultural Hall (new, Centennial), . . . .104 



Ground Plan of Ditto, 105 

The Drop Worm, a, b, c, d, e,/, g, 113 

(Thyridoptery X ephemerjeformis), 113 

Apple Codling, a, b, c, d, e,/, g, 114 

(Carpocapsa pomonella), 114 

Gravensteiu Apple, 116 

Hubbacdton's Nonesuch, 116 

Curculio or Plum Weevil, 129 

(Conotrachelus Neunphai, a, b, c, d), .... 129 

Rascal Leaf Crumpler, 130 

(Physita Nbulo), a,b,c,d, 130 

The Army Worm, 1, 2, 145 

(Lucauia Uuipuncta), 145 

Shorthorn Bull Scotsman, 150 

Mushroom (Agaricus Campestris), 161 

Dark Brahma Fowls, 163 

Young Blue Birds, 164 

Machinery Hall (Centeunial), i65 

Tropical Ferns and Palms, 167 

Corn Stalk Weevil, a, 6, c, 169 

(Sphenora Zea), 169 

Birds of Paradise, 179 

Lambs 179 

Wood-Pickers, 180 



INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC NAMES. 



Asimina 41 

Aplodes ribivora 45 

Agrotis zea 45 

Agrotis jaculifera 98 

Alosa preestabilis 62 

Alosa tyraiLS 52 

Arctomis monax 53-66 

AlauB accuiatus 62 

Apion robinia 62 

Aphis avena 65 

Arma apiuosa 66 

Aniaopteryx vernalia 82 

Aristolochia clematis 86 

Agaricus campestris 84-161 

Argent ifera galena 86 

Antrostomus vocif era 131 

Antroatomus caruliuasis 132 

Antrostomus nuttalii 132 

Areca oleracea 167 

Attalea funifera 167 

Abraxes ribearia 168 

Ageria tipuliformis 168 

JEgeria exitoaa 168 

.^geria caudatum 168 

Aradiuidffi 178 

Accentor modularis 179 

Brassica oleracea 39 

Bucephala albeola 181 

Bromus 41 

Baridius trinotatus 97 

Beta vulgaris campestris alba 147 

Beta vulgaris 148 

Botry tis infestous 17-40 

Blatta orientalis 34 

Clytua robinia 62 

Clytua picta 62 

Calosoma calidum 65 

CasBida bicolor 89 



Copris Carolina 89 

Coreus triatis 89 

Crypt ogamns 167 

Cynlhese 167 

Capsus quadrinotatua 168 

ConotraclielUR nenuphar 129 

CapriniulgidiB 131 

Chordeilea popetua 132 

Chordeiles henry ii 132 

Chordeilea texensis 132 

Cetonia iuda 136 

Carpocapsis pomonella 114 

CetouiadBE 118 

Cephalotus 4 

Caloptinus spretus 35-82 

CuculuB canorus 179 

Chry Bobothria lemoratus 82-87 

Doryphora 10-lineate 49-82 

Doryphoro juncta 9'^ 

Dioscorea bat tala 69 

Diospyrus japonica 53 

Diosjiyrus Virginians 23 

Diouiea musicapula 4 

Darlingtouia brachyloba 4 

Darliugtonia gloudulosa 4 

Drosera longifolia , 4 

Drosera rotundifolia 4 

Drosera lilliformis 4 

DiosjiyrUH kaki 19-45 

Faba vulgaris arvensis 162 

Faba vulgarie equina 162 

Gymuetus nitide 1 18 

Hippodamia convergens. 63 

Hippodamia Maculata 65 

Harpactor cinctus 65 

Hispa BUturaiia 52 

Hypautria textor 89 

Hadeua arctica 168 



Lydella Doryphora 65 

Lycopodon germinatum 84 

Lixus concavua 89 

Lucania unipuucta 134, 145 

Lucania albilinea 134 

Liriodeudron tulipifera 121 

Lytta vittata 34, 81 

Lytta atrata 82 

Lytta cinerea 82 

Lytta marginata 82 

Lema triliueata 97 

Locusta migratoria 35 

Macrosylla carohna 45 

Macrosylla 5-maculata 45 

Macrodactylus subspinoaas 60 

Morchella eaculeuta 84 

Minus carolinensia 89 

Mlcropus lencop*erur 82 

Maritiua Viuife 167 

Nepenthe distiUaria 4 

Nematia ventricosus 168 

Nematis grosularius ? 168 

Nyctiardea gardenil 153 

Oiketicus couiferum , 113 

Osmoderma eremicola 118 

Ovisaries 179 

Podophylum pellatum 53 

Pieris rajife 70 

Petromalus puparum •. 70 

Phyllopetra obloilgifoUa 3 

Plalyphyllum coucavum 3 

Piugincula vulgaris 4 

Perouospora infestous 17-40 

Passer domestica 33 

Phaseolus vulgaris 162 

PhaseolvB avensis 162 

Phanogameie 167 

Phoenix dacty Ufera 168 



Pristophora grosularia 168 

Paenocerus superrotatus 168 

Phycita nebula 130 

Pyrus mains 116 

Paphilio turuns 118 

Philanopelis satellitia 118 

Phylloxera vastratrix 46-82 

Pieum sativum 178 

Paradiaae major 179 

Paradiaae regia 179 

Paradisae viridis 179 

Picidae 180 

Beduvius raptoriua 65 

ReduviuB uovenarius .163-65 

Rhyparochromua devastator 168 

Serracenia variolaris 4 

Serracenia purpurea 4 

Sarcophoga serracenia 4 

Spizella socialia 33 

Salaudria pyri 35 

Salandria mali 35 

Salandria pmni 36 

Salandria cydoni 35 

SialiaBialis 164 

Sialia mexicaca 164 

SiaUa arctica 164 

SagUB rumphii 167 

SagueruB saccharifera 167 

Syrphns philadelphicus 168 

Spcct rum femoratum 158 

SphenophorusZea 160 

Solidago odora 73 

Saperda candid^ 81 

SpermophiluB 13-lineata 53 

Tuber vulgaris 84 

Thyridoptery X sphemarBeformis 113 

Xylinetus robinia 63 

Xanthoptera semicrocea 4 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., JANUARY, 1875. 



Vol vn. No. L 



OUR NEW DEPARTURE. 

Li entering iipon this our seventh volume, 
we liave deemcil it exix'dient to change the 
form of our journal, believing that it will be 
more acceptable to our reader.s, more conven- 
ient to refer to, ami more valuable as a reading 
and advertising medium. 

We are fully aware that the times' are not 
as propitious as we could wish, but still the 
wealth and agricultural position of Lancaster 
county are such that the sacrilice re(piired in 
sustaining a local Journal among its farming 
population is inlinilesimally small, when 
compared with the ample means it possesses. 
The great bulk of the material wealth of the 
county is in the hands of the farmers and, by 
parity of reasoning, they ought to possess the 
great bulk of its intellectual and social wealth, 
as we certainly feel they do of its moral and 
industrial. Nearly all other interests have 
their representative journals, and aspire to 
unity; the farmers alone seem to be a dicer- 
sily; and so far, as a class, are standing in 
their own light. Whilst we are by no means 
the friend or advocate of selfish, sinister and 
one-sided combinations, having for their single 
object the pecuniary interests of a single class 
or clan, yet we would recommend a freer and 
more social union among those TTiio are so 
eminently the pillars of the nation, as Ameri- 
can farmers are. AVe would not have them the 
mere shadows or mimics of any other class of 
men, but we would have them intelligent and 
progressive thinkers and actors for themselves 
in all that relates to their moral, social and 
material welfare. But so far as they may be 
able to attain and rftain such- a sdtfu.s, they 
should feel that its consummation and contiu- j 
uance will depend upon their own energetic 
co-operation ; a co-operation of not only mus- 
cular energy, but also of that God-given mind 
and intellect which so peculiarly distinguish 
man from a mere beast of burden. ^Vhen we 
look abroad into the world, if we are not 
blinded by ignorance or prejudice, we cannot 
fail to see that a different order of things is 
rapidly developing, from that which gave its 
specific character to the iiast. The wheels of 
time are moving onward, and never can be 
turned backward. If such a thing wore possi- 
ble, it would be fatal to the very existence of 
the universe. "The dead have been raised; 
hungry lions have refused their iirey \ the seas 
have divided and formed walls of water whilst 
a whole nation passed in safety through its 
sandy bosom, and men unhurt have walked 
amidst consuming flames; but never yet did 
time, once past, ever return." Therefore, the 
piment oiily is ours. The past we cannot 
recall, and the future we may never see. All 
our nece.ssitie.s are concentrated in the pend- 
ing present, and i7i this we travel side-and- 
side together. The moment we yearn after 
the "flesh-pots" of the past, we fall behiTid in 
the race of life. So soon as we indulge in 
selfish anticipations about the future, we, in a 
measure, unfit ourselves for the rcrt'idV.s' and 
duties of the present. As the ever present 
now is ahv.ays with us, and as nothing that can 
or ought to 1)6 done iioio should be deferred to 
the future, we ask the co-tiperation of the 
farming puiilic in support of TiieI..\nc astkk 
Fau.meu. We not only ask their paid sub- 
scriptions — for, in reality, that is a mere 
pittance, which a single week's rational econo- 
my would rescue from the category of useless 
expenses — but we also ask their literary con- 
tributions and their moral and social sujiijort, 
and we ask it now. We desire to make The 
F.\RMEit such a home journal as will refleet 
credit upon the farmers of our great county 
abroad. We desire our farmers to oi)en their 
"knowledge-boxes" and let their ideas fiee 
forth as free as the birds of the air — not to 



hide their light under a bushel or a bed, but 
to set it on a candlestick. No class of men 
occupying the advanced position in agriculture 
that tlie farmers of Lancaster county do, can 
be de.stitute of practical ideas on the sviljject- 
of farming, and few who really possess this 
knowledge are unable to tell what they know 
in language sufliciently intelligible to their 
compeers in agriculture and the domestic arts. 
The yoimg farmers who are coming forward 
now, are more conversant with sc'ience and 
literature than the generations of the past, 
and nothing will afford tlu-m greater opportu- 
nities for im|irovement, more practical in- 
struction, and greater mental expansion, than 
habitually writing for the press; not writing 
for the mere purpose of filling up a newspaper 
column, but to communicate faHs important 
for their brother fanners to know. Where 
the fdi-ts exist, the language will unfailingly 
adjust itself in such a maimer as to be under- 
stood by those for whom it is intended. We 
need only refer to the essays and other compo- 
sitions which have been read before the various 
meetings of the Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society, and ])ublished in the columns of 
this journal, to illu.strate that Lancaster 
comity farmers can compose and write intelli- 
gently if they imll; and why they should not 
have the will, is something past our finding 
out, because it is a Divine .■idmonition to give 
as freely as we have received. We are not 
always the best .judges of the value of what we 
have to give. What seems a trivial matter to 
one who thoroughly knows it. may lie an import- 
ant matter to oiie who is profountUy ignorant of 
it. We do not insist upon ' 'scholarly" composi- 
tions from persions who have never had opnor- 
tunities of becoming scholars. All we desire 
is common sense contributions on i)ractical 
subjects, and we will see that they are i)re- 
sented to the public in such a form as the 
writers will have no occasion to be ashamed 
of In conclusion, we cannot too often ad- 
monish the farmers of Lancaster county to 
busy themselves in "working up" a physical 
and intellectual representation of the resources 
of the "Garden spot of the Keystone State" 
in the approaehhig "Uen'ten'XIAL, " which 
is scar^ly a year and half in the future. We 
want to see the farming interests of our great 
county honorably standing by the side of the 
greatest in the land. ^Ve want to sec our 
journal there, as the faithful an<l appropriate 
advocate and exponent of those interests. We 
want to see our t<ri-enth. volume in tlie hands, 
and read, by twice as many as patronizi'd its 
predece.s.sors ; and finally, we want to see our 
eighth or "centennial volume" in double :is 
niany hands as the seventh. With thesi' legiti- 
mate and, we feel, unselfish desires, we again 
launch our craft upon the sea of public favor ; 
and with these sentiments we clo.se by wish- 
ing our patrons a bright, prosperous, and 
Happy New Year. 



THE PUBLISHERS TO THE READER. 

To those subscribers to The Farmer who 
read the complimentary introduction given us 
in the li\st numl>er by the retiring publisher 
and the editor, it would be hardly neces.'^ary 
for us to say anything in a<ldition. • Inas- 
nuieh, however, as we exiiect this issue of 
The Fahmeii to meet the eye of many who 
never before read it, a few wonls as io om- 
object and plans may not be out of place. 
That a publication speciallv devoted to the 
intere.sts of the large agricultural community 
of this great county can become of much 
practical value to tliose who will read and 
profit by the information it imparts, no one 
will be likely to doubt. The prejudice which 
formerly existed against that knowledge thus 



gained, sneeringly calle<l "book-farming," 
has long since d"isappeared along witli the 
l)rejudice which some years ago was enter- 
tained against reapers and mowers, and even 
threshing machines; and indeed against most 
of the great labor-saving inventions which 
threatened to ri'volutionizi; old methods and 
demanded an entirely new train of thought. 
The able publications, devoted in whole or in 
part to the interests of agriculture^to farm and 
household economy — inrculated all over this 
broad land, havi; done more than any other 
single .agency to eau.se the farmer to mount a 
step higher iii the intellectual as well as in the 
industrial scale. It will no longer do for him 
to be content, iW our grandfathers were, to 
merely know how to hold the plough and 
drive the horse, to wield the sickle or the 
scythe, or the fiail, having no ambition to 
know what is going on- in the great world 
around him. The sickle, the scythe and the 
fiail belong to a past age. Their place luis 
been supplied by machinery, so wonderful in its 
mechanicism and so important in its achiev- 
ments, that no successful farmer can afford 
not to avail himself of its advantages. 
The successful management of nia<-hinery 
requires intelligence of a higher order— a 
knowledge of the principles of mechanics and 
their application. To be thoroughly success- 
ful in his avocation he must be continually 
educating himself up to the demands of his 
new surroundings. The appearance of new 
insect depredators upon the croi>8 demands 
knowledge in an important direction never 
dreamecfof as an attainment of the farmer in 
our boyhood. The improvement in cereals, 
fruits, "and all cultivated productions of the 
vegetable wiu-ld, even within our time, has 
been wonderful. And so we might carry 
these lefiections to an indefinite length— but 
enough has been said to suggest what remains 
unsaid to the mind of every intelligent farmer. 
Relieving that the fai'mers of Lanca.ster 
county would be interested in as well as bene- 
fitted "by a |)nblieation which would serve as 
an organ for the interchange of idesis and 
l)ractical results between themselves and our 
able and zealous editor, as well as among 
themselves, and many of our agricultural 
friends having urged as a rea.son that we had 
the facilities to make The I-ancastek 
Faumeu a success, we c(msenled to accept the 
responsibility of its publii-ation. We must 
confess that," like our enthusiiistic friend, the 
editor, we have undertaken it more as a lab, r 
of love or as a matter of local (iride, than from 
any hop<> of innuediate pecuniary gain ; for, 
as a business enterpri.'<e, it had never been 
a success during the six years its life Wiia 
maintained mainlv through the iiUtck of the 
editor. Our plaii, including the enlarge- 
ment and other contfuiplated improve- 
ments, will involve a much lieavier actual 
outlay of cash than can Ix- realized from the 
.subscriptions on the list as it comes into our 
hands. We therefore rely upon a large 
increa.se of snbscribei-s to meet these iucrea,sed 
expense's and to com|)eusate in some measure 
for the lalxtr In-stowed upon it. The frien(ls 
oftheenterpri.se will therefore see that tht-ir 
interest and ours are mutual in making eflorts 
to increase the sulwcription list. IJy the 
change of form and the u.se of a more compact 
type we will Ik- able to give nearly twice as 
much reading mailer as was given in the old 
form, and we have no doubt all will agree 
with us that the new form is an improvement 
in appearance as well as inconvenience. Our 
success in otheri)ublishing enterprises, through 
the confidence and liberal patronage of the 
people of I.,ancaster county during the past 
thirty vears, gives us assurance that the 
future of The Lancaster Farmer will not 
be a failure. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 
The heavy drain upon tlie prospeetive ag- 
ricultural resources of our country bj' de.struc- 
tive insects is very generally atlniittcd ])y all 
who are sutiiciently intelligent to comprehend 
the subject. It is not necessary to go into 
details ; it is sufficient to say that, in the 
entire country, it annually aiiiounts to mil- 
lions of dollars. Some knowledge of the sub- 
ject, therefore, becomes a matter of interest to 
evei'y farmer. But few farmers, if any, can 
hope to become W(e»((/;e entomologists. There 
is nothing, how<:ver, to prevent them from 
becoming prartical entomologists, and what- 
ever assistance the editor of this journal cau 
render to make them such, will Ije freely ac- 
corded. We therefore jiropose the following 
si/ntem in the pursuit of the subject, liecause 
without system of some kind, very little pro- 
gress can lie made in any direction. 

We propose, tlien, to gha them all the infor- 
mation we can, on any specified subject, when 
proper ai)plication is made. It would be 
almost useless to volunteer genei-al princi]iles 
or scientific theories on the subject of ento- 
mology. People want scientific knowledge. 
For instance, when they find a certain insect 
depredating upon their crops or industrial 
productions, they want to know what it is, 
something about its transformations, habits, 
history, jieculiarities, local characteristics and 
the proper remedies for its destruction, as 
well as irhtn and Imw to apply the remedies. 
Now, as it is difficult for a novice to describe 
an insect plainly enough to be clearly under- 
stood, and as such a description might involve 
more time and lalior tliat could be immediately 
bestowed upon it ; and moreover as the indi- 
vidual who desires the information may not 
possess the necessai'y books, nor have access 
to a library containing them, it is clear that 
some shorter and more practical plan must be 
adopted. A pr/'pcr ai>plication can be made 
by mail, enclosing specimens of the noxious 
insect, carefully secured against death or 
injury, together with a few lines descrilnng 
the nature of its deiiredations, on what vege- 
table it has been found, what it had been 
doing, as well as the time and place it was 
found. And what is of equal or greater im- 
portance to the editor, not only the ]iostage 
on the communication shoidd be paid, (it 
, would not lie forwanled if it is not) but it 
should either contain a three cent stani]i or a 
postal card, to insure an immediate reply. 
This, however, is only necessary witli those 
who are not regular subscribers to The Farmer, 
through the columns of which all (luestions 
will be answered, so far as they enn lie. f)ur i 
reasons for this course are obvious, and will I 
be regarded as valid by the liberal-minded. 
la good truth, we cantujt nfforel to write a 
specific reply and furnish paper and enveloiies, 
and i)ay the return postage into thelmrgain — 
it is not in equity. On a single letter the post- 
age would be a trifle, but our correspondents 
should rememlier that we receive many such 
letters in a month, and to answer them all, 
individually, would be a greater burden than 
"even-handed justice',' requires us to bear. 
By answering con-i'spondents through the col- 
lunns of our journal information becomes more 
diffused than it (itherwise could be, for other 
persons than the ones immediately addressing 
us may Vie interested in the very same insects. 
This will inculcate habits of nwre minute 
observation than usually obtains among fanners 
in general — a thing much needed — and will 
suggest experimentation in their destruction 
or removal. Tlie time seems to be surely aji- 
proaching when our agricultiu-al iiopulation 
will be rrmipelhil to give more jiatient and per- 
severing heed to this qmstion than they have 
heretofore been in the habit of doing. Our 
plan is co-o])erative and equitable in its special 
effects, and ought to meet the approval of 
those interested. 



The openitcg month of the year is a good 
time for us to take a retros]iective glance at the 
past, in order to avoid in future, where possi- 
ble, errors of judgment and defects in prac- 
tioe, and thus profit by experience. 



OVER-PRODUCTION — UNDER-CON- 
SUMPTION. 

"In 1872, when there was a great abimr'ance 
of all things, we were not afflicted with over- 
production. What now is the luatter is under- 
consumption. Some eight hundred thousand 
men and women are compulsorily idle who 
then were regularly employed. The earnings 
of the people amounted, probably, to $2,U()0,- 
000 a day, or to §1500,000,000 in 'a year. This 
l>urchasing power, vast in the aggregate, has 
disappeared. Restore it in the shape of wages 
paid for daily work, then what is styled ' o\'er- 
production ' would vanish. We shall not get 
out of our industrial depression in any sudden 
way. Recuperation will be apt to emblemize 
the slow return of the invalid to health and 
strength. The medicine needed by the coun- 
try is iilenty of live money to o]ierate-the cus- 
tomary exchanges, and thus keep men and 
women at work when once more the industrial 
movement gets safely upon its legs. Mean- 
time, enough things are not produced to satisfy 
the wants of the people. There are more 
mouths to be jed, more backs to be clothed, 
more bodies to be warmed, more feet to be 
shod, more heads to be sheltered, and more 
minds to be instructed in 1874 than there were 
in 1S7'2; yet the quantity of things produced is 
smaller. The over-production is apparent, 
not real — constructive, not actual — a ratio be- 
tween production and the crippled power to 
consume, not between production and the 
urgent needs of consumers. To get at the 
complete truth it is requisite for the Tribune 
to shift its point of view. More money is the 
key to the problem." — Inter-Oceun. 

To this we may add that there will be more 
wants to be supjilied in 1875 than there were 
in 1874; Init what does all this amount to if 
the necessary means are not available to pro- 
cure the supiilies? We want more employment 
for the laboring millions of the country, no 
matter how unwisely they may squander the 
products of labor. That is a thing beyond 
constitutional control, and hardly worth talk- 
.ing about, although it means a great deal; still, 
if peoiile don't see it themselves it would be as 
difficult to inject it into the fissures of their 
brains, as to shoot potatoes into the crevices of 
a millstone. In order to furnish more emi)loy- 
ment we want "more live money;" by wliieh 
we infer, money judiciouslj- invested where it 
will pay at least six per cent., and which will 
continue to be thus invested so long as it yields 
any per cent, at all— money bnnight out of old, 
uniiroductive " stocking legs" and put to prac- 
tical and rational i(Sf/i('?ic<.s — money, if possi- 
ble, unifonn in value, and secured against jieri- 
odic fluctuations and depreciations. Just tliink 
of the extraordinary measui'es wliicli the phi- 
lanthroiiically inclined are compelled to resort 
to, periodically, for the relief of the indigent, 
unemiiloj'ed. or starving millions of our coun- 
trymen. If these people had the pecuniary 
means there would not long be an over-produc- 
tion or supiily of anything, nor yet an under- 
consumptioni the latter being the effect of the 
absence of these means. Tilings woidd be kept 
moving, and motion is the only sure remedy 
against stagnation. We believe tliat a univer- 
sal nation of spendthrifts would be ]ireferable 
to a universal nation of njisers. It is the penu- 
rious hoarding of some, the bloated accumula- 
tions of others, and the imiirudent profligacy 
of the many that cause the inequalities and 
stringencies of the times, with all the depriva- 
tions and stifferings that follow in theii' train. 

"More money is the A'c// to the problem," 
but a I'ei/ is of very little account so Ions; as 
there is no availalile J(i<-k into which it will fit, 
and that may be opened by it. Those locks 
ai'e the rich agricultural, mechanical and min- 
eral resources of the country, and these are now 
shut u)) and rusting, for the want of a key to 
open them. There is a point in the domestic 
aflairs of a nation beyond which " endurance 
ceases to be a virtue," and no one can tell ex- 
actly wlien that point is reached. The British 
govemment did not " see it" previous to the 
revolt of her American colonies; France did 
not see it before the bloody revolution of ' 0?>;' 
and the South did not see it before her attempt 



to nationalize slavery. When will the pos- 
sessors of the "key " of our industrial inter- 
ests learn that it is more profitable in the end 
to keep the laboring population of our country 
constantly employed, at any cost ? 



LARGE EMIGRATION TO GERMANY. 

PKUSSIAN MANUFACTUKERS SENDING TO 
AMERICA FOR WORKMEN. 

"Forseveral daysjiast many jiersons, mostly 
Germans, have besieged the offices of the com- 
missioners of emigration at Castle Gai'deu, and 
besought them to jirovide steerage passage to 
Europe; Most of them professed to be with- 
out means, while othei-s asserted tljat they had 
a portion of the passage money. Of course it 
was impossible for the eonunissioners to pro- 
vide means for them to return to Germany; 
but in some few instances, where only a small 
deficiency existed, the balance was supjdied by 
the commissioners. In nearly every case they 
came provided with letters from Gennany, in 
which they were assured that labor is plenty 
and profitable at home, and that the demand 
for mechanics is greater than for many years 
previous. Information received by the com- 
missioners themselves from all parts of Prus- 
sia show that the situation has not been exag- 
gerated. Skilled labor is scarce, and the prices 
paid exceed anything that has been paid for 
years past. Bookbinders, machinists, tjpe- 
setters and mechanics in the different trades 
are receiving from ten to thirty florins a week, 
where only one-third that sum used to be paid. 
This rate, considering the prices of rent, pro- 
visions and living generally, is equivalent to as 
many dollars here. Accomplished book-keep- 
ers with large manufactiuMug companies are 
receiving from 3,000 to 10,000.r' a year. Busi- 
ness is brisk throughout the Empire, and pros- 
perity and plenty prevail throughout the land. 
Thisis accounted for by the eonunissioners and 
others, from the fact that while Germany is 
now homogeneous and a unit, she became en- 
riched by the late war, levying tribute uiiou 
France, which was made to bear all the ex- 
pense of the campaign. She was more than 
indemnified. Money became plenty, and the 
industries which had slumbered when the war 
was raging, were set in operation at its close. 
Business relations were ojiened with other 
nations, which, previous to tlie war, had only 
fritting commercial relations with the Prussian 
provinces. There was an increasing internal 
and external demand for the manufactures of 
I'russia, and skilled laborers were sought for. 
]5ut the war had killed off many of them. It 
had taken the bone an<l sinew of the land, and 
many who had not been killed had been 
maimed for life. This created a great want, 
and the price of labor advanced. Manufac- 
turers and tradesmen, as well as the friendsof 
Germans in this country, are sending to Amer- 
ica for them.jirotfering good positions at home. 
The inducement is increased on account of the 
prevailing dullness of trade here, and the com- 
missioners predict that during the next three 
or four months there will lie an uniirecedented 
emigration to Germany. In many cases money 
has been sent from Europe to per.sons here 
with which to pay their passage home. Innni- 
grants are still arriving here from Germany, 
but they arc not mechanics nor tradesmen. 
The commissioners state that the country is 
losing those who have learned trades but can 
find no work here, and have gone back to Eu- 
rope to work at them. It is feared, too, that 
the jNIennonites will cease to ccmie, as the in- 
fonnation has reached the commissioners that 
the Russian government has concluded to let 
them remain exempt from conscrijition and 
war duty, and no longer violate the convic- 
tions of the Mennonifes by compeUing them to 
take up arms." — Tribune. 

The foregoing is very significant, and shows 
how very superior the occujiation of a farmer 
is, in comparison with that of other men ; 
for it will lie observed that no farmers are 
among the "large emigration to Germany," 
in search of that employment which they are 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



iiiiiil)le to liiul in America. It is true tliat 
fiiriuirif; may not " pay" in a mere ))fc'imiaiy 
sense, as well as sonu' otluT oL'cu|iatinus more 
inllni'Mueil by siiasnioilic ('ontractions and ex- 
pansions, and lieiice liazardous speculations, 
but it pays more surely in tlieouteome; for, no 
matter what takes piaie in tlie linaueial, po- 
litical, social or moral world, so louu' as human 
lil'e obtains, no individual is inde|iendent of 
the material world, and hence the occupation 
of a farmer is a i)erpetnal and universal ne- 
cessity in civilized society; and as human pop- 
ulation multiplies it becoinf's,-in the same 
ratio, an increasiuj? and always present ne- 
nes-sity. The farmer never thinks of niliii- 
qnishin"; his oeciii)alion — "shnttiu;; down," 
as they call it — lettintt his fields lie fallow 
and starving iiis slock, because he can- 
not realize six, ten, lifleen or twenty per 
cent, on his labor ; but he ploils on all 
the same, at three, two, one, or no |)er 
cent., to keep full or replenish the jjranaries, 
corn-bins and meat-tnbsof the world, iiatieutly 
toiling and waiting for the "better day a 
coniinjf." Many occupations among men are 
of a (inestionable moral character, or are con- 
ducted in a very questionable mauner and 
from ipiestionable motives ; but the tillers of 
the soil and the agri<'uUnral jiroducers of the 
country have not the shadow of a tpieslion 
overhanging their occupation. An<l yet many 
farmers are yearning for the uncertainties of 
commercial, profi'ssional and nie.elianical life. 
How superlatively visionary and foolish — how 
suicidal to moral and material prosperity aud 
domestic happiness! 

It does not seem to speak well for America 
and its free institutions, to lind those who 
have sought an asylum luuler its lienign gov- 
ernment and laws, appealing for oiiportuuities 
to return to their native land as the better 
couutry of tlie two for tlie laboring man. 
Bloated monoiiolies, commercial combinations 
and family clanships are fast converting our 
country into that feudal condition in Europe, 
which turneil the tide of emigration from that 
country to ,oin- borders, liut which a more 
liberal and eciuitable policy there is inviting 
back to her shores again. 

AVe do n<it believe, liowever, , that the in- 
ducement for even mechanics to return to 
Europe is of a very permanent cliaracler. 
The fare is now so low that to single men the 
sacritice woidd be trilling and easily borne, 
but to men of families we do not think it 
■jvould be advisable, if they can lind any cm- 
ploymeut here at all. 



.Tonxsox ]SriLLEii's ANXu.\i- ADDRESS, as 
Pri'sident of the T.,ancaster County .\gricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society, (lelivered at 
the last meeting, will be found in our report 
of the proceedings of that body, iirinted in this 
number. While we disseiit in toto from not 
only tile niutUr but also from the maniirr c(tn- 
tained in some of tlie points of this ad- 
dress, on the whole there is so much well- 
timed truth in it. such good advice, and svicli 
well deserved criticism niiiin the inefliciency 
of the Agricnltnral and llorliciiltural oriiaiii- 
Bations of the county o!' Lancaster, that we 
should have published it in our columns, even 
if it had had no claim upon us as the ])rodue- 
tion of the presi<lent of a society under whose 
auspices this journal has, from its very origin, 
bt>en i)nblished ; moreover, as we liave here- 
tofore published several papers in our columns 
favorable to the " (iransre movement," it is 
but fair that we should also give the negative 
side of the (pie.stion ; and we confess that Mr. 
Miller has elaborated .some idga.s on that snli- 
ject that have not heretofore occurred to us, 
whetlier tlii'v l>e true or otherwise. In refer- 
ence to the itineratiie.: habits of many of the 
members of the society durim; its sessions, he 
made some good hits, which recall forcibly 
to our mind the rebuke administered by an off- 
hand Methodist preacher to a somewhat shift- 
ing congri'gation. Klevatinij his voice and 
rising on his toes he exclaimed with earnest 
emiihxsis. " I have no objection to be called a 
trareliiig pretuJiery but I do most unqualiliedly 



object to preaching to a IrdfcVinij rmKirdjal'mn. " 
It is a poor compliment to an essayist to greet 
him with a slampedi^ the moment he begins 
to reail his paper. We do not suppo.se that 
any one Hica/i.s to ))e disrespectful, but it is 
nevertheless embarrassing under any circum- 
stances, and exhibits that want of culture to 
which the [jresideiit of the society alhuled in 
his address. We have never seen this habit 
so common anywhere else, a.s we have in the 
great and Wealthy county of Lanca-sler, an<I 
nothing— not even a poorly written or poorly 
delivered essay — can justify it. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The arrangenunts for transferring TllK 
Fau.mur I'l the present publisluMs were com- 
lileted at too late a day to enable them to in- 
troduce all the improvements into this issue 
which are in contemplation. Among other 
matters now (h'cmed of importance in publi- 
cations of its character, are occasional engrav- 
ings illustrating certain subjects of practical 
importance which an- thus more easily and 
satisfactorily explained than it is possible to 
do in a mere letter-press description, however 
full and complete. For example, it might be 
dillicult to write a desca-iptiou of a trellis for 
grape vines ami the most approved method of 
in'uniug and training them, so that the ama- 
teur might 111' able to do (he work correctly as 
descril)ed; but liy the aid of an engraving, illus- 
trating the cousiruetion of the trellis, the ar- 
rangement of the vines at their different stages 
of growth, and how t(j prune them, the pro- 
cess can be made so plain that the merest tyro 
in small fruit culture can comprehend the sub- 
ject at a glance. These illustrations are, of 
course, expensive, but the publishers have faith 
that the farmers of Lancaster county will be- 
stow such a liberal patronage iiixm The 
FAi!?.[Eri, since it has taken its "new dejiart- 
ure," as will justify them in making a venture 
in this direction, and they hope to be able to 
nnike a beginning in the February number. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

OxFouD, Pa., Jan. lltli, 1S7.5. 

S. S. K ATll vox— Z>rar Sir: Please deci- 
])hcr these animals and let us kn')W tlie result 
of your investigations. Please report to Rev. 
(). L., of this borough. Very respectfullv, 

J. P. A. 

The embryotic "animals" alluded to in the 
above, wi're the eggs of the "Oblong-winged 
Katydid " — I'liiilhijilcrn I'hhiiKjifii'iu—ci large 
green and loiig-liuibed grasshopjjer, more fre- 
(piently found, and ]ierhaps betterkuown, than 
the true Katydid. (I'luHiiihiiJInm cini-nnan.) 

These eggs are always found obliipiely ar- 
ranged in two rows along the side of a twig, 
very .seldom any larger than tlu^ one iijclosed. 
This is not the insect that emits the stridula- 
ting noise during summer evenings, which 
sounds like Kul'iiVil. It is a vegetarian in 
habit, but W(- never have known it to be snlli- 
ciently numerous to be consi<lered noxious. 
The coldest Weather has not the least utTect 
upon the vitality of these eggs. — Ed. 



Tlll.s xuMliKU will be sent to many who are 
not now, or have not been heretofore, sub- 
scribers to The FAmiKi!, but a.s we only de- 
sire vohuitary subscriptions they need not go 
to the trouble of returning it. Still, we hope 
that tho.se within the county of Lancaster, at 
lea.st. will respond favorably, and .allow us the 
privilege of placing their names upon our list 
of subscrilHM's. It will only cost them aur d'll- 
htr a year, as there is no postage on publica- 
tions circulating: within the county. 

We are eonlideiit thai they will not regret 
it: and will have the additional satisfaction of 
feeling that they h.ave made a worthy and 
judicious investment in behalf of the airricul- 
tural inti'rests of our irreat county, and have 
contributed their mite in developing its mate- 
rial, moral anil intellectual resources. If they 
will only sustain The Faumek at home, as it 
is sustained abroatl, we cannot fail to make it 
a .success. 



THE FUTURE OF THE LANCASTER 
FARMER. 

Is it destined to live, (lourish and grow, 
or to i>ine, languish and die V This question 
ajiplies to farmers generally, but to those of 
Lancaster county most emphatically. Will 
tla- farmers of Lancaster county patronize, 
ai<i and support a periodical that bears on its 
title iiage so honorabh' a name V .Vol that 
farmers ontsiile of our county are less honor- 
ablir than those living within its borders, but 
that the latter bear, if not a world-wiile, at 
least a national reputation. The title of 
"garden county" has not been vaguely 
lavished upon il. There is scarcely ad iascn ting 
opinion, among those who have traveled exten- 
sively over our cnitntrii, that Lancaster lias 
Scarcely a rival county in this broad agricul- 
tural domain ; not so iiiueh on aceoniit of its 
natural advantages, as for the excellent tillage 
bestowed upon it, and its tlioroiigh im|)rovc- 
ments in buildings and fences. It .seems 
natural that such a re|iutation should stimu- 
late the dignity (I will not say (iride, for our 
plain farmers spurn jiriih} of our tillers of the 
.soil to have at coniuiand a medium through 
which they can disseminate their knowledge 
to others as well as among tliemsidves. Look- 
ing ui)on the reputation of our county from a 
distant standpoint, the natural inference 
would be, that in a county which has so high 
a reputation for intelligent farmiiii;, tln^re 
must be a corresiionding degree of mental 
culture, and conseipiently there would \ye 
found among us a large amount of valuable 
literary productions on the subject of farming 
and its auxiliaries. When, however, we scan 
the pages of The LwfASTKii FAttMEK and 
find so few contributors from its nativ.' county, 
the conclusion must be that our fanners cannot 
or will not aid in building up an <n'gan to rep- 
resent their standing in the agricultural world. 

And, further, when we learn that not five 
hundred fdniirr.t of this county Wi're regular 
subscribers to The FAioiElt during the pa.st 
year, wc conclude they are not even a reading 
people, or else patronize foreign publications 
to the exclusion of those at home. Since the 
publication of The Fahmeu hius pa.ssed into 
the hands of Fkausol & Geist, whose rejiu- 
tatiou as imblisliers is a sullieient guarantee 
that they will leave nothing undone on their 
jiarl to make it a success, we trust there is 
a brighter future liefore it. The continuation 
of I'rof. llATHVox as Editor, is an additional 
guarantee that matter will be regularly fur- 
nished for its pages, even if he will have to 
write a large proportion of it himself between 
his regular business hours; a t:isk which he 
has iierformed since The FAiorKU has been 
in existence, without any remuneration. 
While all this labor of the eiiitor liitlu'rto has 
been brKlniral to the public, shall not the 
farmers of I,ancaster county res>)lve that with 
the year 1 ST.") a new era shall commence for 
The Fahmei:, in which they will not only 
piitronize il by subscrii>lions, but also by con- 
tributing to its columns! Then, ho! for the 
Centennial — when Lancasti'rcounly shall pre- 
sent an .\gri(ailturaland llorticnltural periodi- 
cal worthy its nanio and fame. ll. M. E. 

THE PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 

The "Pennsylvania StatetiraiiLTe." of this 
organization, convened incouncilat William.s- 
jiorl on Ihi^ (llh in.st., and \w have conversed 
with some of the returned <li'legates from Lan- 
caster county on the subject. Over one thou- 
.saiid members from differi'iit parts of the 
State were ip atten<lance, and the business 
seems to have b('eii of an inti-restin;; and im- 
portant character. They speak in the highest 
terms of the kind and aci-ommodatiiig spirit of 
the peo))le of Williamsport. Among other 
things, it was determined to hold the next an- 
nual meeting of the SiHti (Inniijt in Lancaster 
city on the "Jil of December next, provided hotel 
accommodations and a suitable liall can Ik'oI)- 
taiiied here. This is surely a distinction that 
Lancaster county did not I'xpect, for the order 
is yet in its infancy here. They expect a larger 
attendance than that at William.sport. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



CARNIVOROUS PLANTS. 

There are no doubt many intelligent people, 
and some scientific people, too, who may be 
somewhat startled at the coupling of a term 
with subjects of the vegetable kingdom, that 
is almost universally believed to be applicable 
to the animal kingdom alone. But we have 
fallen upon a veiy progressive period in science, 
religion and literature, as well as in philosophy, 
mechanics and agricultiu-e, and perhaps no 
department of natural science has been so 
thoroughly explored as that including botany 
and vegetable physiology. If the question 
involving the capture and assimilation of ani- 
mal food b}' certain species of plants, has not 
been determined in the a'ffirmativc, at least 
sufficient progress has been made to save it 
from an unqualified negative; for observations 
have been made by learned explorers, whose 
experiences and logical conclusions cannot be 
successfully ignored, nor satisfactorily ex- 
plained upon any other hypothesis. 

When Dr. Erasmus Uarwin — the grand- 
father of the author of the "Origin of Species" 
— about one hundred years ago, published a 
work on "The Loves of Plants," he was as 
much laughed at for its strange theories as 
ever Harvey was when he first announced his 
theory of the circulation the blood ; but the 
subject of consciousness and volition, which 
he attributed to certain species of plants, is 
not now considered so fantastic by learned 
men as it was when the elder Darwin wrote ; 
and in our day it is becoming manifest, almost 
beyond a cavil, that paralysis of a plant can 
be produced by external injury ; that the ex- 
istence of a nervous system in many vegeta- 
bles is capable of a satisfactory demonstration ; 
and that some flowers, at least, display their gor- 
geous colors to attract certain species of iusects; 
and that without this arrangement the pollena- 
ceous impregnation of certain plants could not 
possibly take place ; and that some plants do di- 
gest and assimilate animal matter. In the Scien- 
tific American for Dec. 22, 1874, page 9, seven 
species of these carnivorous plants, belonging 
to as many different genera, are very cleverly 
illustrated ; namely, the "Trumpet Pitcher," 
or "Side-saddle Flower" [Sarracevia vario- 
Iciris) which, with the allied species purpurea, 
according to Dr. Gray, are found growing in 
the United States, from New England to 
Wisconsin, and flower in June. The for- 
eign "Pitcher plant" {Nepenthe dintillaria) 
which grows wild in China and the East 
Indies generally. " Venus fly-trap" (Dirmcm 
rtuiseijmla) in the savannas of North ( "arolina 
growing wild. The "California Pitcher" 
{Barlingtonia hrachyloha et gJandulosa) which 
are found in the mountainous regions of the 
Golden State, and flower from June until 
August. The " Butterwort " (Pintjuicida vul- 
garis) found from New York to Lake Superior, 
and northward, in July. The " Sundews " 
(Brosera), of which there are several species in 
America, namely, the " Long-leaved Sundew " 
(D. longifoHa), the "Round-leaved" {£). rotun- 
difolia), the " Line-leaved " (D. linearis), and 
the "Thread-leaved Sundew," {D.Jiliformis). 
Also a species of Cephalntvs, which is gen- 
erically allied to Dioncca. The Drosera rotun- 
difolia — "Pound-leaved Sundew," occurs in a 
swamp near Sniithville, Lancaster county. Pa. 
In addition to the foregoing there are a num- 
ber of plants commonly called "sensitive 
plants," including the "Sensitive Briar" and 
"Sensitive Fern," which, if they do not capture 
and approjiriate the liquid substances of insects, 
yet they immediately collai)se or close their 
leaves and droop their branches when any 
object comes in contact with them ; or as soon 
as darkness supervenes, either at nightfall or 
in the absence of the sun during the day. M. 
Dutrochet, after a series of minute and care- 
fully conducted experiments, believed that he 
found the true nerve motion of these plants, 
which he attributes to the agency of the sap 
alone, and he considers the power of locomo- 
tion to depend upon its system of nervous cor- 
puscles in the ligneous part of the plant through 
certain tubes supplied with these nervous cor- 
puscles, and that neither the pith, the bark, 



nor even the cellular tissues, have anything to 
do in detenuining the motion of the plant. 

But it is of carnivennis 2jlants that we had 
proposed to make some nienlion, and not those 
that are merely sensitive plants, especially as 
these involve questions bearing on Entomo- 
logy, as well as on Botany. More than thirty 
years ago a Mr. Ellis first divined the purpose 
of the capture of insects by the JJiona'a; but 
it was the Rev. Dr. Curtis — a most practical 
writer on Entomology — who made out the de- 
tails of the mechanism of motion by ascer- 
taining the seat of sensitiveness in the leaves 
of these carniverous plants, and he also pointed 
out that their secretions were not a mere lure 
exuded before the capture of the insects that 
visited them, "but a true digestive fluid, 
poured out, like our own gastric juice, after 
the ingestion of food." In 1808, Mr. Canby, 
an American Botanist, revived the subject 
of this wonderful plant, (Venus's Fly-trap,) 
after it had slept for a full generation in 
statu quo ; and he is still engaged in his 
botanical researches. To facilitate his labors 
he located himself in the Dioncra district, and 
carefully studied the points which had been 
made out by Dr. Curtis. By feeding the leaves 
with small bits of fresh beef, he found that they 
were completely dissolved and absorbed, the 
leaf opening again with a dry surface. Cheese 
disagreed with the plant, and finally killed it. 
He also gives a very interesting account of a 
captured curctdio, which used all its power and 
cunning to escape, but it was of no avail, it 
finally became enveloped in the digestive fluid 
and died. This fluid, he maintains, is an 
actual secretion, and not the result of the de- 
composition of the substance which has been 
ca])tured. 

Additional interest to this subject has been 
recently elicited through some charming pa- 
pers on " Insectivorous plants," by Prof. Asa 
Gray, detailing many interesting observations 
and experiments on the structure, habits and 
functions of Dimicea, Drosera and Sarracenia. 
But by far the most interesting paper on this 
subject, in its entomological and physiological 
bearing, is one recently contributed by Prof. 
C. V. Riley, of St. Louis, Mo., to the Decem- 
ber number (1874) of Hardwick^s Science Qossip, 
on the " Spotted Trumpet-leaf," {Sarracenia 
variolctris,) which, according to the testimony 
of the Professor, must henceforth be ranked 
in comparison with other plants of a similar 
habit, as' 'a most consummate insect catcherand 
devourer." It is not thefloiars, but the pecu- 
liar, although varied, construction of the leaves, 
which form the traps in which the various 
kinds of insects that visit these plants are 
captured. This fact is important, because the 
leavts are earliest and latest in their appear- 
ance, endurance and decay, and very probably 
appropriate this kind of food, "from first to 
last." The leaf of the Sarracenia — the plant 
upon which Mr. Riley made his most interest- 
ing observations— is trumpet-shaped, a gently 
widening tube, with an arched lid, partially 
or quite covering the mouth. The inner sur- 
face of this tube is pubescent, that is, covered 
with a coat of smooth silky hairs, inclined 
downward. These, however, only extend about 
midway between top and bottom, and from 
thence downward the tube is beset with bris- 
tles, with their jioints inclining upward, and 
these increase in size until near the bottom, 
where they are replaced by a perfectly smooth 
surface. This receptacle at the bottom of the 
trumpet-shaped pitcher, secretes a limpid fluid, 
which possesses intoxicating qualities, and 
here is where the insects meet their death. 
Inside the mouth of the pitcher, and on the 
underside of its pubescent lid, there exude 
drops of a sweetish viscid fluid ; this, doubt- 
less, is the fatal decoy. 

The insects most numerously captured are 
eints, although insects of all the diflerent orders 
become victims. The decomposition' of the 
bodies of these ants is supposed to add their 
acidulous qualities to the secretion of the plant, 
at the bottom of the tube, and increase its 
solvent properties. Except auts, it a])pears 
that but few other Hymenoptera are captured, 
occasionally a Bombus or an Apis. 



Prof. Riley says he found most commonly, 
in a recognizable condition, several species of 
Coleoptera and two or three of Hemiptera; ' 'while 
katy-dids, locusts, crickets, cockroaches, flies, 
moths, butterflies, si)iders and centipedes, in a 
more or less unrecognizable condition, helped to 
swell the unsavory mass" at the bottom of 
the pitcher. The natural inference is, that 
these insects are decayed and macerated in 
order to support the plant, and the testimony 
of dift'erent observers goes very far towards prac- 
tically demonstrating that this is not " only a 
speculation," but a/oct. 

But although the macerating fluid at the 
lower end of this pitcher is so fatal to most 
insects, there is at least one species that has 
the power of resisting its influence. A large 
flesh-fly, described by Prof. Riley in the trans- 
actions of the "St. Louis Academy of Sciences" 
as Sarcophaya sarracenia, the larva of which 
feeds upon the putrid insect remains in the 
tube, and when it is perfectly matured, as a 
larva, it bores through the leaf just above the 
stem, escapes through the aperture, and bur- 
rows into the ground, where it contracts to a 
pupa, and in due time comes forth a perfect 
fly, not much unlike the large gray and hairy 
fly which is attracted by putrid flesh. If it be 
asked how this insect can resist the action of a 
fluid so fatal to all other insects, we can only 
answer that we cannot tell, any more than we 
can tell why it is that the larva of the bot-fly re- 
sists the effects of the gastric juice in a horse's 
stomach, which is capable of digesting oats, 
hay and corn. 

Perhaps more remarkable still, in resisting 
the siren influence of the trumpet plant, is a 
small species of moth (Xanthoptera semi- 
crocea) or "Sarracenia moth," which walks 
with perfect impunity over the inner surface 
of the pitcher, or trumpet, so fatal to other 
insects. The female lays her eggs near the 
mouth of the pitcher in April, and as soon as 
the young larva comes forth from the egg, it 
spins for itself a smooth silken carpet, and very 
soon also closes up the mouth by drawing the 
rims together, and covering them with its web, 
which, of course, then debars the entriince of 
any other insect. By the time the laiTa has 
matured, the lower portion of the tube is filled 
up with its excretions, and above this mass the 
pupa is formed in a slight cocoon. As the 
leaf depredated upon by this moth collapses 
above where the pupa is located, and finally 
dies, the escape of the imago is thereby facili- 
tated or provided for. 

These two insects, Prof. Riley continues, are 
the only ones of any size that can invade the 
death-dealing trap with impunity ; but he 
mentions two other minute species sometimes 
found crawling within the pitcher; and also a 
parasite upon the larva of the SarcojAaga, be- 
longing to the "chalcis-flies, " which must in- 
sinuate itself with iniijunity, in order to reach 
its host at the bottom of the pitcher. The 
reasons for certain insects enjoying an immu- 
nity from capture and deatli, and certain 
others falling victims, are explained on the 
basis of the difEereut structure of the feet ; 
but as this is not particularly germain to the 
subject, we omit their details for the present. 
The fertilization of some plants by insects is 
well understood and pretty extensively ac- 
knowledged ; but that certain plants carnivo- 
rousiy api)ropriate and digest animal food is 
comparatively new to the masses, although the 
doctrine was advanced more than a hundred, 
years ago, or nearly so long ago. 

We have on sundry occasions noticed on 
the leaves of Drosera rotundifolia in this coun- 
ty, the feet, wings and thoracic and abdomi- 
nal scales of flies and other small insects, the 
moist and fleshy parts having been in some 
manner evaporated or absorbed by the plants ; 
and our impression was that they were in some 
way beneficial to the plant. If a small pebble 
or bit of wood is thrown upon the leaf, it 
clo.ses in upon it the same as it does upon a fly; 
it, however, almost immediately relaxes and 
casts it out ; b\it if it grasps a fly or other ani- 
mal matter it remains closed, it is presumed 
until the animal is absorbed. Contemplating 
this subject from any stand-point we will, we 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



find it invested with more than ordinary in- 
terest. Mr. Ililev thus siinis up his eonclu- 
sions, ba.sed upon his own and other corrolxi- 
rative exporienee ; 1. There is every reason 
to believe that Sarraeenia is a truly insectivo- 
rous plant, and that hy its peculiar structure 
and secretions, it is enabled to capture and 
hold its prey. 2. That those insects most 
easily digested and most uset'ul to the plant, 
are principally ants and small tlies, which are 
lured to their graves liy the honied secretions 
about the mouth, and "that most of the larijer 
insects are acci(h'ntally captin-ed. H. Tliat 
the oidy benedt to the plant is from the licpiid 
nianure which results from tlie imtrescence of 
the captured insects. 4. The Sdmiphwid is a 
mere intruder, the larva sharing; tlie food ob- 
tained by the plant, and the i>arent lly is at- 
tracted thither by the strong odor, just as it 
would be to any otlier putrescent matter. 5. 
That the moth (Xnnlhuptrni.) has no other 
connection with tlie i)lant than as a destroyer, 
though the i;reatest injury is done after the 
leaf iias performed its most important func- 
tions. (J. That neither the motli nor the lly 
has any structure jieculiar to it that enables 
it to brave the dangers of tlie ]dant, beyond 
what many other allied siiecies jios.sess. Of 
course the subject is not exliausted, and is 
therefore open to further development. R. 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF FRUITS. 

To those pereons who have only a limited, 
or a comparatively small space, to devote to 
the cultivation of fruit, the following list, re- 
ported to the Pennsylvania Fruit-Growers Soci- 
ety, at its meeting held in the city of Reading, 
in .January, 1873, may be of some service in 
the determinations of their choice. It is to be 
regretted that detailed reports of this and 
other similar associations, never reach the 
public eye until long after the events occur. 
It is the same with the National Department 
of Agriculture at Washington. In the mean- 
time, the people who are most interested in 
the work of these associations are, for an in- 
definite period, deprived of the knowledge they 
are intended to diffuse. The list comprises 
the following: 

APPLES. 



Smokehouse, 


- -1.1 


Red Astrachan, 


- 7 


Fallenwalder, 


- 13 


Baldwin, - - 


- 8 


Smith's Cider, 


- -10 


Maideu's Blush, 


- (5 




PEAPvS. 




Bartlett, - - 


- -23 


Duchess, - - - 


-10 


Lawrence, - - 


- 21 


Catharine, 


- 6 


Shekel, - - 


- -18 

PEAC 


Howell, - - - 

IIES. 


- 6 



Crawford's Late, -21 
Old Nixon, - - 13 
Smock, - - - - 12 



10 



Concord, 



Susquehanna, - 
Early York, - - <J 
Crawford's Early,- 13 

GRAPES. 

- - 21 I Martha, - - - - 4 

STRAWnEItUIES. 

Wilson's Albany, - IS | TriomphedeGand, 7 

Tlie higlier the numl>er the greater the com- 
parative value, (for instance. Smokehouse com- 
pares with Baldwin as 1"> does to 8,) lint, of 
course, this does not imply tliat the foregoing 
only are worthy of cidtivation. But the list 
contains those that have received a general 
recognition in the latitude of southern and 
middle Pennsylvania, and may be of value to 
those who propo.se to plant fruit trees during 
the coming siiring, especially those who may 
only desire to set out a few of each kind. 



GtTAXo: Dr. Ilabel has arrived at the con- 
clusion, after mature study, that guano beds 
are not made of the excrements of sea birds, 
as has been hitherto supposed. Chemical 
treatment has disclosed an insoluble residue 
composed of fos.sil sponge and marine plants 
and animalcule. nebcl's opinion is that 
guano is made of fossil remains, of which the 
organic matter has been transformed into a 
nitrogenized substance, while the mineral 
constituents have jremained unaltered. 



WHEAT GLEANINGS. 
BY .J. STAUFFEU. 

Of the plants cultivated for the sake of their 
seed, wheat holds the chief place among farm- 
ers. What is called winter wheat develops 
Very much like wliat we call biennial plants. 
Soon after it is sown the young plants put fortli 
the first leaves, which, during winter and tlu' 
early months of spring, increase to a tuft, 
when, to all appearance, it seems to stand still 
for Weeks. But wlien warm weather comes 
the soft stems are put forth to tlu^ height of 
several feet, furnished with leavesiind tlie ter- 
minal ear. Afti'r flowering the seed is f(Mined, 
iintl as th(\v ripen the bottom leaves turn yel- 
low and gradually die upwards. 

During the time that the growth seems ar- 
rested above ground, the underground organs 
are in constant activity, incessantly absorbing 
food and extending its root libers, storing up 
and making preparation for the growth of the 
stalk, &c. On the approac^h of tlie warmer 
weather, this apparent rest is but collecting 
the necessary energies to carry out the final 
seeding. The lowtenii)erature in autumn and 
winter reduces the action of the organs, with- 
out altogether suppressing them, and is essen- 
tial to the vigorous thriving in its future, 
more favorable conditions. It is a most favor- 
able condition for future development if 
the temperature of the air is below that of the 
soil, so as to retard for several months the de- 
velopment of the outer plant — al)ove ground. 
Hence, when covered with snow, the soil is 
kept moist and warm, and the plants above 
ground are protected from the severest cold. 
It is found that a very mild autumn or winter 
o])erates unfavorably upon the future crop — 
warmth causes it to shoot up thin, and thereby 
consumes the food which should have .served 
to form the buds and new roots, or to increase 
the store of matter in the roots ; conse(piently 
the root supplies less food to the jilant in spring, 
and its growtli is more feeble or stunted. Some 
farmers endeavor to help the matter by graz- 
ing down or cutting these feeble plants, in or- 
der to start a new formation of buds and roots; 
this, under favorable conditions of growth, 
may have the desired effect, and if the plant 
has time the normal conditions may, in a 
great degree, be restored. Summer wheat, in 
the several periods of its development is gov- 
erned in like manner, only these periods are 
of much shorter duration. 

The farmer in cultivating his plants can act 
upon tlie direction of the vegetative force only 
through the soil, that is, by supplying bis field 
with nutritive sulistauces in tlie riyht jinqntr- 
fioii.-t. This implies a greater knowledge than 
siniiily ]>lowing and sowing ; for to produce 
the largest crop of grain, not only the choice 
of seed and time of sowing require due atten- 
tion, but the soil must contain a iireponderating 
quantity of the nutritive substances neces- 
sary for the formation of seed. "For leafy 
)ilants, turnips and tuberous plants, the 
])roportion is reversed,'' as Mr. Liebig says, 
but he refers to the ash-constituents of 
the wheat plant, and adds, "we cultivate 
potatoes and clover, and take away from the 
field the entire cro]) of tubei-s and clover ; we 
remove from the ground, in these twoiiroducts 
as much phosphoric acid and three times as 
much potash as in three wheat crops. It is 
certain that thealistraction of these important 
mineral constituents from the ground liy the 
cultivation of another plant must greatly all'eet 
the fertility of the soil for wheat ; the crops of 
wheat diminish in amount and in number." 
The great point to understand istosupiily the 
proper material in proper combination to meet 
the demands of the plant. Supjiose 98 cwt.s. 
of grain and straw from 21 acres of ground 
averages, say .') cwts. of ash-constitnents. It 
is believed that there is 100 times that (piau- 
tity in an available state, yet it follows that the 
first crop takes that amount from the soil. 
Rye may still yield a good crop after the wheat, 
and oats after the rye, as they do not require 
the same amount of a.sh-constituents in the 
soil as wheat does. 

Various plants demand various ingredients 
or proixjrtions of them. Licbig says "a 



thousand grains of corn (wheat) require from 
the .soil a tliousand times as much ]ihos)ihoric 
acid as one grain; and a tlioiisaiid straws 
demand a thousand times .as mucli silicic acid 
as one straw. When, tlieretbre, the soil is 
deficient in tlie thousandetli part of phosphoric 
or silicic acid, the thousandetli grain or the 
thou.sandeth straw will not be formed. If a 
single stalk of corn is taken away from a field 
the conse(iuence is that the field no longer 
produces one straw in its room." It follows 
that the alteration of good and bad crops does 
not depend altogether upon the conditions of 
the weather; too few pay attention to the 
actually favorable chemical and jihysical con- 
dition wliieli would enable them to cultivate 
wheat, rye and oats for years in succes.sion, 
without adding mineral conslitiH'iits. It must 
be un<lersti)od, liowever, that tliejie constitu- 
ents are not all distribuleil naturally in an 
effective condition or accessible to the roots. 
The phosphate of lime may be iiresent in more 
than sullicient cpiantity. It depends upon 
stirring the soil so that the inert food elements 
become distributed and the iihosphoric-silicic 
acid and potash become decomposed silicates, 
thus ma<le soluble and availalile by means of 
the plow and harrow to insure all parts of the 
soil to be arable. It is claimed that if the 
excess of these food constituents were every- 
where accessible and available to the roots 
of the plants our fields would be able to yield 
thirty full average crops in thirty successive 
ye.ars without the intervention of a season of 
fallow. Thus it is argued, that even if all the 
straw is returned to the field of the entire 
wheat iilant, the field may retain its fertility 
for straw, but the conditions required for the 
production of grain are diminished. The 
consequence is an unequal develoiiment of the 
entire plant. This <iuestion has been discus.sed 
by the Society* on several occasions with regard 
to the propriety of stock feeding or selling the 
grain, in relation to manures and manner of 
application to the soil; that is, feeding the 
crop to cattle in the farm-yard and bringing it 
back to the field and plowing it in so as to restore 
to the soil all the mineral constituents con- 
tained in the crops. It is believed that by 
this operation the fields would wear out in 
thirty or sixty years. The conditions that are 
required to "form the grain would not be 
improved, and the cause of decrease in the 
crops remain the same. This may suggest the 
use of prepared phosphates, dtc, but I am not 
engaged in farming nor in manufacturing 
artilicial manures from natural jiroducts, 
therefore have no motive for advertising those 
who have. The Society h;is constituted me 
their Botanist — I deem the foregoing in the 
line of duty I owe them as a liotanist and not 
as a farmer. 



RESULTS OF IMPROVED CULTURE. 

The able article on "Agriculture" in the 
new edition of the American Cyclopedia, lays 
just emphasis upon the fact that the actual 
jiroduction of the meunsof supporting life has 
largely increased, as the true principles of 
cultivation have becoiiie lietter known and 
understood. The average yield per acre of 
some of the cultivated grains, as wheat, for 
instance, h.as nearly (|uadruided in countries 
where the principles developed by Liebig and 
others in applying chemistry to agriculture 
have gained the strongest hold, even within 
the memory of men .still living; and this 
increase is not merely proportionate to the 
greater numlierof producers, or the additional 
acres brought under tillage, but an absolute 
increase per acre. It is Very dillicult to 
ascertain the amount of crops, or the average 
yield in times past, but the average yield per 
acre of wlu'at in the 11th century was only 
about six bushels. The actual productive 
jiower of (Jreat Britain in the article of wheat 
alone increa.sed, during the half century from 
1801 to 18.")], to the extent of supporting an 
additional population of 7,(K10,0fttl, an increase 
which can be ascribed with confidence mainly 
to improved cultivation. G. 

'Laucaster County Agricultural aud Hortictiltural Society. 



6 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



THE FRUIT-GROWERS' SOCIETY. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THEIR ANNUAL SESSION 
AT YORK. 

The animal session of the PeiniS3lvania 
Fruit-Growers' Soeiety was held in York, 
coniniencins; on the 2()th of the present niontli, 
this being the lirst time the Society held an 
annual session in that ancient borongh. The 
following al'stiactof the proceedings, from the 
special correspondence of the Frens, reaches 
us just in time for this issue: 

The mission of tlie Society is to take all the 
leading fruit-growing centres, communicating 
winit it has gathered in otljer places, and tak- 
ing in a new stock of ideas in turn. Inde- 
pendently of its interest to the fruit-grower, 
there are i)oints of interest to the gnat outer 
world, some of whom always accompany the 
fruit-grower on these annual expeditions. 
The town itfelf is not large for its age. It 
contains, perhaps, about fifteen thousand in- 
haliitants, most of whom are engaged in or 
in some way or another dependent" on agri- 
culture for their support. About three thou- 
sand are sujiported by the manufacturing in- 
terests of the place. The old, well-built, sub- 
stantial houses remind us more of an Euroi>ean 
than an American town, and this allusion may 
be the more pleasantly indulged in when the 
names of the streets are noted. Here is the 
Queen street and the King street. King George 
street. Princess street and Duke street, and 
the people just as comfortable and satisfied 
under Iheni as though after the French — we 
might almost say rhilade]]iliia — fashion of 
changing the names eveiy half dozen years. 

The streets are like Philadelphia, in large 
square blocks, and the more like Philadelphia 
as we have a "Philadeljihia" and a "West 
Philadelphia" in it, the Codorus creek divid- 
ing the two. This is an innocent-looking 
stream as we see it now, but is said to be 
excessively wrathful at some .seasons of the 
year. The old marshes on the west side have 
been reclaimed, and furnish a beautiful green 
divide between the two sections, which must 
be excessively beautiful in summer time, 
sepecially with the beautiful hills which form 
a background all around the town. 

The meeting of the fruit-growers was called 
to order by the President, S. B. lleiges, who, 
to the very successful management of the 
Collegiate Institute of the place, addsthe emi- 
nence of a very successful amateur fruit-cul- 
turist. His annual address was one of tlie 
most eloipient and instructive ever given 
to the Society. After briedy alluding to the 
historical associations conijectfd with the 
town, he referred to the fact that some of tlie 
most valuable Iruits had originated in that 
section. The York imperial ajijile of that sec- 
tion was to it what tlie Baldwin was to the 
New England States. Then there was the 
Cheese and the Creek apple, which were famed 
for their superior excellence, both in flavor 
and kee|iing qualities. A famous peach (the 
General (irant) also originated in that sec- 
tion. Another matter of interest is the in- 
creased attention given to cherry culture in 
that region, mostly within the few past years. 
It was found to be especially well suited to 
that part of the country. He had known of 
eases where tlie product from one cherry tree 
had brought in more money than an acre of 
wheat. They commenced to bear at five years 
old. He knew of two jiersons who had sold 
last year about four thousand bushels of cher- 
ries for canning purposes, besides what they 
had disposed of during four market days of 
each week in the city. 

Keferring to the use of manures, he thought 
that the use of stable material in a fresh or 
nnfermented condition was often injurious to 
fruit trees. In this connection he thoui;ht 
there was no loss in that left behind, whence 
saw the black, inky matter running away 
from the mass in the barn-yard. The injur- 
ious matter in the rough material was the 
humic acid. He had experimented with ]iure 
huraic acid on plants, and found it destroyed 
all. He spoke of the theory of many, that we 



should copy nature, but showed that this was 
hardly worth a thought; man's objects and 
nature's objects were wide apart. Wan could 
make Nature do what she could never do for 
herself. The sunbeam was the hardest of all 
known substances. It would penetrate a 
diamond with ease, yet man with a prism 
could turn these beams ccnip.letely round. 
He next referred to the use of lime in soil. It 
was silex which gave the bloim to the plum 
and the color to the appile and the pear, but 
lime was the agent in prejiaring it. It was 
])resent in all seeds, though often it was found 
in but the minutest traces in the soil. It has 
often a mechanical action as well as chemical 
in lightening the character of heavy soils. 
Lime should be used freely wherever there 
was much undecomposi d vegetable matter in 
the soil. The use of a.shes was dwelt on, and 
highly recommended as one of the best means 
of improving worn-out foil. 

The rage for large fruits came in for a share 
of his attention. He thought laige size in 
fruits at the expense of vital principle, and the 
effort to produce thi.'^e had 1( d to cultivated 
fruits being more tender and more subject to 
disease than the smaller wild ones. He did 
not blame nurseiymen for getting what the 
public wanted, but it was for their best inter- 
est to educate the people as much as possible. 
He hoped Pennsylvania fruit-growers would 
help the American Pomological meeting next 
September in Chicago, and urged immediate 
and vigorous State action in belialf of the Cen- 
tennial. He thanketl the Legislature ibr its 
judicious action in regard to the geological 
survey, from which heexpeet(d immense bene- 
fits to the agricultural and horticultural inter- 
ests of the State. 

Among the fruits neglected in that part of 
the State was the plum. The whole field had 
been given over to the curculio. He exhibited 
plie^tographs of his plums, haugiig " in rojies 
like onions." By a hydropmlt he covered the 
trees and fruits after every heavy rain with 
the bitterest whale oil soap he could procure. 
His neighbors' trees had no plums. He had 
been charged with driving his curculios over 
to his neighbors' trees. It might be well to 
leave a tree or two here and there in a plum 
orchard without the soap, as an additional in- 
ducement for the curculio to leave the balance 
alone. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan was invited to address 
the convention on how to plant, cultivate and 
prune fruit t rees. He thought much was lost by 
too expensive modes of prejiaratii^n of thesoil. 
He would plant fruit trees in ordinary ground 
just as one would get it ready for a corn or 
potato crop, and dejieud on annual to]) dress- 
ing to maintain the ferlility. Instead of 
spending two hundred dollars, as some had 
done, on manure for a fruit orchard, he would 
have tloulile the good results from twenty 
dollars a year for ten years. He thouglit in 
many cases it would be found more iirohtable 
to grow hay as the acconqaninient of an 
orchard than any fither crop; but it was 
essential in such ca.'-es to have a top dressing 
every year. He had found even fresh eaith 
good enough for this top drissing, so far as 
the trees were concerned, with aljout six or 
eight dollars ]>er acre of supei-])hospliate for 
the grass. The address produced a lively 
discussion, occujiying the whole of the evening 
session. 

The fence question was one of the most 
interesting discus.ssed, introduced by Henry 
M. Eiigle, of Marietta. He built his remarks 
on the idea thatfeiices were made solely to kee^p 
out neighbors' cattle, and thought no one 
should be compelled to do this, and would 
alter the whole theory' of legislation if this 
was the basis of action. Slone fences were 
the most ccono^nical in a long course of years 
if one lived in a stony country, but he thiuight 
Osage-orange hedges cheaper in anV other, 
except in places wliere timber was a drug. It 
cost two dollars per rod to imt up a post-and- 
rail fence in his part of the country, and but 
twenty-five cents iier rod for an Osage-orange 
fence, though there was some little annual 
cost in pruning the latter. 



A resolution was oflered and unanimously 
adopted, that it was the sense of the meeting 
that the Legislature sliould enact a general 
law for the whole State, prohibitingcattleand 
similar .stock from running at large. 

For the last year or two the Society has sub- 
scribed to the good old doctrine that "mau 
cannot live by bread alone," so they discuss 
matters of taste as well as the profit and loss 
on fruits. They propose at the next meeting 
to change the name of the Society to that of 
the "State General Horticultural Soeiety," 
whose objc ct shall be the encouragement of 
pomology and (jciwral horlimUvre. In this 
spirit Mr. Josiali Hoojies, of West Chester, 
made an adniiralile address on evergreens and 
their culture, and Mr. Purple, of Columbia, 
one on garden flowers, in which the old-fash- 
ioned peony came in for a share of praise. 

Whether it is profitable to grow many vari- 
eties of fruits was opiened by Casper Hiller, 
and made an interesting topic; most speakers 
considering that in peais the Doyenne d'Ete, 
Manning's Elizabeth, Bartlett, Seckel, Beurre 
d'Anjou and Lawrence, they had the cream, 
from a thousand varieties. One speaker, how- 
ever, thfiught that, say in a thousand trees, 
we should have fifty or so varieties, so as to 
know what was going on in the new fruit line. 

The blight in pear trees was discussed, and 
various washes of the stem continuously with 
lime, sulphur, soft soap, &c., recommended as 
among the best preventatives. 

Drying fruits as a means of utilizing over- 
stocks of fruits was discussed. It appears 
there are now drying machines costing but a 
few dollars, and by the use of which even 
children can be usefully employed. Grafting 
the grape was referred to as one of the best 
methods of growing the Delaware and more 
delicate kinds. The Clinton and the Concord 
are the best to graft on. It is best to have them 
growing a year or so before grafting, and to 
do the grafting in fall or winter before the sap 
begins to rise. The graft is set a couple of 
inclies beneath the surface of the soil. Keeping 
fruits made a very interesting topic. A moist 
atmosphere was good for perserving ajiples 
and pears, provided it was not a foul atnios- 
jihere. One speaker had a spring running 
through his fruit-house, which made a jiure, J 
cool, moist atniospliere,and in which he could 1 
keep early winter fruit in good perfection up 
to February or March. Close barrels were . 
not found as good as hand-made or open ones. 
One speaker had found apples kept best when 
gathered by the full of the moon, but another 
speaker said that he lost more by moonlight 
than at any other time ! Whether he lived 
near to a theological seminary, as Mark 
Twain's melon jiatch was, he did not state. 

It is iniiiossible to give even a brief outlfne 
of the discussions. The secretary, E. Eiigle, 
ofMarietta, however, made full reports, winch, 
in connection with the reports of the State 
Agricultural Society, will be published by the 
Stale. 

The ofllcers for the ensuing year are : Pres- 
ident, Edwin Sattertliwaite, of Montgomery; 
Vice Presidents, S. W. Noble, of Montgom- 
ery, and Tobias Martin, of Cumberland-co. ; 
Corresponding Secretary, W^. P. Brinton, of 
Christiana ; Treasurer, Robert Otto, of West 
Chester. 

The next i^lace of mcetingis Doylestown, in 
January next. 

Among the horticidturists present were 
some from t)hio, Maryland and New York, 
and though the attendance was, as all other 
things are, alfected in .some degree by the 
times, the work of the Society was never 
better done. 

[It may be jiroper to state in this connection 
that one of the new features of Tub Farmer 
under its present management, will be full 
reports of Agricultural, Horticultural and 
similar meetings, held in Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania, prepared expressly for these columns, 
by one of our own rejiorters, who will have 
.special charge of this department. The pub- 
lishers are determined that their readers shall 
hereafter see these reports first in their own 
organ, The Lancaster Farmer.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE LANCASTER 

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AND 

HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Tills society nicl .«tiiteilly, on the fourtli of 
Jamuuy, 1S7.">, in llie (Jri>liiiiis" Court room, 
Lancaster city. .Toliiison Miller, cliainiiaii, 
pre.sided, ami" Alex. Iliinis was cliosen sec- 
letarv ;<ro (( »i. I'leseiit, .loliiisoii Miller. II. 
:M. Knu'le. Alex. Harris, T. W. Ilieslaiid. 
Levi S[ rieisi, I'eter S. Heist, .laeol) IJiick- 
walter, M. ]). Keudifj, .loliii H. Krl), T). L. 
Resh, M. M. Kslileniaii, A. H. Heist, S. F. Eby, 
A. C. Uvus, U. Cf. Swart/, Henry Fraiike, Israel 
L. Laildis, J. n. Kisser and Hon. J. 15. 
Livingston. 

The reading of the minutes was dispensed 
with, and the chairman then called for reports 
from standing connnittees on the crops. 

M. ]}. Eshleinan reported the crops lookinj; 
as well as could lie expecti'd. Tohacco is 
nearly all stripiieil and ready for the market. 
"Wheat is aliout half s;oiu> into market. 

>[. I). Kenilii; n'jiorted that the tobacco 
was jiretty well stripped, and as to other 
matters he agreed with .Mr. Kshleman. 

n. M. Eu^le remarked that if the winter 
did not iirove a hard one, the crops would 
most probalily do well. 

John 15. Erb reiiorted the fruit bndsswelled 
a little, but regarded every I bins safe as yet. 

1). L. Rcsli read the followinjf excellent and 
interesting paper on the subject of 

THE CULTIVATION OF FLOWERS: 

The tirst article of our constitution declares 
tliattlieobjcM'tofthe Horticultural Society shall 
be to eiicouraiie and iiromote the cultivation, 
improvement and exhibition of fruits, vetieta- 
bles and llowers. The lirst two objects slate<l 
have received, in a marked dejireo, the atten- 
tion which they deserve from tlu^ members of 
the Society, while the last, in my ii|>inion, 
lia.s not been treated with that consideration 
which it so richly deserves, and which its im- 
portance demands. 

Tlic ciiltivdtiiin i)f Jloicer/: — frcjm the earliest 
times to the jiresent— always has occupied a 
prominent place anions the industries of the 
most eiiliaihtcned people. The ancient city 
of Babylon was noted for its bantling gardens, 
to which the utmost care was given. In tbesi' 
gardens tlowers and |>lants were cultivated in 
profusion, under royal patronage. Thevwere 
the jtride of the great city. Xothing was 
spared which conld add to their productiveness 
. or beauty, and if history informs us correctly. 
they have not been excelled by anything of 
the kind in modern limes, with all our boast 
of the onward march of iuiiirovement. 

Flowers played no unimportant part in the 
public and jirivate life of the (Jreeks and 
Romans. At weddings and at funerals, at 
their feasts and festivals, upon state occasi(uis 
and in the worship of their gods, tlowers were 
used with a lavish hand. ^'ictors in the 
Olympic and other games were rewarded with 
cliai>lets of tlowers, and at a marriage the 
bride and her attendants were crowned with 
garlands. 

Xol only werP the heathen nations of an- 
tiipiity devoted Worshippers at the shrine of 
Flora, but (rod's chosen peo])le used the same 
means to manil'est the rnllnessof their joy and 
gladness on triumphal and festal o(!casious. 
From that period down through the sne<'eed- 
ing centuries of the Christian dispensation, 
flowei-s have never lost their ancient signiti- 
canee, although their language may have lu^en 
partially unheede<l through the sanguinary 
and intriguing .sellislme.ss of the darker ages. 
They ever .spe.ak a beautifi* language, and 
symbolize those active human ideas and affec- 
tions \vhi<'h ultimately culminate in that sml, 
which may germinati' and bloom in the realms 
of the " better worhl." 

At the present time, both in our own coun- 
try and in Europe, much money is invested in, 
and more attention is given to, "the cultivation 
of ornamental plants and trees than was ever 
before known. Not only in the cities, but 
also in the rural districts,')>er.sonsof leisureare 
devoting their time to this line and useful art, 
while to many men of business, and to house- 



wives and other women, it is fiwt becom- 
ing a necessary and healthful recreation. 

The time is jiast when the respectable farmer, 
or merchant, or nu'chanie. after working hard 
all day, spends his evening in the saloon or 
tavern, or other loating iil.iee. He now spen<ls 
it at home with his family, his books and his 
tlowers. Nearly all farmers have blooming 
plants in their windows in winter time, and 
the number that are building conservatories 
or greenhouses is yearly iiicrea-sing. This 
shows a refined and cultivated taste which 
true country life is well calculated to create 
and nourish. 

The IlorticuUural Society of Germantown, 
in the suburbs of I'hiladelphia, with a view 
to eiK'ourage lloriculture among tlu' people of 
that iilace, annoimei's that it will distribute 
amongfemale applicants lifty winter-blooming 
carnations in live inch pots. The person who, 
at the February nii'eting, shows hers in the 
best condition will receive, as a premium, one 
liKiiili-t'il iKHUling l>lants. The second best.si)e- 
cinian calls for ti/hl bedding plants, and the 
third liest for tn-'cHlii-jhr. The bedding plants 
will lie delivered in iime for putting out in the 
spring. 

This iilan has been frequently practiced in 
foreign citiesand villages, with the best results. 
Will not other societies, like that of (Jermaii- 
town, take a forward aU'fi in tbisdiri-ctiou and 
introduce and encourage practical Horieulture 
in city and country. 

Will it pay me to beautify my home with 
Howers and shrubbery V is a rpiestion which 
everv one who lias a home must answer for 
himself. There are few persons who cannot 
afford to invest a small sum in a few rose 
bushes or other ornamental ivlants to start 
with, and in a short time they will be well re- 
paid for their slight expenditure and trouble. 

Anything which adds to the beauty and 
cheerfulness of a home adds to its perinanent 
value. There are many gems in the lloral cre- 
ation which, when once implanted in the soil, 
will continue to grow in lieauty year after 
year, and remain joys forever to the f(n'tunale 
po.ssessor. All will admit that this department 
of nature is well wiu-thv the study of man. 
" Flowers are not the trifles which many think 
them to be, or God would not have besto\ve<l 
the care on them that he did." 

II. M. Eugle entirely endorsed the senti- 
ments of the essayist, and concurred in the 
opinion that llowers followed agriculture — 
were next in importance. He believed that 
most farmers failed to pay proper attention to 
the cultivation of tlowers. 

A vote of thanks was tendered Mr. Resh for 
his essay, after which the Chairman, .Johnson 
Miller, read his 

ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

Gextlkmex : With this meeting closes my 
labors for the lirst term as I'resideiit of tln^ 
Agricultural and IlorticuUural Society of Lan- 
caster County. One year ago, at the January 
meeting of this Society, you held au election 
for otlioer.s. Some important business in wliieh 
I was interested recpiired my absence tVom 
your meeting for some time, and when return- 
ing into this room, a commit tee a|iproaehed me 
and announced the unexpected intelligence 
that I was elected President by a majority of 
one vote. To he elected to the highest posi- 
tion without my knowledge, or asking any 
member to vote forme, isaeoniidinient worthy 
of remembering, and for which acce|)t my 
heartfelt thanks, one and all. When taking 
the chair, which I have lillcd at every meeting 
excepting one since my election, I wassomncli 
cmbaiTa.s.sed when the idea struck me that the 
youngest member of this Society at tlie time 
should be the presiding oliieer, that 1 knew not 
what to say. The only practice I had in par- 
liamentary rules, or as chairman of public 
meetings, was what I learric<l as Su|Hn-inten(l- 
eiit of a fliiiday-.school, to which I was elected 
for four consecutive terms. This, I think, was 
more becoming to me than to be Chairman of 
this Society. In the former, I was instructor 
of persons younger than myself; in the latter, 
quite the reverse. But notwithsUmduiy all 



this, I conducted the meetings of your Society 
to the best of my knowli-dge and ability. I 
however feel that there are some members 
here that could conduct them better. 

As this is my tii'st annual address, you will 
ple:i.se bear with me if 1 should go into details, 
which, perhaps, do not Udong to siiidi papers. 
I will, however, try to remain within agi-icul- 
tural lines. In the lii'st place, a few words for 
the Society may not be out of place. During 
the year just closed, sevi'ial of our members 
have passed from time to eternity, and somi! 
new names have been added to the list already 
on our b loks, so we set' that as some leave us 
others tall in ; but tiiis is not all we want. I 
think we ought to liavi^ made more progress 
since the organization of this Association, in 
ISlit). It has made, little advancement as a 
c<iun)y society. Its meetings are often slimly 
attended, jiarticularly when iiolitical excite- 
nienls are in order in the county. I am ollen 
called a politician my.si'lf, but I always regard 
these meetings as of the lirst iiniiortance, and 
even if I should be a candidate no inducement 
couhl i)reveiit me from alteniling here. But 
when politics run high we have only a half 
dozen members here. Now, why is this state 
of alfairs ? is a (pui.stion'which should engage 
the attention of every member ujion thislloor. 
Do the jieople of Lancaster county not know 
there is a w<M-kiiig agrienltural society among 
them y I say they do; they see the proceed- 
ings in the dilVerent newspai^rs of this county, 
for which the publishers deserve the thanks of 
every menilKr of the Society. Wushould in- 
vite the representatives of the press to rejiort 
the proceedings of the Society from time to 
time. Willi all this advantage the people have 
of knowing there is an agricultural society, 
they will not attend our meetings, save about 
a dozen active member.s. It is a shame to have 
to make such a report for a county like Lan- 
caster, yet such is the fact ; and when I am 
called upcm to make my annual address to-day 
1 will frankly tell the truth of things, no mat- 
ter whether it is in favor of or against our 
Society. If we continue without awakening 
more interest, and without endeavoring to get 
people interested in our meetings, the trnmiM-t 
of death of this Sociity will be sounded in our 
ears before another President will deliver his 
annual address. A year ago I made the ex- 
pression that it would never die under my 
hands, and I stand on the same platform be- 
fore yon to-day. 

Shall it be .said that Lancaster county is 
without agood Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society, when almost every other county in 
the great Keystone State has a large Agricul- 
tural society? The counties of Berks and Cuni- 
biiland are lilting examiiles for us to follow. 
They have interesting meetings, well attended, 
and" we have some springing up within the 
borders of our own county — primary societies, 
(asidi' from the (Trange movement, to which I 
will refer in another place), which will soon 
overbalance our own in point of niimliei-s, 
attendance and interesting proceedings. I 
ap|)eal to you, members, let not this he the 
case. Let us not 1m^ satislied any more with 
the aunouneement of names for membership, 
but let us make it a point to have <nir neigh- 
bors and frii-nds along with us, and not only 
at oni^ or two meeting.s, or perhaps, join for 
the .sake of political gain, or become a member 
to gain iullueiicc. We have upwards of two 
hundred names, if I mistake not, upon our 
lK)oks, when we never have twenty-live menil>ei-s 
attending. This is a very unsatisfactory .state 
of alVairs to rejiort, yet such is the ca.se. Many 
of our members come to the city to attend to 
business, and regard the coming to our meet- 
ing as a matter of secondary importance. 
This is one of the greatest mistakes, and is 
one of the iirincipal drawbacks upon our 
Society. It is very often the case that no 
members make their ai)pearance until half- 
(la-sl two or three o'clock, when the hour of 
meeting is fixed (irecisely at two o'clock, and 
should be (me o'clock. To remedy this an- 
novanci! I would suggest a plan, viz : Meet 
eaily and adjmirn early. The members who 
live'at a distance have to go home by night, 



8 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



or leave before adjournment. This always 
makes a disturbance in the meeting, and is 
unsatisfactory to those who liave to leave ; 
and several times we had to adjourn without 
arriving at any cor.clusion, from tlie fact that 
nearly all the members had gone out. This 
could and should all be avoided by meeting 
early and adjourning at an hoiu' that all could 
go home before it becomes late. This going 
out before adjourament and talking among 
members when the Society is in session is 
often very annoying, and it is not very 
pleasant for the chairman to be continually 
calling to order. I liave no one in view in 
making these remarks, but do hope we may 
all avoid tliese things as much as possible. 
The peeping in at the doorvhas also somewhat 
disturbed the proceedings. The door should 
always be closed, and it would be proper to 
have a paper hung outside, and also one upon 
the door entering this room, with the follow- 
ing printed on it : " Meeting of the Agri- 
cult\ual and Horticultural Society this after- 
noon at two o'clock : Free to all." Some 
would come to our meeting who I know would 
not come now. I have often heard the remark 
among people, "jl would come to the meet- 
ings, but don't know where tlie meetings are 
held." If you tell them in the Court House, 
they are about as well informed as before. 
Therefore the above suggestion would answer 
the whole question, and woidd bring some 
farmers and persons interested in our work. 
As it is, they don't know where we meet or 
whether they are allowed to come in. Invite 
all, and spend more money for advertising and 
printer's ink, and it will bring the people. 
Have a committee on printing and advertis- 
ing, and have always the essayist appointed 
b eforehand, and four or five important subjects 
for discussion at evei'y meeting — questions 
th at come right home to the farmer and fruit 
grower ; questions that everybody is interested 
in — and advertise it. Spend more for printer's 
ink, and this room will not be large enough to 
hold our meetings. 

Instead of meeting in this little room, Lan- 
caster county should have an agricultural 
society of 500 members, which would be only 
about ten members out of every township. 
Let us hold our,meetings in the large court 
room up stairs. By energetic work, and 
advertising, and working shoulder to shoulder, 
this would be accomplished in the course of 
time, and it would be an honor to which Lan- 
caster county would be justly entitled. In 
this way we would get in the leading farmers 
of the county ; their sons, also, would become 
interested in the bu.siness of agriculture, 
■which is the driving-wheel which runs the 
machinery of the wliole world. "When once 
we have a large county agricultural society, 
let us establish an auxiliary society in each 
township in the county — have meetings — go 
together to consult and talk over agricultural 
matters. In this way we would teach the 
rising generation the importance of knowledge 
in tlie profession they are practicing and fol- 
lowing. The farmers' boys are working day 
in and day out ; most of them not reading a 
book or a paper, but following the example of 
their fatliers and grandfathers. Tlie result is, 
no improvement. The world moves; we live 
in a progressive age, and this class find when 
they grow uj) to be men that they are liehind 
the age. "When you tell them their situation, 
they call you a book farmer; that if you edu- 
cated your sons up to the times they won't 
work, but will leave the farm and seek for 
some office, etc. This expression I call a far- 
cical humbug, and wherever this expression is 
made we see tlie fruits of it. Here they labor 
almost day and night ; they i)ost themselves 
on nothing in or out of their profession — how 
they could improve theii- farms, make their 
land productive, their families intelligent ; the 
result is "all work and no jilay makes .lack a 
dull boy." Take, for instance, a farmer's son 
who is raised in a family where there is 
nothing to improve and cultivate the mind. 
This boy grows up ; he goes out in company ; 
the first place of amusement he meets is the 
hotel or saloon in a neighboring town. The 



games there practiced attract the attention of 
that undeveloped mind, which is now looking 
for something more than "all work ;" he soon 
forms a habit to go to such places for passing 
his long winter evenings, and his most pre- 
cious time is thus passed to his bitter disad- 
vantage when he grows old. He spends occa- 
sionally a little; these "littles" count up a 
nice sum out of the father's hard earned 
dollars, which could be spent much better by 
investing the same in agricultural books and 
papers. After this habit of going to these 
places to pass time which should be spent at 
home in the family is rooted so deep in this 
young man's system, he proposes to go to the 
city into some business. " I won't farm," he 
says, "it's a dull business; hard work, and 
no pleasure. " This is the fault of parents. 

The young man now goes to the city to com- 
mence business. No education, no tact for 
business of any kind, save places where play- 
ing cards, loafing and vice and immorality liold 
their court; he fails, turns out literally bad. 
After he has gone through with his father's 
hard earned dollars, he is here, poor and rag- 
ged. Kow where is the fault V Is book farming, 
or is educating farmers' sons up to the times, 
the fault? No; I say emphatically, no. I say, 
learn the young farmers all you can; teach 
them that noble motto, that " agriculture is 
the most noble employment of man." Teach 
them to work, but have sometliing to improve 
the mind. Have a number of agricultural 
books and papers; and at the same time donot 
neglect the Bible and other books that would 
teach them something for their eternal wel- 
fare and their future happiness. Ten times 
better spend the money for such things than 
give it to your sons to spend for things that 
will lead them to the road of eternal damna- 
tion. Let us have daily, weekly and monthly 
papers, so that when evening comes and the 
work is done, we can gather our families 
around the table, and read what has happened 
throughout the world. After having exercised 
the body, the mind is in proper condition to 
receive and keep knowledge. I ventiire to say 
that there is no intelligent farmer in the county 
of Lancaster, or anywhere, who will not say, 
Amen; who will not say that this is the most 
Iileasant and profitable way of spending time 
and money, both for young and old. Let us 
remember that the fanners' sons should be 
brought to the meetings of the Agricultural 
Society. The old are fast passing away; every 
year a few of our members die. and if no in- 
ducement for tlie young to come is offered, 
one of the greatest aids to us, yes, we may say 
the corner-stone of agriculture, will be entirely 
neglected. That great good could be accom- 
plished by having sucli an agricultural society 
as I have referred to in the former ]iart of my 
address, cannot he doubted; but this can only 
be accomplished by having more interest awak- 
ened, and have advertised what we are going 
to di.si'uss, and every memlier make it a point 
to bring his neighbors and friends along, and 
then talk of matters which they understand. 
There is often much time spent by this Soci- 
ety in talking over matters not directly agri- 
cultural or horticultural. I know that nearly 
every year tliere is entirely too much time 
spent in discussing when and where to hold the 
fruit exhibition, and then generally too late. 
Committees appointed to consult with the Park 
Association, back and forward, delayed the 
arrangement this summer until the eleventh 
hour. "\Vliy not go to work early, and make 
up our minds that we can hold an exhibition 
or a fair, as yon choose to call it, by ourselves, 
without joining in with an association that is 
noted for horse-racing and betting, and the 
reputation of whose grounds is such that tJie 
respectable class of fanners will not enfertheir 
gates. The evidence of this we take from the 
fact that their fairs have time and again been 
a failure. Instead of the committee appointed 
to consult with such, that committeaiought to 
be apjiointed in May and go to work at once, 
and make such arrangements as will insure a 
fair that would be an honor to Lancaster 
county, and not a shame, as has heretofore 
been the case in both societies. We have the 



material and men to do it, if the thing is pro- 
perly managed and put in right shape; but 
when you have racing, gambUng, and that sort 
of thing connected with fruits and productions 
of our mother earth, don't ask why it is a fail- 
ure. Let us go to work and make up a fair next 
fall which will not only be a benefit and honor 
to our Society, but also to the grand old garden 
county of the Keystone State. 

To make good a few words I said in the 
beginning in regard to the Grange movement, 
I will but briefly call your attention to it. I 
Iviiow that there are some persons within the 
sound of my voice who belong to it, (and 
whether they are better off or whether it is a 
direct benefit to them, I will not dispute, for 
they know that part best themselves), but at 
the same time, when I give my views on this 
matter I hope I may not hurt the feelings of 
any one. In the first place, it is a secret 
organization. This is the main point of oppo- 
sition I hold against it. I stand before you as 
one of the bitterest o]iponents of all secret 
societies, in any form or manner, whether you 
call yourself a Mason, a Knight, a Mechanic, 
or a Granger. The question of Grangery has 
been fully and ably discussed in our meet- 
ings of late, and I always have been quiet 
until to-day. I think a few words may not 
be out of place. One of my best friends in the 
society made the remark to me, that the 
Grange movement would gobble up this whole 
concern— referring to the Agricultural and . 
Horticultural Society of Lancaster county. 
This has aroused my feehng to such an extent 
that I tlioiight it not out of place to call your 
attention to the matter, so that if this should 
be the case, that we be not taken by surprise 
and belong to the Grangers before we are 
aware of what is going on. So far as their 
principles of improving agriculture, so- 
cial and moral advancement, I go with 
them ; but when it comes so far that they 
want to control railroads, markets, and many 
other things, by secretly plotting such plans 
for their own interest, I am opposed to them. 
They hold out to the world very fine induce- 
ments and show many advantages, but is it 
sound moral principle for any class of citizens 
to combine secretly and make a promise that 
they will not sell their grain until they can 
get so much for it ? Is it policy for any class 
of men to hold back anything when the coun- 
try needs it ? For instance, in the "Western 
States, where the Grangers are a powerful 
combination, they say we won't sell any pro- 
ductions until such and such a price is paid. 
"H'here is the poor man, outside of the Grange, 
going to obtain the necessary supplies for his 
family ? Is this doing as we like to be done 
by ? Or is it loving thy neighbor as thyself? 
I say no. In the VVest the cry was against 
railroads ; they say railroad monopolies must 
be crushed out, and they did most eflectually 
crush them out— so effectually that European 
and other capitalists said, "no more money 
for railroads." "\Vhat was the result? The 
panic came, and from its effects the w'hole 
country is yet sick, and there is no telling J 
when and where it will end. "No more rail- 1 
roads" was followed by a general confusion in 
all the iron manufactories. They stojiped 
operations. No more railroads was followed 
by " no more iron to luiild them," and now 
we have to-day hundreds, yes, thousands of 
men out of employment — without money or 
food. These men have broken down railroad 
monopolies, and built up Grange monoiiolies, 
in which the farmers want to make all the 
money themselves ; and I say as soon as 
one class of men want to control everything, j 
and go hand-in-hand secretly to accomplish j 
their own selfish ends, they are injuring them- 
selves and the wliole eountiy. In the East, 
and here in I^ancaster county, T can't see any 
use in them whatever. It is a new fangled 
notion, and men go into them rough and 
tumble, and derive very little benefit from 
them. I say, let a farmer be a farmer ; a rail- 
road man a railroad man ; a merchant a mer- 
chant, and everybody attend to his o^^^l 
business. Then we shall be better off than 
with all this clubbing together. I do hope 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



that the day may not he far distant wiu-ii 
everyliody will U' his own master ; be man 
enoi!i;h to control his own alt'airs and have a 
mimi to iudi,'e for himself, witho\it beloiiKin^' 
to everv seeret order, asking and iilottinf; for 
information to make K'ains without |)rinei|ile 
or regard for honesty; and I say that the 
worltl would lie belter oft to-tlay if they eould 
do awav with all the seeret societies ever 
organized, and let each man follow his own 
business, and not try to cripple one monopoly 
and hnild uii auolher that is really worse than 
the one wiped out. If the farmer eould eou- 
trol the whole affairs of this nation, both State 
and church, bv belonging to the Grangers, I 
would say, (iod forbid. As to my own ease, 
I am opp"oscd to all .secret organizations, and 
will never change my principles on this point 
for gain, prolit or ollice. 1 will journey on in 
this policy without fear or favor. I am born 
free and independent, and, thanks be to (iod, 
I have made up my mind to die free and 
independent in all things. AVitli these few 
remarks, I will close my first aniuial address, 
and wish you, one and "all, much success, and 
may we a'll try to be friendly toward each 
other in all things. May this society prosper 
and improve. 

I), li. Hesli took exception to that part of the 
address which relleeted on the (Jrange move- 
ment, for he was disposed to favor the order. 
He entirely dissented from the speaker so far 
as he reflected uiion the Patrons of Husbandry. 

Levi S. Reist was not a member of any se(^ret 
society, but he unilerstood that the Grange ad- 
mits I'emales to its mend)ership. This latter 
feature received his favor. 

M. U. Eshleman took exception to that part 
of the President's address wliich implied that 
no man could be " free and independent" if he 
lielonged to a secret order. The speaker 
thought that the Chairman's admission, that 
lie was "bound by certain principles" pre- 
vented him, also, from bein^ "free and inde- 
pendent." The best class of i)eople belong to 
the Grangers, and he therefore could not think 
there was any harm in the movement. 

Alex. Harris sustained the views of the Pres- 
ident throughout, and regarded his address as 
one of the most excellent that had been deliv- 
ered before the Society. 

John B. Erb expres.sed himself as "pleased 
up to the handle" with the address. He did 
not think the President had said anything 
that could be construed as offensive to the 
memlK'is of the Grange. 

Dr. Hiestand believed a man could be as 
" free and independent " while belonging to a 
secret order as out of them. 

M. I). Kendig was very much pleased with 
the suggestions of the President in hisaddress, 
and believed that if the sentiments were adopt- 
ed the Society woiiKl be a comiilete success. 

Judge Livingston thought the address was 
an excellent one, and that much good could 
be accomiilished by fanners providing good 
reading matter for the home circle. Enjoy- 
ment is just as nec'cssary for farmers' sons, in 
the home circle, as among other classes of peo- 
l>le, and too much attention could not be given 
to it. He knew nothing of the (irange move- 
ment, but if it be what is claimed for it, why 
not let us know "// about it— why not let it be 
free and opcnV He thought it perfectly proper 
that the people should be allowed to iiuiuire 
into the Grange movement, and they should be 
permitted to do .so without giving offense. 

I'eter S. Reist believed that many secret 
societies were good in their way, but he did not 
think this could be said of all of them. He did 
not wish to be understood as ojiposed to the 
Grange movement; but suppose iru-iihjdy 
should Join it — would it be a sccrel order ? 

Dr. P. W. Hiestand was not very favorable 
to (iraiige organizati(ms. 

On motion, a vote of thanks was tendered 
Mr. Miller for his verv excellent address. 

The Treasurer, P. AV. Hiestand, .submitted 
his annual report, showing a balance in hand 
of 884.u:{. The auditors, Messrs. Peter .S. 
Reist, >L D. Kendig and D. (i. Swartz, re- 
ported that they found everything correct. 

On motion, "the Piesident, Secretary and 



Treasurer were appointed a committee to con- 
fer with the County Coniniis.sioners with rela- 
tion to a room to hoUI the meetings of the 
.Society ill during the eiisning year. 

The Sociity went into election of oflicers, re- 
sulting as follows: 

For President, Johnson Miller, Warwick. 

Vice Presidents, Hon. J. H. Livingston, H. 
M. Kngle, Levi S. Reist, Peter S. Reist. 

Corresponding Secretary, Milton B. Eshle- 
man. 

Hccoiding Secretary, Alex. Harris, esq. 

'J'reasurcr, Dr. P. W. Hiestand. 

Librarian, S. P. Eby, esij. 

The remaining oflicers, elected a year ago, 
hold over. 

Diller Rare, esq., presented to the Society, 
through Hon. J. B. Livingston, a number of 
very large ]5artlett pears. 

Adjourned. 



PROF. RILEY ON THE BIRDS. 

At a late meeting of the Alton Horticul- 
tural Society, attended, by Prof. C. V. Riley, 
State Entomologist of Mis.souri, after some 
talk about the cedar bird, " which was jiro- 
iiounced to be an nnmiligated .scamp," Prof. 
Riley was called upon to give his views as to 
what birds were the farmers' friends. AVe 
take a sketch of his response from the St. 
Louis ])i)n(H-ra(: 

Mv. Riley was not sentimentally Vilind to the 
faults of .some birds, and, perhaps, the blue 
jay, the crow, blackbird, the red-winged black- 
bird, the common roliiii, tlie golden roliin, the 
cedar bird, and the king bird deserve to be 
cla.s.se(l among our enemies, though much might 
be said in favor of these wholesale denuncia- 
tions. But he could not allow such wholesale 
denunciation of our little feathered friends 
without a word in their defense. 

The ehiiieh bug is certainly a first-class in- 
jurious insect, and yet there is abundant and 
cnmiilativc testimony tliat the blithe little 
quail devours immense nunibersof them, espe- 
cially when hard pushed in winter. Let those 
who are skeptical examine the craw^ of this 
bird. He had rea.son to believe that the jirai- 
rie chicken would alsoeat these nauseous bugs. 
The euiculio is a hard customer, and we must 
not expect much aid from the birds in dimin- 
ishing its numbers; for the cnnniiig litlh^ 
hunchback, in the beetle state, knows well 
how tc hide, simulate dead objects, and de- 
ceive even the shai]) eyes of a bird : and in 
the soft grub state takes good care to leave the 
fruit, for transformation, eitlier in the night 
or from the underside of the fruit as it lies on 
the ground. Ihit even here there is good evi- 
dence, from such men as S. W. Robson and 
Dr. Trimble, that the Baltimore oriole will 
devour it— the former having seen the bird in 
the act, and the latter having taken the Ix-c- 
tles from the cro]). 

Thecoilling moth is certainly another of our 
worst fruit pests, and he knew positively that 
it was devoured by several birds, and men- 
tioned the black-capiicd tit-mouse and the 
downv woodpecker. So tli<iroiighly do birds 
gilt its cocoons in our orchards that the pest 
would hi' well kept down by them were it not 
for our carelessness in harboring it in our 
storeliou.ses, where tlu^y cannot reach it. 

The yellovr-markcd cuckoo devoured the 
larvae (if the white-billed Tus.sock moth— a 
serious orchard pest ; and even so bad a bird 
as the king bird had been seen devouring the 
rosebug and the dilferent cabbage worms. 
The tent-caterpillar is partially pri^yed ujion 
by the Baltimore oriole, and greedily devoure<l 
by the American cuckoo and the Jay. The 
eanker-worin is also devouri'd by a number of 
the different birds, anil among I hem the blue- 
bird. Thus some of our very worst in.sict 
enemies are preyed iilion by birds ; and who 
can estimate how many hundreds of in.sects 
there arc which, though not now da.vsed as 
injurious, would soon lieeome so were it not 
for the birds. Not one in a thousand of the 
worms that hatch on <mr vegetation ever live 
to go tnrough all their chaiifres, and he had 
never been more forcibly reminded of the im- 



jiortant part birds play in their destruction 
than the present year in rearing silk-worms. 
He hatched thousands of these out-of-doors on 
an Osage orange hedgi- (his Sjiiing, and though 
such as were protected with netting from 
liirds and other enemies were remarkably 
healthy, and in due time spun their cocoons, 
not one of those feeding without such protec- 
tion lived to si>in— all devoured by hinls. 

He admitted that birds sometimes devoured 
our friends, the parasitic insects ; but so does 
man destroy tliein also, in a|i|ilying his artifi- 
cial icmedies against the noxious ones. Ho 
asserted, however, that, as a rule, predaceous 
or canibal insects— tliose which are our liest 
friends — such as ground-beetles and lady- 
birds—are shielded from the attacks of birds 
by some |)ecnliar attribute, such as |iungent 
ollor, etc., which renders them unpalatable; 
and t|ial most parasites were able to defend 
tliein.selves by their own stings and other 
weapons of oliense and defense. Thus a hun- 
dri'd vegetable-feeders were <levoured to one 
canibal or jiarasite ; and, all things considered, 
birds are very essential and important friends 
of man. He spoke of them as tiod's ap- 
pointed guards and jirotectorsof the vegetable 
kingdom, carrying and disjiersing its seeds, 
and ever present to clear it of insects that 
gnaw and destroy. He gave it as his convic- 
tion that if a dozen or our most common birds 
could be swept from existence, we should no 
longer be able to grow our princi])al crops, 
and insects would riot and multiply until they 
become unendurable. 



LETTER FROM A FARMER'S WIFE. 

Elizaukthtowx, Jan. 12, 1875. 

BJitnr nf The Fiirnier : ILiving a few min- 
utes to siiiire this evening I thought I would 
write a few lines to you. 

No doubt y(Ui will be surprised to receive a 
communication from one who is a total stran- 
ger to you, hut I hope we will be Ijetter ac- 
quainted by and by. I intend to drop you a 
liractical note now and then, if I can be in any 
way useful to Tii k Faismkk ; but you will have 
to be indulgent with me. for I know veiy little 
about writing, and nothing at all about gram- 
mar : so if there is any mistake, the laugh 
will be at mv expen.se. 

I read The Laxc'Asteu Faumer with 
much interest. My husband wanted to stop 
it. but I said "no, not yet. I want to see what 
it will be like this year, for I think it is im- 
proving." "All right,'' said he, and I am 
more pleased with tlie last numU'r than ever. 

I have always delighted in Agricultural 
publications, and I shall occasionally give 
you some hints in housekeeping that may ben- 
efit young married (leople, as I had an experi- 
ence of more than twenty years in that line in 
both city and country life, but I have always 
had a preference for the country. 

Hoping I have not tre.siia.s.sed upon your 
time and attention, I close with my best 
wi.shes f<u- the future success of your Journal, 
and remain Your Friend, 

Leolixe. 

P. S. The following have Iteen practically 
tested, and therefore are worth knowing: 

now TO DKIVK weevils OUT OF A BAIiX. 

Take the fresh .skin of a slieep and hiyig it 
up in the entry about the middle of the bam 
to drv. The odor of it will drive all the wee- 
vils away, ami you will not know what has 
l)ccomc of them. 

TO (t'RE TIIESTIXO OF A CATFISH. 

As soon as you can, take a woolen rag and 
dip it in strong vineg-ar ; wrap it around the 
! wounil two or three times, then hold the 
member in the oven of a stove as hot as you 
can Ix'ar it. from fifteen to thirty minutes, and 
it will draw all the poison out. 

— We commend the whole communication 
of our fair eorresiHindent. The remedies are 
so simple that any one can test them for 
themselves.— Ed. 



iO 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



THE HAY CROP AND HAY TRADE. 

The fluctuating and high price of hay for 
years past indicates how little surplus hay 
"there has been in the old hay-producing sec- 
tions, and the small amount of surplus there 
is in any State, even with full crops, clearly 
shows that a universal short crop would sub- 
ject us to a severe famine in hay, and that 
our only salvation hitherto has been the 
extent of our country, and its varied climate, 
which has infallibly secured us a surplus in 
some sections to forward to others short of a 
supply, as some portions of the country are 
every year, through failure of the crop. Tliis, 
together witli the rapid growth of our cities, 
inci'ease of our commerce, and the develop- 
ment of our mining, man ijftictu ring and lum- 
bering interests, and the growing southern 
trade, occasion an activity and demand 
for hay tliat is certain to increase. But 
a certain portion of the land in any sec- 
tion can be devoted to the production of 
hay, and as the greater portion thus produced 
is required for the stock — even with a good 
crop — hence it follows that this increasing 
demand must be met by like increase in extent 
of hay-pr(^ducing territory ; in other words, 
our meadows must extend further west, where 
there is more land to spare for them, and a 
reserve supply of hay must be held to make 
good deficiency in any State, and to supply 
such cities as were dependent on such State. 
In short, the great West and Canada must 
wheel into line. Their farmers and merchants 
must hold an ever ready surplus to meet the 
demands from any section, as thej- now do 
of grain, and the liay merchant, like the grain 
merchant, must be at every station throughout 
the country. 

There is scarcely a location where a press 
could not be advantageously located. Even 
in Utah, Colorado and other territories, we 
frequently find the price of hay beyond its 
value in eastern markets. Indeed, there is 
such a steady demand for hay west of the 
States, that in no part of the country have our 
patrons proved more successful. Texas, Ai'- 
kansas, Tennessee and Kentucky have a ready 
market at the South for all their surplus, at a 
a much better margin than they can realize on 
any otlier product; while the A\"estern States 
have enough to do to supply the lumber and 
lake trade, and contribute tlieir share to the 
mining regions of Pennsylvania, and eastern 
markets. Georgia, North Carolina and South 
Carolina have more tlian enough to do to take 
care of themselves, but we are pleasi d to add 
that they draw much less from abroad than 
formerly, and are steadily increasing their 
amount of grass land. Virginia, West Vir- 
ginia and Maryland must also enlarge their 
meadows, as the jSIiddle States and Canada 
have apparently enough to do to take care of 
themselves and contribute the deficiency in 
the Eastern States. We might add, that the 
price hay commands in the mining and lumber 
countrj' on tlie Pacific coast, makes its move- 
ment golden when put up with suitable presses 
for ecouonncal transportation, instead of be- 
ing bundled with the rmlely constructed ma- 
chines built liy Californians from recollections 
of the old fasiiioned pivsses used in the East- 
tern States (luring their lioyhood days. 

Why should hay sell for doul)le, even triple, 
the price in some part of almost every western 
State-thal it will command in any other section 
of tlie same State and no more distant from 
market ? Why should our southern cities 
want hay at such enormous prices, when sueli 
States as Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky and 
Tenne.ssee have more than a supply V It is 
simply the want of facilities and inclination to 
forward it — in other words, want of presses 
and energy to take advantage of a market 
which, altliough permanent and growing, is 
foolishly supposed to be temporary. If corn 
or wheat should advance live dollars per ton 
above the level in any market in the country, 
thousands of merchants would detect it in an 
instant, even if a thousand miles distant, and 
profit by it. Yet here we liave a difference of 
sometimes twenty dollars in priceof hay but a 



few hundred miles, or less, apart, and no one 
seems to be aware of it. Tliese are not excep- 
tional instances, nor exceptional times, but a 
repetition of what has lieen for years past, and 
will be for years to come, unless merchants 
and farmers can be brought to understand 
that hay has a casli value," and can be trans- 
ported as easily and cheaply as grain, and 
tauglit to market their crop, instead of allow- 
ing hay to be forwarded to their neighVwrs 
from remote sections and past their very doors, 
and that a few hundred dollars invested in 
machinery for handling liay will earn them 
more money than tlieir §50,000 elevators for 
handling grain, and with less capital and risk. 
Tliere are thousands of tons of surplus hay, 
annually, in every State in the West that 
would find a ready market, far or near, and 
at a good round profit, but that will never bo 
moved in consequence of want of interest and 
information. Even in the Middle States and 
Canada, there are sections where there are no 
presses nor forwarders, and the surplus hay is 
lost to the market, unless some enterprising 
hay mercliant may happen through and pick 
it up. Much of this indillerence to so impor- 
tant a trade is due to want of hiformation, as 
the price of hay is not usually quoted with 
other produce, except in large cities. The 
merchant may be posted on New York, 
Boston or Chicago markets, yet he has no 
prompt means of knowing when hay will 
bring him a larger margin at Washington and 
Baltimore, at Indianapolis, Toledo or St. 
Louis ; nor of keeping posted on the price of 
hay in the hundreds of markets in the mining 
districts of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and along 
the lakes and the various Southern markets. 
In conse(inence of this lack of information, 
there not only seems to be an indifference to 
the importance of tlie business, but verymuch 
hay is forwarded to dull markets, when it 
would have commanded larger prices, and, 
may be, at a much nearer market. 



A KIND WORD FOR FARMERS. 

Farmers are charged with being proverbial 
croakers. It is alleged by those wiiO are un- 
acquainted with the onerous duties and numer- 
ous cares attendant upon their pursuit, that 
the farmer is never satisfied with his surround- 
ings. The weather is frequently adverted to in 
a complaining manner. It is either too. hot 
and dry or too cold and wet. Tlie spring is 
so backward as to retard the rapid growth of 
vegetation, or the early warmth accelerates 
the budding of fruit trees, to be injured, per- 
haps, by unseasonable frost a;id culil. An ex- 
cess of rain is a cause of dissatisfaction, be- 
cause it tends to produce rot among the pota- 
toes, and loss and inconvenience is complained 
of owing to repeated rainfalls during the period 
of gathering hay and iiarvesting crops. On the 
other hand, a protracted spell of dry weather 
causes springs to cease their supply, and con- 
vert tlie verdant jiasturage into parched and 
arid fiidds. Thus he is supposed to be in a 
state of clironic discontent, and to have a per- 
petual grumble upon his lips. 

Of all men it is generally believed that the 
farmer should be tlie most contented and uu- 
coraplainiiig. Do not his crops grow while he 
sleeps, and is not liis grain golden, figuratively 
speaking, at least V i)oes not each blade of 
grass glisten in the morning sun with the bril- 
liancy of the diamond, even if its dewy bur- 
then be the only cause of such radiance '? And 
then the luxuriance of that most magnificent 
of all the products of the soil — Indian corn — 
how glorious to look upon when tossing its 
broad blades in apparent exultation, as if re- 
joicing in the pride of its rapid growth ! 

Who that possesses the slightest degree of 
poetic sensibilitv can behold the lovely scene 
which the well tilled fields of the thrifty far- 
mer presents to the view, wilhout.a thrill of 
pleasure and feeling of admiration V Tliecity 
visitor at a country home is apt to regard the 
farmer as one who is surrounded with every 
comfort, and all the enjoyments of lite. The 
after dinner siesta having been indulged in, 



how delightful, while comfortably seated upon 
the ample and well shaded piazza, to gaze upon 
the beauties of nature, and to witness the ope- 
rations of the farmer when performed in view 
of the guest, who is the recipient of generous 
and painstaking Iios|)itality. 

Now all this is very fine and affords a fruit- 
ful theme for comment and word-painting. 
As a friend once remarked, the operations of 
the busy hay-makers presents a pleasing pic- 
ture to the eye, especially when contemplated 
from beneath the wide-spreading branches of 
an umbrageous tree. But the toil, care and 
anxiety attending the fanner's eftbrt to pro- 
vide a livelihood for his family are seldom con- 
sidered by those who are inexiierienced in his 
calling, and unacquainted with the laborious 
duties required in its prosecution. 

The farmer is not a croaker, nor is the allega- 
tion correct that he refers to liis pursuit in con- 
versation to a greater extent than is noticable 
in those who are engaged in other vocations. 
Dependant largely upon atmospheric changes 
for his prosperity, it is perfectly natural that 
the state of the weather should occupy a large 
.share of his attention, and form a subject of 
frequent remark. In view of the liability of 
loss and inconvenience in unpropitious skies, 
he naturally scans the heavens with an inter- 
est scarcely surpassed by the mariner upon the 
ocean. 

We place great confidence in mother earth, 
and believe that she will ever yield a bounte- 
ous reward to the skillfully applied lalior of 
the husbandman. The imrest and most tran- 
quil enjoyments of life frequently attended the 
efforts of the judicious and enterprising far- 
mer, to provide a comfortable maintenance 
for his family. But it must be confessed, 
with all his boasted independence, he is sub- 
jected to the caprices of the weather to a more 
injurious extent than those who are engaged 
in many other pursuits. The prolonged ab- 
sence of rain is a serious disadvantage, and it 
is not surprising that the fact of it is frequently 
alluded to iu conversation. 



AGRICULTURAL MISCELLANY. 

REPORT OF THE COMJIISSIOSER OF AGRI- 
CULTURE. 

The Hon. Frederick Watts, Commissioner 
of Agriculture, iu his annual report says, 
there is no incident which so cripples the , 
operations of this deiiartmeiit as the want I 
of the punctual publication of its annual report. ' 
For the last two years it has not been pub- 
lished. While Congress, at the last session, 
apparently made the effort to order the [lulili- 
cation of the annual reports of 1872 and 1S73, 
for the use of Congress, it failed, in the opinion J 
of the Public Pnnter, to obtain its object. \ 
While the Coiuniissioner does not concur in 
this opinion, it is due to him to say that to 
print them involved a doubtful construction 
of the law, a responsibility which he was nn- 
willing to take, and therefore the reports for 
the use of the members of Congress have not 
been iH-inted. But by the separate provision 
of the act there was an appropriation specially 
for the printing of Ihe reports of 1872 and 
1873. These have been printed and delivered 
to the department for distriliutiou. 

The Commissioner says he cannot be un- 
mindful of the approaching centennial of the 
independence of the United States. No such 
an opportunity has ever occurred for such an 
exhibition of the progress this ountry has 
made in its agriculture, horticulture, manu- 
factures, commerce, arts and sciences, its 
ad;iptation for war and the benefits of peace, 
whereby the people of other countries may be 
impressed with tlie caiiabilities of this nation, 
and our own made to feel proud that we have 
achieved so much. Jle recommends that the 
Government erect a building for it.self, to be 
exclusively occupied by the several depart- 
ments, a Board having been designated by the 
President to suggest what part each may take 
in the Exposition. 

By action of Congress about four acres of 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



a 



ground, I'onuerlv ootupicil by the c;iii;il, liavi- 
iK'in added 1<> Hic dciiai-tiiicnt Knmiids, ami 
are now uiidernoiiiK iireparatioii to loriu a 
part of tin- aboretuiii. Tlie colkctiou ot ex- 
otic, utili/able and eeoiioiine plants is •;iadii- 
ally inereasinjj l»>lli in niunber and vaUie. 
The orange lainilv is partieularly valuahle, 
and the best conmiereial varieties are iiropa- 
gated and distributed to the greatest prac- 

tieable extent. . , . i, ' , • ^ p 

There has been no period ni the history ol 
this eonnlry when larniers'erops have been so 
extensively "depredated upon as in the past 
year, and this has bmnght into active exercise 
tlie knowledge and industry ot the entcmiologi- 
cal divisions of the department. There is 
an increasing demand lor inlbnnation with 
regard to insects injurious to vegetion. and 
much pains have been taken to investigate 
the character ot insects sent here to point 
out their modes of intiicting injury, and 
the means by which their depredations may 
be averted, and for those who seek to prose- 
cute the study or acquire the knowledge 
of these insects, specimens of their injuries and 
nest-arehiteeture have lieen arraiigi'd and ex- 
hibited in a rocni providtil for the purpose. 

During the past year the work of tlie botan- 
ical division has been steadily prosecuted and 
many contrilmlions added, it is bi'lieycd 
that much valuable information of a (iractical 
character is both received and cunununieated. 
Many gratifying letters of acknowledginent 
show high appreciation of the work of distribu- 
tion. , , , 

The Commissioner shows the valuable ser- 
vices rendered l)y the several divisions of his 
department, and says : " In purchase of seeds 
the department has patronized oidy seed- 
growers and seed firms proven reliable by ex- 
perience, whose guarantee of good (juality and 
genuineness cannot be questioned, and by re- 
ceiving them from llrst hands has been able to 
prociue them at much lower rates, and, con- 
se(iuentlv, in greater quantities, and is thus 
enabled "to give more lilierally to the many 
applicants who dailv apply for seeds from all 
parts of the country, and to extend the benelits 
of distribution. One million, two hundred 
and eiirhtv-six thousand packages of .seed.s 
were distribhtcd during the last liscal year." 



PROPER MODE OF FEEDING HORSES. 



Let me say a word or two in reference to 
feeding the hor.se, as bearing upon the con- 
dition of the foot. Every owner of a horse 
must have obseived that the growth and 
strength and appearance of the horse's fool is 
inaleiially alfectcd by the condition of the 
horse hiniself. A half-starved horse may have 
a foot injured liy deficient nutrition ; an over- 
fed horse may "have a foot heated into an 
inllanimation ; and so dependent is the foot 
upon a healthy .state of the animal economy, 
that for the 'foot alone, if nothing else, the 
diet of the hor.se should be reguhiled with the 
utmost regard to his health. 

I am confident that we give our horses too 
much grain and too little hay — especially 
horses under seven years of age, who will 
work with more endurance and courage on a 
good supply of grain- of the latter say six 
quarts of oats and a pint of corn daily. Older 
hor.ses re(|uire and will bear more grain — but 
even they want more hay than is usually given. 
Every horse should pass a few weeks of each 
year without grain- either the first half or the 
last half of the winter, whichever is the mo.st 
convenient. And this mode of feeding can 
he adopted without suspending the animal's 
work. 

I have one horse, fourteen years old, which 
has had this regimen for fiuir months every 
year of his life (and I bred himl, and he is as 
■smooth, vigorous and healthy as a colt — has a 
sound, smooth foot, was never lame and has 
always been in good order. He is a good 
specimen of what box stalls, brick Hoor, tar 
ointment, turniiisand hay will do for horses 
towards preserving their iiealth, strength and 
soundness, and promoting longevity. — Muni'. 

rioiKjhman. 



AGIUfULTUUE AND SPANISH CIVILIZATION. 

At one time in the world's history Spain 
was the great power. Eivius and Slrabo 
relate of Spain's fertility and of her abundant 
harvests. I'ndcr the reign of Abd Errahman 
111., Mohammedan, Spain snstaine<l a popu- 
lation of ;5(l,(IOO,ltt)0. Tarragona, the second 
city of the empire under th(^ Uomans, had 
1,(10(1,00(1 inhabitants; under Abd Errahman 
111. it contained :!.")0,000; now it contains but 
I."),0()0. The fanatical Thilip II., and his suc- 
cessor of the same name, struck the dealli 
blow to agriculture by enacting inicpiitous 
laws. By these measures 1^(10,000 Moors, men 
and women, old men and children, were eoin- 
(lelled to leave the land of their birth, their 
blooming fields, and the houses their own hands 
had built. The nourishing plains of the south 
soon became a desert, agriculture decayed, and 
then trade stagnated. As a result prosperous 
villages were reduced to ruin, towns once 
animated by commerce became depopulated, 
lioverty an<l sloth seized tlu^ once rich and 
happy countiy, the departed siileiidor of 
which is still attested by magniliccnt ruins. 
Thus does history show'thal where agricul- 
ture holds the first plact^ in a peojile's affairs, 
there wealth and progress advance; that 
wherever agriculture is abandoned, there 
national deciiy begins. The same grand trulli 
runs through" all nations, that agriculture is 
the source of wealth, the fountain bead of 
civilization. As ancient nations grew rich, 
and then i)ermitted agriculture to decline, So 
they became demoralized, idle, vicious, and 
poor; relapsing into barbarism, or vanishing 
entirely from the face of the earth.— P/(ii)ii<- 
loijical Journal. ( 
^ 

POTATO DIET. 

Not long ago I remarked in the course of 
conversation with a lady that my children ate 
a good deal of bread aiid milk. ''My Willie 
seldom eats it," she said. "He seems to 
need something more nourishing— cats a good 
deal of potato." Here our conversathm was 
interrupted. If Willie eats milk, or e^gs, or 
lean meat with his potato, very well. JJut if 
he is kept upon potato and butter, and fat 
gravy, with white bread and butter, and cake 
and jiastry at meals when potato is absent, he 
is very poorly nourished in my opinion. He 
may look fat, as children always do when 
food is mainly of the fattening or heat-iiro- 
ducing kind ; but he will be likely to la<-k in 
bone and muscle. Potatoes also cannot suji- 
ply the system with enough of the mineral 
elements reiiuired for a healthy growth. So 
says ])r. Edward Smith, the author of an ex- 
ce'llent book on "Foods." This book agrees 
in the main with one fo which I have before 
referred, "I'hilosophy of l-'.ating," though 
less giveii to theorising and more to the simple 
description of various kinds of food. In the 
Philosophv of Eating we are taught that 
])olatoes are finely adapted to be eaten with 
lean meat— the starchy potatoes fiirnisbing 
the fiitteiiing and heating elements which lean 
meat lacks, while the lean meat supiilies the 
bone and muscle-making eleineiifs not alford. d 
by potato or tine Hour bread. Fat meat alVonls 
h"eating and fattening elements, like potato, 
but in a form less easily digested by most 
jiersons. 



fresh lime. This was sjiread evenly in layers 
between layers of muck a foot thiik. In 
twenty-four hours the lieajis were smoking hot. 
lie threw more iiuuk over the top and beat 
the siirtace closely with the shovel to exclude 
the air. and in a few days the heat went down. 
AVheii In- came to draw the muck, it had be- 
come a black, rich mass, that exhaled a very 
pimgent order, nmcli like barnyard manure; 
and although it was late in October when it 
was spread upon the grass, the color of the 
field became at once a deeper green, and a 
rapid growth started. Wood ashes (half a 
bushel or mine to a loail of muck) will pro- 
duce eijually good results, but more time is re- 
quired for decomposition. — liitral Carolinian. 



SOAKING SEEDS.— OSAGE ORANGE. 

Among the most radical reforms in growing 
plants is that pertaining to soaking seeds. 
Time was when but a few kinils were thus 
treated, and such only as were furnished with 
hard shells or woody coverings: but now many 
of our most successful gardeners believe in the 
practice of soaking almost everything before 
planting. The siiace of time necessary fortius 
operation is governed by -a knowledge of the 
germinating i)ower inherent in each; some 
species rei|uire only a lew hours, while others 
should remain in the water for several days. 
Experienced Osage orange growei-s now ad- 
vise for it immersion for a month at li-ast. and 
some even place the bag of seeds in a spring 
of water in the autumn, and allow it to re- 
main there until the ensuing siiring. Those 
of my readers who are in iHissessionof a fruit- 
bearing tree may prolit perhaps by my expe- 
rience. Last autumn I etdlected in a heap all 
of the oranges from my old specimen, and let 
them remain exposed to the weather until a 
few days ago, when I washed out the decayed 
mass witlunit any ditlicnlty, and obtained aliont 
a peck of nice seeds ; the latter were thrown 
into a bag, wet as they were, and much to my 
sunnise ihey at once began si>routing. This 
is merely an exemplilication of the desire for 
moisture Viv the Osage orange, as in this case 
the seeds were kept peii)elually damp. 



now TO TREAT SWAMP Mt'C'K FOR MANUKE. 

Wlietber it will pay to apply swamp muck 
to land depends upon several circumstancis, 
such as the richness of the deposit in the ele- 
ments of fertility, in which there are great dif- 
ferences ; the character of the soil to which it 
is to be aiiplied ; Ihe cost of digging; the dis- 
tance to 1 e hauled, and the consecpient ex- 
pense of hauling." A little cyphering and a 
few exiieriments will enable the farmer to set- 
tle the question of prolit or loss. When used, 
it shovdd alwavs be treated with lime or a.shes 
to correct itsacidily. A Pennsylvania farmer 
tells, in the IVihune. how he comiiosts it, and 
his way is a good one. As the muck was dug, 
he mixed with every five loads one barrel of 



A nrUD'S EYE-VIEW OF AGRICULTURE. 

When we consider that less than one-third 
of the area of the United States, and less than 
a fifth of the entire domain of the United 
States, is mapped into farms, and remember 
that of this farm aria only one-fourth is tilk'd 
or mowed ; and when we further rellect that 
the average yield fn'r acre could be doubled 
if the maiiy could be brought up to the plane 
of the fewin the practice of intensive culture 
^then We begin to realize what nund)ers our 
country is capabh^ of feeding, and what waste 
of toil and ellort comes from the neglect of the 
economic lessons taught by the statistics of 
scientific agriculture. We "now know that our 
wheat occupies an area less than the surface 
of South Carolina, and if the yield should 
eipial that of England, half of "that acreage 
should easily sutlice. We know of our national 
crop, maize, which grows from Oregon to 
Floiida, anil veaily waves oyer a broader field 
than all the cereals beside, that it might pro- 
duce its amplest stores within fht) boundaries 
of Virginia. The potato crop cmdd grow in 
Delaware, though yielcling less than a hundred 
bushels per acre; thc> barley for brewing needs 
Uss than a half dozen counties, and tobacco, 
suftieient to glut our own and European mar- 
kets, grows on au area twenty miles square. 



An important step has been gained in the 
natural history of the potato blight. It is 
stated that Prof. De I'.ary. of Strashnrg, ha.s 
detected the existence of " helcnecism." or an 
"alternation of generations," in the life 
history of the rcirmnKjyirn infotnn.i. the para- 
sitic fimgus which causes the disease. It is 
conjectured that the second form may possibly 
be found on clover. 



12 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



COVERING MANURE FROM THE WEATHER. 

We have always advocated having a cover 
over tlie manure heap, and have contended 
that manure so covered is worth a great deal 
more than manure spread out in the barnyard 
in the usual way. A correspondent of one 
of our papers takes exception to this. He as- 
serts that uncovered is just as good as covered 
manure, provided the rains are kept from 
reaching it. He says that a heap of uncov- 
ered manure will be just as good as a heap of 
covered, if there has been no rain on it ; and 
in this way he writes what we suppose is in- 
tended to be an argument against covering 
manure. We might also state that in this 
sense we could urge there was no use in cover- 
ing manure. But as we cannot keep the rain 
off without some covering, it is hard to see 
what the argument amounts to. If the corre- 
spondent in question would show how to keep 
the rain from washing away all the best of the 
manure without covering, we could better un- 
derstand the point he makes. Until this is 
done, we shall still advocate covering manure. 



It is certain that the land plowed in the 
autumn will, all other things being equal, 
yield better than that broken in spring. This 
is partly because thorough teration of its soil 
is essential to its fertility, partly because the 
frost has freer action to break up the minute 
minerals and hasten their disintegration and 
the consequent liberation of mineral elements 
of fertility, and partly because in the loosened 
earth the surplus water drains quicker away, 
and the warmth of the sun penetrates sooner 
and deeper. But many fall-plowed fields are 
so situated that surface water collects in hol- 
lows, and these nullify all tlie rest ; carefully 
drawn open furrows for such places should be 
the subject of the first work in spring. In 
newly plowing land run the furrows in such a 
direction as to facilitate drainage, and run the 
shovel as deep (and no deeper) as it can go 
without turning up the cold, unfertilized and 
lumpy subsoil. It will pay. 



dry cellar that does not freeze, if some care be 
taken. They do not need much water, but 
must be as cool as possible, without freezing. 
If care be taken to give them air in fine weatlier, 
and a little water at long intervals, just enough 
so that the earth does uot become really dry, 
there will be but little trouble in wintering 
them nicely. 

Many plants, after being wintered all right, 
are killed by putting them out of doors too 
early in the spring. We have known large 
oleanders to be killed dead in the spring from 
exposure to frost a single night when the ther- 
mometer marked twenty-four degrees. The 
same plants had withstood a lower tempera- 
ture in the cellar during the winter. When 
taken from the cellar they should be carefully 
guarded from frost in the spring until the 
last of May or first of June, according to lati- 
tude, aud although tender plants will stand a 
considerable degree of cold in the cellar, it is 
better that they be kept from actual frost. — 
Western liural. 



HORTICULTURAL MISCELLANY. 
WINTERING PLANTS IN BOOMS AND CELLARS. 

Those who grow tender plants in summer 
for ornamenting the lawns and flower beds, of 
course like to keep them over the winter, and 
yet, in fully nine cases out of ten, Imt little 
success is had with those wintered in rooms, 
and perhaps fully as little with those winteied 
in the cellar. 

Those that are to be kept on the flower- 
stands in rooms .should not have miich heat 
upon first being taken in. They should be kept 
in the coolest partof the room, but should have 
plenty of light until well established, or until 
they begin to make new growth. If one have 
a bow window that may be closed tight, this 
answers a good purpose, since the sun may be 
admitted above and the plants may be kept 
shaded below. If you have hot-bed ashes aud 
a frame, a little bottom heat, say ten inches 
of manure covered with enough sand in which 
to plunge the pots, and keeping the sash pretty 
close and shaded until the roots of the plants 
begin to draw and send moisture tf) the to]is, 
will answer a very good purpose. Keep them 
covered warmly at night, aud, as they begin 
to grow, give air and water, and at the end of 
a month they may be taken into the room and 
with little care they will give much satisfaction. 

Do not give too much water to window plants 
or those kept on a stand in the room. The soil 
should be kept moist, of course, but frequent 
and light syringings will tend to obviate the 
excessive dryness of living rooms. This is the 
great difficulty with plants wintered in this 
manner, aud toassi.stiu neutralizing this trou- 
ble as much as possible, a vase or basin of 
water should be kept constantly on the stove 
or heater to supply this lack of moisture. 

Geraniums, pleargoniums, tender roses, and 
other tender or half-hardy, woody or half- 
woody perennials may be kept in a light, cool, 



SPRING RADISHES. 



are never so good in quality, because being 
later in coming into use. 

Most people sow thick because they have no 
faith in the seedsman. They think some of 
the seeds are bad, and they want to allow for 
it. But we have not found seedsmen such 
irredeemable fellows as many suppose. It is 
rarely we have seeds to fail. When they do, 
it is generally through deep planting. Radish 
seed particularly likes to be kept near the 
surface. If the seed is sown while the ground 
is still moist from the digging or preparing, it 
may be merely sown on the surface and then 
rolled or beaten in. Then every seed will 
grow, and only those seeds may be sown just 
where a plant is to come up to mature. — Ger- 
mantown Telegraph. 



WINTER CARE OF TREES. 

Where trees are purchased in the fall, many 
of them are lost through want of proper care 
during the winter months, and for this reason 
many wait till spring before buying. If trees, 
especially small ones, are properly cared for 
through the winter, it is better to get them in 
the fall ; or, if they are grown on the place, 
and to be re-planted in the spring, they are 
better to be taken up at the approach of cold 
weather and heeled in. This operation of 
heeUng is simple, easy, and puts the trees in 
the very best condition for keeping through 
*the winter — as, when they are thus treated, 
there is no danger of heaving out by frost, and 
the ends of the roots become well calloused 
and are ready to begin a fresh growth at once, 
when planted in spring. To heel in trees 
projierly, dig a trench, say three feet wide, 
and deep enough to cover the trees, a foot or 
so above the top of the roots. Before the 
trees are placed in the trench, the roots should 
be dipped in what nurserymen call grout, and 
other people call thin mud. This gives each 
root and fibre a coating of fine earth. This 
done, place one row of trees against the back- 
side of the trench, leaning against the edge, 
and as thickly as they can well stand, then 
carefully sprinkle fine earth from the front of 
the trees, among aud around the roots, taking 
pains that no air holes are left— pack the earth 
down firmly— there is no danger of it l)eing 
too solid ; and when this row is finished, the 
trench for the next row is ready. The great 
point is to have the earth filled in closely 
around every root, and well packed down. 
If this is done, the trees will be in better con- 
dition for planting in the spring than if they 
had been allowed to spend the winter where, 
they grow. If we were purchasing trees from 
a distance, we would ranch prefer to get them 
in the fall, and have them well heeled through 
the winter, so that we could have them ready 
at the earliest possible moment in the spring. 
— Cor. liural World. 



The. greatest delights of a garden are found 
among the early spring vegetables, aud among 
them all, the radish is one of the nio.st welcome. 
They are tolerably hardy, and may be found 
among the earliest sown. The great charm of 
a good radish, like a good cigar, is in its 
mildness, and this can^ only be secured by 
growing it in a rich soil. For a spring radish, 
indeecl, the soil can scarcely be too rich. This 
hurries it up. A slow growu radish is sure to 
be hot and stringv. 

The round radishes, or turnip-rooted, are 
best, and the white generally more acceptable 
than the red. The loug-rooted radishes, some- 
times are in eating a little earlier, but to most 
tastes are not so grateful as the other. 

In sowing radishes a too common error is to 
put the seeds in too thick. It is thought that 
they can be weeded if they all grow ; but they 
are seldom thinned out, and when left thick 



PERSIMMONS AS MARKET FRUIT. 

The persimmon, in its unfrosted state, is an 
austere, harsh fruit, which no one, unless just 
learning to whistle, cares to indulge in. When, 
however, it has been exposed in some frost, it 
is generally agreeable to most tastes. A very 
large market could be found for them in the 
cities if they could be got in there witliout 
mashing, but this has been hitherto found 
impossible. A very short distance of travel 
over a railroad, is enough to turn a basketful 
into a shapeless mass. 

Now we think it is well worthy of thought 
by those practical minds that are always on i 
the lookout for something on which to make, ' 
whether something cannot be done to turn the 
persimmon into practical account as a market 
fruit for great cities. Years ago it was thought 
that the strawberry and rasi)berry could not 
be grown to any profit away from large cities, 
because in bulk they mash together so. But 
Yankee genius got over this difiiculty by the 
invention of the berry basket, by which the 
mass of fruit was divided into small lots and 
thus prevented from crushing ononeanotherin 
slatted crates. The' same surely could be done 
with the persimmon. Little shallow baskets 
could be provided in which the persimmon 
would lie only two courses thick. It is not 
necessary to wait till the frost softens the 
fruit before gatherino; them, as then they get 
mushy in handling. But they can be gathered 
before the frost while yet hard and firm, and 
put in the crates, and the crates allowed to 
freeze through. We are much mistaken if 
quite a good trade might not be got up in 
persimmons in this way. — Germantown Tel. 



DISEASE-PROOF POTATOES. 

It will be recollected that the Lord Cathcart 
prize offered in England for the best essay on 
the potato disease and its prevention, was not 
awarded, as none of the ninety odd essays 
presented any new facts or remedies. There- 
upon the Royal Agricultural Society oflered a 
prize of £100 to any one who produced an 
early potato which remained disease-proof 
over a trial of three years. Six different 
varieties were entered for competition, and 
were sent to twenty different districts in 
England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, last 
Spring, for trial. The result was not entirely 
unforeseen or unsuspected. At the monthly 
meeting held the first week in November, it 
was reponed that not one of the six varieties 
tested had resisted the disease. Thus the 
trials of tiiese potatoes are concluded the first 
year, aud a disease-proof potato is yet to be 

found. 

^ 

A HANDY GARDEN ROLLER. 

Take a joint of stove pipe, 6, 7 or 8 inches 
in diameter; set one end upon an inch board, 
aud witli a scratch-awl or pencil mark around 
0)1 the outside ; reverse the pipe and mark the 
other end. Then with a pair of compasses 
find the centre of these two wheels, and strike 
around their circumference, allowing for the 
thickness of the iron. Saw or cut them true 
and round; bore a hole with a bit in their 
centres, to receive a shaft of half-inch round 
iron, about three inches longer than the length 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



13 



of tlic ]n]H\ Now tit in one of these heads, 
anil upset the .slieet iron \i\\n' ovei- it enoujjh 
to hold it lirnily in place. I'ul the shall in, 
and set the whole on end on tlie ki'<"I"<'i ^''^^- 
ini; eare tliat the sliaft Klands true; and lastly 
put in a <iuart or two of dry sand, and tamp 
it hard with a suital)le rammer, repeatin(j the 
Olieration till tlie pipe is full to within one 
inch of the top. Fit in tlie other head with 
the shaft in plaee; upset tla' iron over it as 
l)efore, and you have a roller as servieeahle as 
one of all iron, and at almost no cost. To lit 
it for use, make a liox of inch stulV, lit a liandle 
to it, slopins.;at an an^leof 'iOth'fireesfnun the 
iHittom hoard : jiut a cross head to the end of it, 
and for a -garden or walk roller this cannot he 
beaten. If wanted heavier, it can lie loa<le<l 
with brickbats or earth , and for wheeling 
stones or rubbish olT garden or lawn, or newly 
j)h)weil or spaded <;rounds, it will be pro- 
nounced liy all who try it "tip top." Any 
man or hoy who can use a saw, plane and 
hammer, can make one in a few liours, and 
with decent care it will last as many years. — 
Cor. Oiuntry GentlcDian. 



PEAS THREE THOUSAND YEARS OLD. 

In the course of late explorations in the 
ancient ruins of Kgypt, Gen. Anderson, an 
English traveler, found, inclosed in a sarcopha- 
gus beside a nunniny, a few dry peas, wliieh 
he i>reserved carefully, and on his return to 
Great Britain planted in the rich soil of the 
island of tiuernsey. The seeds gi'rniinated, 
and soon two little jilants appeared, from 
wliieh, at maturity, sufficient peas were 
gathered to plant quite a large tract of ground 
in the following season. Some of the phmts 
thus raised have attained a height of over six 
feet, and have been loaded with blossoms of 
exquisite odor, and of a delicate rose tint. 
The j)eculiar feature of the growth is the stem, 
whicii is so small near the root but increases 
greatly in size ns it ascends, requiring a sup- 
port to sustain it ujiright. The pods, instead 
of being distributed around all portions of the 
stem, as in the ordinary plant, arc grouped 
abovit the upper extremity. The vegetable, it 
is said, lielongs to the ordinary garden variety; 
but from its presenting the very distinctive 
differences above noted, it seems worthy of 
close botanic;il observation. Tlie peas ;ire of 
remarkably tine flavor, excellinir in delicacy 
those of the choicest known varieties. 



ORCHARD AND NURSERY. 

Planting may often be done this month 
where the whether is mild, but on no account 
set the tree in |iarlially frozen .soil ; it is much 
better to heel-in the trees in a dry, sandy spot 
until spring, when they can be set out pro- 
perly. 

Stocks for root grafting should be taken up, 
assorted, and tied in Inmdles of convenient 
size, and stored in boxes of damp sawdust in 
the cellar, where they can be easily reached 
during the winter. 

Scions may be cut at any time when the 
wood is not frozen ; store in sawdust and take 
care that they do not dry oui during the 
winter. 

(;iive seedlings early protection, but not 
until the weather is quite cold ; if applied 
too early, growth sometime occurs. 

Collect and store as large a supply of leaves 
as possible, for covering and bedding. 



CULTIVATION OF ROSES. 

Roses, like other things in the vegetable 
kingdom, are also beautilied and enlarged hy a 
judicious and generous course of treatment. 1 1 
cannot be too often urged in connection with 
their culture, that to succeed is to be success- 
ful. He who raises (Uie perfect si)ecinien of a 
plant is a better cultirator than he who raises 
an acre of indifferent specniens, and whoever 
has made himself a thorough master of the art 
of cultivation of a single specimen or variety 
has acquired a knowledge and skill which 
enable him to succeed with the many. — Chcui. 
H. Milhr. • 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

TO MAKE HENS LAY. 

When eggs bear such a price, and are so 
delicious in the many ways the good cook 
brings them to the table, it is necessary the 
hens .should have a little attention. Give 
them warm drink every morning. Sec that 
they have an abundance of gravel ; old pieces 
of crockery pounded up will answer l<etter 
than nothing. Concoct a iiudding for them 
two or three times a week, not oftener. Tlace 
an old pail out at one si<le, and into thisthrow 
the Tiieat Bcraps that are good for nothing 
else, egg-shells, beans, hominy, bread crusts, 
corn parched very brown, coarse meal, sitt- 
ings, etc., and when the day arrives to servo 
up this dish, take the water in which you 
have parboiled your jiork and beans, or other 
greasy water, stirring into it bran sutficient 
to thicken well, allowing it to cook a few 
minutes, pouring the whole over these saved 
up scrni)s. liet it stand a .short time after it 
is thoroughly stirred, and feed while warm. 
Aside from this give warm drink every morn- 
ing, and you will have plenty of eggs. 



PHILOSOPHY OF COOKERY. 

Mrs. Hale says : Cookery is an art belonging 
to woman's department of knowledge; its 
importance can hardly be over estimated, 
because it acts directly on human health, 
comfort and improvement. One of the lirst 
duties in domestic life is to understand the 
quality of provisions and the preparation of 
wholesome food. The jiowers of the mind as 
well as tlio.se of the body are greatly depend- 
ent on what we eat and drink. The stomach 
nnist be in health, or the brain cannot act 
with its utmost vigor and clearness, nor can 
ttiere be strength of muscle to perform the 
purposes of the will. 

To i)reserve the full nourishment of meats 
and other articles of food, in dressing and 
cooking, is an art which reijuires a large 
amount of scientific knowledge adiled to long 
experience and observation. Without the 
knowledge derived from this two-tbld source a 
great part of food is waste<l and health 
injured. It is an established prineii)lc in 
physiology that man is omiiiverous— that is, 
constituted to eat almost any kind of foo(l 
containing nourishment. He can eat and 
digest them in a raw state ; hut his health is 
promoted by their being cooked, that is, 
softened by the action of fire and water. 



OUR RECEIPT FOR CURING BIEAT. 

To one gallon of water, take li pounds of 
salt, i pound of sugar, i ounce of .saltpetre, i 
ounce of jiotash. In this ratio the [liekle can 
he increased in any (piantily desireil. I^'t 
these be boiled together until all the dirt from 
the sugar rises to the top and is skimmed off. 
Then throw it into a tub to cool, and when 
cold iKiur it over your beef or jiork. The 
meat mu.st be well covered with pickle, and 
should not be jiut down for at least two days 
after killing, during which time it should he 
slightly si)rinkled with powdered saltpetre, 
which removes all the surface blood, &c, leav- 
the meat fresh and clean. Some omit boiling 
the pickle, and 'ind it to answer well, thougli 
the operation of boiling jturities the l)ickle by 
throwing oil' the dirt always to be found in 
salt and sugar. If this receipt is strictly 
followe<l, it will reijuire only a single trial to 
prove its suiieriority over the conunon way or 
most ways of putting down meat. — Ocrinan- 
tinm Tikyraiih. 

^ 

ROAD DUST. 

The .American .^l;/i-iC!(//(iriV« strongly advises 
farmers to make a business of gathering up 
road dust tor use as an ab.sorbent and fertil- 
izer. It says : "This is the most convenient 
absorbent the farmer can conniiand, and a few 
barrels of it will save a large amount of 
ammonia in the hennery, the privy, and the 



slable. Hens should have a large open box 
fidl of it under cover, where they may dust 
themsidves at their pleasure. It is an excellent 
thing to have in the stable and, when 
saturated with urine, makes a valuable fertil- 
izer. The fineness of the dust, continually 
ground hy the iron tires and horse shoes, ia 
one cause of its favorable action upon crops. 
That gathered from a clay soil is best ; indeed, 
sand, whether from the road or (d.sewhere ia 
of little use us a deodorizer or absorbent." 



CORN AND HOGS. 

From carefully condiict(td exi)eriments, hy 
different Jieiiions, it has been ascertained that 
one bushel of corn will make a little over ten 
and one-half pounds of pork, gro.ss. Taking 
the result as a basis, the following deductions 
are made, which all our farmers would do well 
to lay by for a convenient reference : 

When corn sells for 1.")^ cents per bushel, 
pork costs IA cents a pound. . 

When corn costs 17 cents per bushel, pTDrk 
costs 2 cents a pound. 

When corn costs 25 cents per bushel, pork 
cost 3 cents a pound. 

When corn co.sts ;i:{ cpiits {ter bushel, pork 
costs 4 cents a pound. 

AVhen corn costs M cents per bushel, pork 
costs .5 cents jier ptumd. 

The following statement shows what the 
farmer realizes on his com, when in the form 
of liork. 

When pork sells for .'1 cents jier pound it 
brings -2') cents ])er bushel in corn. 

When pork sells for 4 cents per pound it 
brings .'i2 cents per pushel in corn. 

AVhen iiork sells for 5 <'en(s per pound it 
brings 45 cents per bushel in corn. — Juurnal 

of Agriculture. 

^ 

BRILLIANT WHITEWASH. 

Take half a bushel of un.slaked lime. Slake 
with Ijoiling water; cover it during the pro- 
cess to keep the steam in. Strain the liquid 
through a tine .sleeve, and add to it a peck of 
salt previously well dis.solved in water, three 
[lounds of grain rice boiled to a thin ))aste, 
and stirred in boiling hot ; half a ])ound of 
jiowdered Spanish whiting, and a iioiind of. 
clean glue which has been previou.sly dissolved 
by soaking it well and hanging it over a slow 
lire in a small kettle within a large (me filled 
with water, and five gallons of hot water to 
the mixture ; stir it well, and.let it stand a 
few days, covered from the dirt. It should be 
put on hot. 

♦ 

HAY TEA FOR CALVES. 

A farmer who had a calf of value and no 
milk to give it was advised to give it hay tea. 
He did so and the calf is reported as doing 
finely though it has received neither hay nor 
meal since he got it. He cuts the best and 
finest hay he has, about two inches long and 
pours boiling water over it ; lets it stand till 
cooled to about the heat of milk from the cow, 
when the tea is given to the calf and the hay 
to the cow. IJoth calf and cow thrive on this 
feed. We have fed a great deal of hay tea to 
calves, with good results. — liunil Nttc Yorker. 



FRIAR'S OMLET. 

Boil eight or nine large apples to a pulp, 
stir two ounces of butter, and add pounded 
sugar to taste. When c<ild, add an egg well 
beaten u]i. Then butter the bottom of a deep 
baking di.sh, and the sides also. Thickly 
strew crumbs of bread, so as to stick all over 
the bottom and sides. Put in the mixture, 
and strew bread crumbs iilentifully over the 
to]). Put it into a moderate oven, and when 
baked turn it out, and put powdered sugar 
over. 

GOOD PUDDING. 

One quart boiled milk, quarter pound 
mashed potatoes, quarter i)ounil of Hour, one 
or two ounces of butter, and two of sugar. 
When cold, add three egu'S well lieateii. Bake 
one-half hour, and eat with sauce. 



14 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



PRErAIUNG AND PACKING POULTRY. 

Poultry should be fat and kept twenty-four 
hours from food before killing to have the crop 
empty; food in the crop soms and blackens 
the skin, injures the sale of poultry, and buy- 
ers will not pay f(jr this extra weight. Open- 
ing the vein in the ]ieck, or bleeding in the 
mouth, is the proper mode of killing. If bled 
inside the throat the bill should be pried open 
with a piece of a chip and the poultry to be 
hung up by the feet on a line. Tills makes 
bleeding free and jjrevents bruising. Tlie 
head and feet should be left on and the inter- 
nals in. Tlie tiesh should not be mutilated in 
any manner. Turkeys and chickens dry- 
picked keep much longer and sell much higher 
than when .scalded. If the 'picking is done by 
scalding the water should be heated just to the 
boihug point, and the poultry held by the feet; 
dip in and out of the water tour or live times, 
counting three each time in or out. The work 
should be done quickly, neatly and thoroughly. 
After picking, hang up. 'the poultry by the 
feet in a cool, dry place, till all animal heat is 
out and the poultry thoroughly cold and dry. 
Avoid freezing, as poultry will not keep long 
after thawing. Wrap in thin, light, strong 
paper. Brown and dark heavy paper, having 
too much acid in it, injures the poultry. The 
head should be wrapped separately. Always 
pack head downward. Tliis throws the soft 
entrails on the breast bone, the poultry keep- 
ing longer in this iiosition. Pack in clean, 
dry, tight flour barrels. 

Geese and ducks after being killed should 
have all the feathers picked olf, then rub all 
over thoroughly with fine resin, after which 
dip them in boiling hot water in and out seven 
or eight times, then rub off the pin-feathers, 
after which wash off the fowls with warm 
water, using soap and a hand brush. Imme- 
diately after rinse them well in cold water, 
then hang them up bj' the feet in a cool, dry 
place, till thi-y are thoroughly dry, when they 
can be wrai)]ied, and jiack as before suggested. 
Poultry thus dressed and packed well, in 
moderately cold weather, keep sweet and fresh 
for fifteen or twenty days, and can be shipiied 
from the extreme west with safety, by freight. 

X ever pack poultry in straw, as in damp or 
in warm weather it causes it to sweat or heat. 

Game, deer, rabbits, coons, oppossums and 
squirrels should be opened, all the entrails 
taken out, leaving only the kidney fat ; then 
the insides should lie wi|)ed perfectly dry, 
with a soft clean cloth, after which wrap tlie 
small game in pajier, packing back downward. 

Wild turkeys, ducks, geese, grouse, iiheas- 
ants, quails, piireons, and birds of all kinds, 
should always have the entrails left in them, 
and the head and feet left on. Tliey should 
never Vie mutilated in any manner. Drawn 
birds sour in a short time, and sell for less 
than the undrawn, even if sweet. Wrap the 
head seiiarately in paper, then the body. Pack 
the head downward in tight, clean barrels, the 
same as poultry. Shijipers should remember 
Well that all game should be thoroughly cold 
before being packed, otherwise it will soon 
sweat and heat. IJarrels are the best packages 
that shippers can ship in. — Muri/hmd Farmer. 



on the animals and well rubbed into the hair, 
and a taljlespoonful of ginger in nieal daily 
for a week, is the simplest surest, and safest 
remedy he has ever tried. 



NEW STYLE OF BARRELS. 

The paper barrel factory at Decorah, Iowa, 
has already turned out several hundred liar- 
rels. Much interest centres upon the exjieri- 
ment there. If that is successful, as it pro- 
mises to be, the barrel-making Inisine^s will 
be revolutionized. By this process barrels are 
made entirely out of paper. They can be 
made at half the cost of tlie wooden material, 
and as they weigh only onc-tliird as much, 
there will be also a great saving in freight.- 



INSECTS ox CATTLE. 

A correspondent after having experimented 
to his heart's conteiit with several kinds of 
grease, tobacco, water, kerosene, ashes, aii- 
gueiitum, etc., for killing lice on cattle, has 
arrived at the conclusion that sulphur sprinkled 



GENERAL MISCELLANY. 
DESTRUCTION OF THE CANADA THISTLE. 

In a brief note recently we directed the atten- 
tion of our readers to the necessity of watch- 
fulness against tlie introduction of vile weeds, 
and especially of the Canada thistle. It is 
worth while again to repeat that it does not 
take long to annihilate pests like these in the 
beginning, if only ]>eople will go to work earn- 
estly and energetically. .Since writing the 
paragraph referred to, a tact has come to our 
notice which shows what may be done by 
a watchful man. 

One of our friends in going over his grounds 
last spring was amazed to find that he was 
guilty of harboring and entertaining tlie Canada 
thistle. There it was and no mistake, thickly 
covering a tract of over one hiuidred feet 
square. lie did not send to town for a Inisliel 
of salt or wait till the full of the moon, or 
think of any of the cheap and easy ways 
given in the papers as substitutes for hard 
labor ; Ijut he sent Ezra to the tool-house for 
a digging-fork, and, loosening the ground 
about the plants, drew them up as much as 
possible "by the roots." The :ask, he tells 
us, took just half an hour.- About midsum- 
mer he examined the spot again, and found 
that about a dozen weak sprouts had appeared 
in the place where there were huudeds in the 
spring. These were served as tlfe rest of the 
gang had been served before them, occupying 
flfteeu minutes only, all told. 

In again examining the tract recently, he 
found but a solitary piece which had evidently 
been overlooked before — no new ones having 
appeared. This was drawn out by the hand, 
breaking oft, and, as he says, leaving a small 
nest egg, which may proliably hatch a little 
brood to be Iqoked after next spring ; but he 
has no doubt that fifteen minutes more next 
spring will totally destroy his crop of thistles 
"root and branch." Tlius in an hour of good 
work, a man who resolved to conquer the 
enemy will have come otY full victor, showing 
how easy it is to cope with these pests when 
taken in this way. 

The fact is we begin to have rather a poor 
opinion of anian wlio allows his property to be 
overrun with Canada thistles. A strong, 
coarse weed like this, which can lie easily 
Seen and handled, ought to be looked after 
and drawn out, as well as the dock, which 
every good fa/mer about here thinks is an 
imperative duty, if not an intense pleasure to 
hunt, pull and destroy. Indeed, it sometimes 
seems, as we note the intense satisfaction with 
wliich some of our neighbors go at dock- 
drawing, that it w.iuld ahnost be adding to 
their recreations for some (me to sow dock- 
seed among their crops that tliey might 
enjoy the pulling up of them in due season. 
There are thousands of weeds much more 
injurious ; at least our friend the victor of the 
Canada thistle ]iatch, thinks so. He is sure 
he would sooner haveadoseof Canada tliistles 
to swallow "any day," than be bothered with 
sorrel, toad-flax, couch-grass, or land-grass — 
and we thuik he is right. — Gcrmantoivii Tel. 



THE REASON WHY 

The editor of Arlliuv\'< Home Mnijazhie gives 
the following questions and answers, which 
are iicrtinent to this season of the year: 

Why is fruit most unwholesome when eaten 
on an empty stomach V 

Beca use it contains a large amount of fixed 
air, which requires great jiower to disengage 
and expel it before if begins to digest. 

Why is boiled or roasted fruit more whole- 
some than raw. 

Because, in the process of boiling or roasting, 
fruit parts with its fixed air, and is thus 
rendered easy of digestion. 



Why are cherries recommended in cases of 
scurvy, putrid fever, and similar diseases ? 

On account of their cooling and antiseptic 
properties, and because they correct the con- 
dition of the blood and other fluids of the 
body when there is any tendency of pu- 
trescence ; at the same time, like all fresh 
fruits, they posses a mild aperient property, 
verv beneficial to persons of a bilious habit. 

What ett'ect have vegetable acids upon the 
blood y 

They cool and dilute the blood, and. 
generally refresh the system. All fruits contain 
acids and salts, which exercise a cooling and 
invigorating influence. Apricots, peaches, 
apples, pears, gooseberries, and currants con- 
tain malic aciik Lemons, rapsberries, grapes, 
and pine apiiles contain citric acid. The 
skins of grapes, plums, aloes, etc., contain 
tannic acid, which has a bitter taste. 

Why sliould salt be applied to vegetables 
intended for pickling previously to putting 
them in the vinegar ? 

Because all vegetables abound in watery 
juices, wliieh, if mixed with the vinegar, 
would dilute it so much as to destroy its 
lireservative property. .Salt absorbs a portion 
of this water, and indirectly contributes to the 
strength of the vinegar. 

Why is bread made from wheat flour more 
strengthening than that made from barley and 
oats y 

Because, as gluten, albumen, and caseine 
are the only substance in the bread capable of 
forming blood, and consequently of sustaining 
the strength and vigor of the body, they have 
been apuropriately called the food of nutri- 
tion, as a distinction from those which merely 
support respiration. Wheat contains 8-2.j parts 
of starch, 315 of gluten, albumen and caseine, 
and sixty of sugar and gum, while barley 
containes 1,200 of starch, 120 of gluten 
albumen and caseine, and 150 of sugar and 
gum ; hence wheat is much richer in the food 
of nutrition. 



TURNING POINTS IN PHYSICAL LIFE. 

From 25 to 35 is the true time for all the 
enjoyment of a man's best powers, when 
physical vigor is at its highest. During the 
last half of this decade a man should be assid- 
uous to construct a system of philosopliy, by 
which to rule his life, and to c )ntract a chain 
of hahits intelligently ; so that they should 
neither be their slave, nor too easily cast them 
aside. The exact proportion of pliysical and 
intellectual strengih should be gauged, and 
the constitutional weakne-ss, or, in other 
words, the disease toward which a tendency 
exists, should be ascertained. 

Preserve, if possible, the absolute necessity 
f(U- e-xercise, and have yourplac;of business 
two or three miles away, over which let 
nothing temiit yon to au omnibus or carriage, 
save rain. The day on which a medical man 
gives up riding to see his iwiintry patients, or 
the use of his own legs to see his patients in 
town, and takes to a close brougham, fixes 
the date when sedentary diseases are set up— 
while if, to utilize liis leisure, he reads as he 
drives, his eyesight becomes seriously afl'ected. 
From 35 to 45 a man should arrange with his 
food, and avoid hypochondria. He cannot, 
it is true, change his diathesis ; but he can 
manage it. The liahitual character of food, 
no less than its iiuality, begins to tell whether 
it charges the system 'with fat, muscle, sinew, 
fibre or watery 'iiarticles. From 45 to 55 the 
recuperative powers should be encouraged 
and developed. 

There is nothing like work to keep an old 
horse sound. Sporting dogs should be thin, 
but obesity will set in. Anxiety ought to be 
staved, hope encouraged, sordid cares avoided. 
If a grief exists it should not be brooded over, 
but talked out with a friend, gauged, estima- 
ted in its wcn-st, and dismissed to absorb itself. 
If aman at this time is much occupied out doors, 
and lives wholesomely and temiierately, he is 
liretty sure to be clear of sediaitary diseases. 
Rheumatism, coughs, and inflammatory dis- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



15 



eases, arisiiifi from fxiiosurc to wot or cold, a 
mail of 4.") will Uavt* to cmiU'iul willi, but his 
lilodil will lie ill a jiood coiiililiou for tlicslruir- 
glt;. AIoiU'ratL' fxposuri' to harilsliips of this 
kind never harmed man yet. 



LONG-LEGGED HORSES. 

For most eveiy-day imrposes sliort-lejjgod 
horses arc in general preferred, because in 
themselves they iiidieatc suiierior streiijjth, 
and because, by nature, they are associated 
with depth of <hest and carcass, and other 
sisns of stamina and diirabilility ; but the 
long lefj possesses advaiitatjes in stride and 
leverage, and therefore, wliere speed is rc- 
quireil, becomes a desirable forinatioii. The 
length of limb must very much (le]ieiid en the 
jiurpose tlie animal is destined for; a loi g leg 
would be as ill adapted for a cart-lioise, as a 
short one would be fora racer. To get over the 
ground length becomes absolutely necessary 
ill the pro]ielliiig parts of the machine, and 
these are th'e loins and the limbs. Occasion- 
ally we meet with horses with long limbs and 
sh<ut bodies ; but sucli are rare and undesira- 
ble conforinations — the limbs doing too much 
for the body, or, lather, the latter I'cstricting 
tliem in their action. 

reoiile in general make objection to horses 
with undue length of liiiib ; such a hor.se has 
'■ too much daylight underneath him to be 
good for anything,'' is a common expression 
enough in these cases ; and, primn j\iclc — and 
in nine cases, jierhaps, out of ten — these 
people are correct in their disapprobation. 
But every now and then comes a horse before 
n.s with all this apiiarent objectionable sub- 
corporeal "daylight," and yet with extraor- 
dinary iiowcr in his longlimbs, with circularity 
in his chest, though it be not deeii, and witli 
the known character of being " a good feeder 
after work ;■' and when such a horse does 
present himself, we may, should he possess 
breeding, regard him, notwithstanding his 
long legs and light body, as an animal of a 
rare and vi'luable description. His legs, hav- 
ing but little to carry, are therefore likely to 
'•wear well" and he is likely to prove a ileet 
hoi-se, and withal a good-winded horse — one 
that is likely to turn out a most valuable ac<iui- 
.sitioii. One ought not hastily to reject a 
horse with long limbs and their oriliiiary 
accompaniment, a light carca.ss. — Pi-uirk 
Farmer, 



TRALNING YOUNG STOCK. 

• A corre.simndont of the New York Times 
tells somi'thing about the management of 
young and wild stock — colts, steers and heif- 
ers, iiartieularly tlie latter. He very truly 
believes that many abuse their cattle when 
they would not if they knew any other way to 
get along. He continues: 

In the iii,st jilace, ynu must secure your 
heifers liy tying tluiii up so that they cannot 
hurt you if they would, or get away trom you. 
Tliis islnst done with a halter (ropeorleather. ) 
I have seen a slip-noose |iut on a heifer's 
horns and drawn so tight that it wouhl nearly 
craze the animal, which was then beaten be- 
cau.se it Would not stand still, and to complete 
its misery and destruction of its horns, was 
left to stand over night in the rain to swell 
the rope. After you iiave got it secure (in the 
stable is the best place) get your card and 
brush and go to work gently wlierever you lan 
get at them best. If you are in danger of get- 
ting hurt then use a broom lirst. When they 
tilid it does not hurt them you will be sur- 
prised to see Iheell'ect it will have on the worst 
subjects. 

There is .something about this mode of treat- 
ment that I cannot explain myself, but it is 
far ahead of the charms of music to sootlie 
the savage beast. 

I lay no claim to any suiieriority over any 
one tliat will be patient and take lime to get 
acquainted witli the subjict. But I believe I 
can take the wildest native cow in the I'nited 
States that has not been handled at all, and 



niaki' a quiet, gentle animal of it — that is, for 
me to handle; it might be afraid and even 
virions lo a stranger, lieim niber, thistreal- 
ment must be followed upfor weeksorinonths, 
but it will surely win in the end. 

This plan will not always do so well with 
horses or colts, as some are constitutionally 
ojiposed to the card and brush, but kind Ireat- 
meiit will do a great deal toward making 
friends with them. 



ruorEii MODE OF feeding iiohse.s. 

Let me say a word or two in reference to 
feeding the hor.sc. as bearing upon the condi- 
tion of the foot. Every owner of a horse must 
have observed that the growth and strength 
and aiipearance of the horse's fool is materi- 
ally affected by the condition of tlit^ horse 
himself. A half-starved luuse may have a foot 
iiijuredbydelicienl nutrition; an over-fed horse 
may have a foot heated into an inllammation, 
and so dependent is the foot upon a healthy 
state of the animal economy, tliat for the foot 
alone, if nothing else', the diet of the horse 
should be regulated with the utmost regard to 
his health. 

I amcontident that we give our horses too 
mucli grain and too little hay — especially 
horses under seven years of age, who will work 
with more endurance and courage on a good 
supply of grain — of the latter say six ipiarls 
of oats and a. jiint of corn daily. Older horses 
require and will bear nuire grain— but even 
they want more hay than is usually given. 
Every liorse should pass a few weeks of each 
year without grain— either the lirst half or 
the last half of the winter, whichever is the 
most convenient. And this mode of feeding 
can be adopted without suspending the ani- 
mal's work. ♦ 

I have one horse, fourteen years old, which 
has had this regimen for four montjis every 
year of his life (and I bred him,) and he is as 
smooth, vigorous and healthy as a colt — has a 
sound, smooth foot, was never lame, and has 
always been in good order. He is a good 
specimen of what box stalls, brick tloor, tar 
ointment, turniiis and hay will do for horses 
towards jireserving their health and strength, 
and .soundness, and promoting longevity. — 
Mdxs. Pldiujhman. 



SULPHUIJ. 

There is no remedy and assistant so easily 
and cheaply obtained> so harmless to the 
fowls, nor so satisfactory in its result, as 
sulphur. It being in the system of animals to 
a small degree, there is a greater alliuitv tor it 
than tlure otherwise would be. It can be 
administered to the fowls by having it in a 
small box. so that they can help thein.selves, 
or by mixing it with llieir food once a week, 
as often as there are indications of vermin. 
Penetrating, as it does, to every part of the 
system, all iiarasites are (luickly and surely 
destroyed. AlsogajU'S an' said to be ])revented 
in chickens. Fowls need it more than most 
animals, their feathers containing between 
four and live per cent, of sulphur. Their egirs 
also have a small quanily, which is notii^'d by 
the discoloring of a silver siiooii when it comes 
in contract with a boiled egg. A|)|ilied 
externally to the fowls when on the nest, to 
tlu! nest itself, or mixed with the soil in the 
dii.sting-box. it is equally efficacious in de- 
stroying vermin. 

To be used as a fumigator of buildings, it is 
neces.sary to remove the fowls, dose the room 
or house, mix a little .saltixtre witli the 
suli>hur in an iron vessel, and apply a match 
to the mixturi'. This should be done in the 
morning and the doors and windows opened 
in the afternoon f<ir a thorough ventilation. 

Lard mixed with sulphur in proper jirojior- 
tions and applied as often as is necessary to 
the fcafhei-s on the neck and back of young 
and old turkeys, is a very good safe-guard 
again.st the ravages of foxes. 

For our own iirolit, and the comfort of the 
fowls, let us then use sulphur or remedies of a 
like nature. — Poultry U'lnld. 



HEALING POWEU OF GLUE. 

Many women do not know that glue, as a 
healing remedy, is invaluable. For the last 
twelve or fourtieu years, says a meclianie, I 
have been employed in a shop where there are 
over three hundred men at work ; and, as is 
the case in all shopsof iliis kind, hardly a day 
]iasses but one or more of us cut or bruise our 
limbs. At lirst there were but few who found 
their way to my department to liave their 
wouikIs bound up; but after awhile, it became 
generally known that a rag glued on a llesh 
wound was not only a speedy curative, but a 
formidable protection against furtlier injury. 
I was obliged to kee|i a full supjily of r.ags on 
hand, to be ready for any emergency. I will 
here cile one among many of the ca.ses cuied 
with glue: A man was running a boring 
machine, with an inch and <a ipiarter auger 
attached ; by some means the sleeve of his 
shirt caught in the auger, bringing his wrist 
in conta<-t with the bit, tcarirej the llc.sh 
among the muscles in a frightful manner. 
He was conducted to my apartment (tlie 
))atlerii shop) anil I washed the wound in 
warm water, and glued around it a cloth, 
which, when dry, shrunk into a round shape, 
holding the wound tighl and linn. Once or 
twicea week, for three or four weeks, I dre.ssed 
the wouikI afresh, until it was was well. The 
man never lost an hour's time in lonsequence. 
The truth of this statement hundreds can 
testify to. I use, of course, the best quality 

of glue. 

♦ 

FAILURES IN UUSINES8. 

Peter Cooper failed in making liats, failed 
as a cabinet-maker, locomotive builder, and 
grocer, "but as often as he failed he ' tried 
again,"' until he ccnildVtuud upon Ids feet 
alone, then crowned his victory by giving a 
million dollars to help the poor boys in all 
time to come. 

Horace Greeley trietl three or four kinds of 
business before he founded the Trihuiii , and 
made it worth a million dollars. 

Patrick Henry failed at everything he un- 
dertook until he made himself "the ornament 
of his age and nation. 

The founder of the New York TTrntld kept 
on failing and sinking his money lor ten years, 
th( n made one of the most prolitable news- 
papers on earth. 

Stephen A. Douglas made dinner tables 
and bedsteads and buri'aiis maiiv' a Ion-; year 
before he made himself a giant on the lloor of 
Congress. 

Aliraham Lincoln failed to make both ends 
meet !)}■ clioiiping wood ; failed to earn his 
salt in tlie galley-slave life of a Mississippi 
tlat boatman ; he had not wit emuighto run a 
grocery, and yet he made himself the grand 
character of tlie nineteenth century. 

(ieiieral (Irant faileil at everything except 
smoking cigars ; he learned to tan hides, but 
could not sell leather enough to pnn-ha.se a 
pair of breeches. A dozen years ago " he 
lirinight up" on top of a wooil pile "teaming 
it" to town for ??40 a month, and yet he is at 
the head of a ■rreat nation. 



OUR HAIRS numhered. 

Somebody has been at the trouble of calcu- 
lating the "average number of hairs which 
grow on an averai;epei"Soirshea<l. Itis found 
thai tin- number variTs according to the color 
of the liair. Light or blonde hair is tlic most 
luxuriant, the average of this number lieing 
14(1.1111(1. When the hair is brown, the usual 
number is much less, beingonly llo,(H«l, while 
black hairs reach only the average amimntof 
KKi.dlHI. It might naturally 1h' supposed that 
a li'jht haired person having the most hair 
woulil have the greatest weicht to carry, but 
it is not so. That which is lighest in color is 
also lightest in weight; and a lady with 
abundant llaxen locks is as liglit-lieadeda.sone 
whose tres.ses are of a raven view. Hence it 
follows that the former is of a liner texture 
than the latter. 



16 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



LITERARY AND PERSONAL. 

Habper's Periodicals : The three moBt popular and in- 
structive serial publications issued by any one house in this 
country, are undoubtedly those of the great publishing house 
of Harj^er & Brothers. Their "new Monthly Magazine'' 
abounds with able and useful, as well as entertaining papers. 
The February number contains the fourth of a series of 
papers on "The First Century of the Republic," in which 
the progress of invention is traced, and the more remarka- 
ble inventions beautifully illustrated with a style of wood 
engravings for which the Harpers are not surpassed. The 
leading arcicle is on " New Washington," in which the ex- 
traordinary transformation which our National Capital has 
Undergone within the last five years, is graphically sketched 
and elaborately illustrated. This magazine has a monthly 
circulation of 130,000 copies, and the publishers expend on it 
for Hterary and artistic features alone about $70,000 a year, 
while the yearly subscription is only $4. . . . Harper's 
Weekly, the best illustrated weekly uewspapei; in the world, 
has a popularity unrivaled by any similar publication, its 
circulation being equal to the magazine. It is stricly honest 
and thoroughly independent, while that prince of caricatur- 
ist, Tom Nast, constitutes one of its most attractive features, 
even to those who get the hardest cuts from his ever-ready 
pencil. . . . Their other periodical. Harper's Bazar, is 
a journal for the home— being especially devoted to all sub- 
jects pertaining to domestic and social life. While it fur- 
nishes the latest fashions in dress, it does not neglect any 
of the weightier matters pertaining to the care of the house- 
hold, or the cultivation of a higher life in mind and morals. 
It, too, has been a wonderful success, its weekly circulation 
now reaching 90,000 copies. , . . Either of these three 
publications are furnished at $4 a year, any two of them for 
$7, or the three for $10 in one remittance. 

The Library of Congress grows steadily and rapidly. 
There has been during the past year an addition of 15,405 
volumes and 6,272 pamphlets. The principal source of 
increase is in the requirement of the copyright law, making 
it obligatory to deposit two copies of each i»ublication in the 
library. Under this provision there were received during 
the year 6,840 books, 6,436 periodicals, 7,722 musical compo- 
sitions, 5.598 prints, 1,358 photographs, 922 engravings and 
chromos, 658 maps, charts, and drawings, and 140 dramatic 
compositions — a total of 29,674. Mr. Spofford, the Librarian, 
in his annual rejwrt, speaks earnestly concerning the impos- 
sibility of so enlarging the Capitol as long to afford quarters 
for the vast and multifarious collection which is so rapidly 
inereasing. He remarks; " In no country in Europe of the 
first rank is it attempted to keep the libraay of the govern- 
ment under the same roof with the halls of legislation. In 
London, in Paris, iu Berlin, in Vienna, in Munich, in St. 
Petersburg, there exists a national librai-y having its own 
separate buildin^, while the library of the legislative body, 
sufiBciently copious and ample for its wants, is provided for 
within the parliamentory walls." 

The Sacbamento Weekly Union is literally an "im- 
mense" newspaper, containing sixteen pages (18 by 24 iu 
size) of closely printed matter, in minion type, and seven 
columns to the page. There are no blank spaces, no em- 
bellished letters, but all is solid reading matter, and on a 
multitude of subjects, almost •' boxing the (Uterarj-) com- 
pass." We know not how this will comjiare with the leading 
weeklies on this side of the Rocky mountains, nor yet 
whether the weekly issues of the Unio7i are alwaytf of this 
size, but we think they are. We only make this note to 
illustrate the wonderful strides the " Golden State '" has made 
in journalism, as in everything else, during the last twenty- 
five years. Where a paper o ' this kind is profitably patron- 
ized, there must necessarily be not only a "lively time," 
but also a readituj community. That, in our opinion, is the 
key that unlocks the whole subject. The people are a pro- 
gressive and a reading people, and therefore need large 
newspaper facilities. 

Hand Book of the ''Kansas State Agricultural College," 
Manhattan, Kansas, an octavo of 124 pages, in covers, 1875, 
giving the Board of Regents, faculty, exi)lanatory notes, man- 
agement, policy, course of study, curriculum for six years, 
which is the length of the course, each year divided into two 
terms. The departments include Practical Agriculture, 
practical horticulture, botany, including entomology and 
geology, chemisti7 and physics, English language and his- 
tory, mathematics, legal, nientalKind moral science, studies 
special to woman, languages. The industrial departments 
are the Farm, horticultural grounds, carpenter, wagon, 
blacksmith, paint, turning, sawing, carving and engraving 
Bhops, and many other practical and useful occupations of 
which we will speak again. 

'* The Cheehie Maker and Cheese Factory, For such as 
seek information pertaining thereto," by Wm. Ralph, Utica, N. 
Y. This is a finely illustrated 12 mo. pamphlet, of 55 pages 
and an index, giving finely executed engravings of all the 
utensils and implements necessary in the manufacture of 
this popular industrial product. It also gives all the neces- 
sary instructions in the art of cheese making, and specific 
tables of the number and size of the various articles em- 
ployed, together with their aggregate costs, for a dairy of 20 
cows, and from that number up to 400. 



Peter Henderson's Catalogues of vegetables, flowering 
and other plants, seeds, grasses, &c., for 1875, will favorably 
compare with any iu the country. Those in need of any- 
thing in this line, or who desire to be instructed in their 
culture and floral ormamentation, would do well to consult 
their catalogues, and then send on their orders to the pro- 
prietor, at No. 35 Cortlaudt street, N. T. They number 
about 180 pages, are finely illustrated, and in addition con- 
tain five beautiful colored plates of the following : A group 
of Roses, a group of Verbenas, a group of Pinks, a grouji of 
Lobelias and a New Vegetable, These catalogues, with all 
the plates, are mailed to all applicants, by Peter Henderson 
& Co., on receipt of 50 cents. A catalogue without tlie platen 
will, however, be sent to any address without charge. 

Among the scientific serials deserving of favorable notice, 
is the Cincinnati Qttarterly Journal of Science, edited and 
published by Mr. S. A. Miller. Mr. Miller is a well-known 
paleontologist of Cincinnati, and very much interested in 
the identification of the fossils of Ohio and the ueighl)oring 
States, and in this work he notices a large number of new 
species of various orders. There are also papers by other 
American naturalists, especially Messrs. Calkins, James, 
Newberry, Andrews, and others. Mr. Miller is deserving of 
great credit for his enterprise iu initiating this serial, which 
supplies a want not filled by any of its American cotem- 
poraries. 

Specimen pages of Appleton's "New American Cyclopedia, 
revised edition. This work, when finished, will be the cy- 
clopedia of the period, and ought to be in the possession of 
a great many people who will never be able to own a copy. 
The cheapest style of binding will be $5 a volume, and it will 
be completed in 16 large octavo volumes of 800 pages each ; 
the aggregate would be $80. Now, considering the matter, 
the fine illustrations, and the great bulk of the work, this is 
absolutely cheap — "dirt cheap" — and yet there are many 
people who fritter twice that amount away, during its pas- 
sage through the press, who will never subscribe for the 
Cyclopedia. 

The "Gardeners Monthlt" and the **Practical Farmer^' 
for January, 1875, and also the " Germantoion Telegraph " — 
all occupying different spheres in the agricultural, horticul- 
tural, floricultural and arboricultural, past and present his- 
tory of the country — have duly come to hand richly laden 
with their usual treasures. These may be regarded as the 
true representatives of the aforenamed interests in Pennsyl- 
vania,and while we would not discharge or displace others of 
equal merit from elsewhere, we think that no " Keystone " 
farmer should ignore the claims of these old and long tried 
friends of the agricultural community. 

" Address of the Representatives of the Religious Society 
of the Friends in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delawaie" 
on Theatrical Amusements and Horse Racing, issued in 1874. 
If the whole argument were " confirmations stroug as 
proofs of holy writ" — and we have no doubt it is — coupling 
two such subjects together, strengthens neither and weakens 
both. 

'•Report of the '^Pennsylvania Fridt Growers^ Society,^ for 
1873-4, prepared by its officers," 140 pages octavo, with a list 
of the otficers and members, and several double-page illus- 
trations of fruit, &c. Full of interesting essays, addresses, 
reports and discussions upon the subjects of fruits and 
flowers and other matters relating thereto. Published by the 
State, which no doubt accounts for its late appearance. 

The National, Live Stock Journal for January, 1875. 
maintains its reputation as the best publication of the kind 
on the American continent. Any stock-raiser who values 
pedigree and blood, may find in the pages of this journal all 
that is worth knowing. It is now so permanently estab- 
lished, that those who desire it have only to seud on $2.00, 
and 15 cents postage, to secure a copy for a year — Chicago, 
111. 

The Ledger Almanac for 1875 is on our table, and like 
its predecessors, is a most capital and useful comj'ilatiou, 
containing more reference matter condensed in the small 
space, than any work of the kind that has come under our 
observation the present season. 

Landreth's Til/ ra/ Register and vl ^7»u«irtc for 1875— dis- 
tributed gratuitously — is comparatively an unpretending 
little 12 mo., freighted, however, with a large amount of in- 
teresting and useful information to those engaged in rural 
occupations. 

Peterson's Lady's Magazine for February, 1875, has 
been received, and is a splendid number. It contains 
between its covers, all iu the realms of fashion, sentiment, 
and the domestic fireside that any woman could desire. 

ViCK's Floral Guide for 1875 is so beautifully Dlustrated 
and gotten ny, and moreover is so popularly kuovrn, that it 
needs no further illxuitratimi from us. Published quarterly 
by James Vick, Rochester, N. Y. Price 25 cents a year. 

Dry Readimo : A grandson of Noah Webster firesented 
to his Majesty, King Kalakaua, of Sandwich Islands, when in 
Boston, an elegant copy of Webster's Diciionary, The same 
evening he commenced its perusal, at A. 

Wood's (illustrated) //oimefiold Magazine is certainly the best 
$1,00 magazine in the Union, and every subsequent number 
seems better than the last. No. 41 Park Row, N. Y. 



Peter Mahan, Sen,, and hia wife, Mary Mahan, of 
Stampers Creek, Indiana, are undoubtedly the oldest couple 
in that State. He was born June 15, 1782, in Virginia, and is 
now, therefore, in his 93d year. Mrs, Mahan was born in 
Pennsylvania in 1788, eighty-six years ago. They were mar- 
ried June 6, 1806, in Shelby county, Kentucky, removed to 
Indiana iu 1807, and settled on Lost River in what is now 
Orleans townslip, where they remained until 1812, when they 
removed to Stampers Creek township, where they have ever 
since resided. They have had twelve children, eight 
of whom are living, the youngest, Peter Mahan, being 
forty-four years of ago. Notwith4tauding their extreme 
old age they are still active, and read the finest print with- 
out the aid of glasses. They have been married more than 
sixty eight years, and have lived on the same farm since 
1812. Mr. Mahan's first first vote for President was cast 
for Thomas Jefferson, and he has voted at every election 
since. 

Joe. W. Fawkes, formerly of Bart, Lancaster county, and 
well known as one of the early inventors and experimenters 
with the steam plow, which was exhibited on the old Fair 
grounds near this city in 1859, and subsequently at the 
United States Fair at Chicago, writes an interesting letter to 
TheExpre.sSfVfith the editor of which he constructed miniature 
water wheels and tilt-hammers in their boyhood, forty years 
ago. Mr, F, some years ago settled down at farming at 
Maroa, Macon county, 111., where he seems to be prospering, 
as he writes enthusiastically of the success of Illinois farm- 
ing, and gives some interesting statistics in illustration. Our 
old friend is a thorough mechanic, as well as a farmer, and 
deserves the reward of success. 

Mrs. Watson, wife of Prof. Watson, of Michigan Univer- 
sity, is the only woman who enjoyed the privilege of going 
on the Transit of Venus expedition from the United States. 
First was the overland journey to San Francisco, then a voy- 
age lasting twenty-six days to Yokohama, a four days' sail 
to Nagasaki, and another of six days to Tieu-tsin. Then fol- 
lowed a voyage up the river on small house-boats to Tung- 
Chang, and finally a donkey ride of sixteen miles to the im- 
perial city of Pekin. Prof. Watson, while at Pekin awaiting 
the transit, discovered a new asteroid. He did-not name it after 
his wife, but after a Chinese goddess (Ne-Wha) who once re- 
paired the sky when it was in a dilapidated condition, and 
has thereby earned the respect of astronomers. 

The Widows of fifty-four generals draw pensions from 
the United States government. It is stated that when the 
pension paid to the widows of brigadier-generals, $50 a 
month, was ofiered to the nidow of General Meade, she 
emphatically declined to receive it because it was less than 
that paid Mrs. President Lincoln. Of all the women who 
served in the war in various capacities only one was pen- 
sioned for physical disabilities, and that was Mrs. Isabella 
Fogg, of Maine, who wag seriously injured by a fall, in 
Louisville, while engaged in hospital work. She died last 
summer. 

An accident recently occurred in a coal pit in the north 
of England from a curious mistake. A collier went to his 
work, taking with him two bottles, almost similar in form, 
one of which. contained tea and the other blasting pow^der. 
After working for a short time, feeling inclined for a droi* of 
his tea, he took from his jacket pocket by mistake the bottle 
of powder, and held it over the flame of his lamp some time, 
when it exploded, and burned him severely. More serious 
results than this have often followed from mistaking a bottle. 

Well Done, Girls ! Sir Andrew Fairbairn, chairman of 
the Leeds School Board, speaking at a distribution ot prizes 
recently, referred to the circumstance that, with one excep- 
tion, the whole of the prizes were borne off by girls. And 
Miss Alice Vickery, the first and only registered lady phar- 
maceutist in England, has just passed honombly, iu company 
with Miss Algernon Kingsford, the lirst year's examination 
of the School of Medicine of the University of Paris. 

Major John M, CowEll, Conveyancer and Real Estate 
agent, whose card appears iu this issue of The Farmer, is 
a valuable acfiuisition to our local citizenship. He is not 
only thoroughly master of his profession but possesses the 
advautage of a large experience also as civil engineer, as well 
as in conveyancing and real estate business generally. 

The New Hotel — The Stevens House — supplies a want 
long felt in Lancaster. Our friends in the couuty as well 
as those from abroad will there find all the appointments of 
a first-class hotel at reasonable charges, and the Messrs, 
Wilson attentive and obliging to their guests. 

Mr. Corcoran, the Washington banker and philanthro- 
pist, has again yielded to his conmieuduble force of habit. 
After his princely benefaction of $250,000 to the Columbian 
University, he has just given $77,000 toward the building of 
the new Episcopal Ascension church in Washington. 

Samuel Small Stevens, recently deceased in Baltimore, 
bequeathed $40,000 to the theological department of the 
Uuiversity of Boston, and $10,000 to benevolent institutions 
in Baltimore. 

Heinrich Brockhads, whose death is just announced, 
was head of the great publishing firm at Leipsic, Germany, 
He was a man of culture and ability, as well as a succeBBful 
publisher. 



I 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



111. 



JOHN M. COWELL, 

teeiancer mi Real Estate ApEt. 

N. W. (OR. DUKE AND GRANT SI'S.. 

LANCASTEB, PA. 

Real KmlaUi of ill dowrijiliou Uiuiihl, nulcl uud »x- 
cb&D^ed on coiunilNf^ioii, 

l-oatu Srgutiiitrd. MorlKOK.-i< Ixinglit aiiJ «i>lil. 

I'ropertirt t»ki u iu i'liari,'<\ uiiil imtK, iutereHt, etc., 
coUt-cled. 

I'arliKHlar uttfiitlon fU. ii !■> mattfiH BiimrtniulnK to 
lUvil Estate IjiW, aii'l t'wii\"\iwu-lllK. 

Jt»sd», Horlyiiyex. Ilritju. Ili/M uml all olhir lig«l 
iDStrunji-uttt corrtt-tlj Urawu aiul jjamihuuj*-ly aud ut-atl) 
cugrt'ai^*'*!. 

itap* of Pi-oiieiiiea, IaiIh, Funua, liC. .and DraugbllDg 111 
general accurate)}' aud haudauluely executed. 

EDGERLEY & CO., 

Carriage Manufacturers, 



MARKET S'IREET. 
Jn retii' of Market Uoutte, 

I.A.\( ASIKK. I'A. 



giving us 11 C4ll). 

ALL WORK WARRANTED, 

aiii lor th** warn*- rjnaliiy tb»* rbf^aj t-si in ib^ mark* t. 

Wt) hiiNf tilt \m-m ahHorliut'Ui of ».t;c<'iul baiiil v^ork on 
U:iuiJ f\*'r tifiVrtrd for ^le iii ibt* cuuiilj. 



REPAIRING PROMPTL K /I ZTf/VZJfZ? JO. 



LANCASTER, PA., 

With whuui ui:i.v L>»- found, at Wbole^aU- and lietail. a Utrge 
aeHortmeut ol 

^^KUGS, |SC£DICIN£S&^0HEMICALS 

Fancy and Toilet Articles, 

•JPONGKS. BKl'.SUK.S, PKKFVMr.ltY. fcc. A.v. 



rtyticiaiib' PrPhrrijitiLtnv carefully (yiiiij.iJiinilfd. and ortUiR 

uitiiiwvrfd witb care and ilif-patrb. Tht- pidiiji- will 

&ud our atork of MediciueH roniiil»*te, war- 

nuted geuuiue, aud of the besi tiuality. 



THE ONLY PLACE IN TOWN FOR CHEAP SOAP! 

STEAM SOAP AND CANDLE WORKS, 

42 East King-St. Factory — S. Water-St., 

Ket-I 8 cuUMtautly ou baud a ^'uud a»Muriiii'-u( ul 

Soaps of all kinds, 

T^iUow and Kut lak* n in txihan^r,- iti \\u: biKhes*. market 
priiK*M. Pal*"iit Wliecl-ClrfiiHf lor S;il**. 

J. B. KEVINSKI, 

>S(ILK AliF.NT For. 
LASCASTKU VITY A}>ltrOVSrY fult 

STEINV/AY & SON'S 
WORLD RENOWNED PIANOS, 



MASON cS: HAMLIN'S 

CELEBRATED ORGANS. 
NO. 8 NORTH PRINCE STREET. 



moneys; 



«iKilv Iliad? liv »c-lliii(( Ti;.\« at IM- 
"(mTKKS- PiilcKM. or KetliiiK up 
i-hlba iu tovhiia aud country lor the 0\i\- 
eat Tea Cuupauy iu .\iuerica. ftreatext iuduconentH. Seud 
for circular. ( .\XToX THA fOMP.\NY, 

148 thamlJera St., N. Y. 

BIXXfMIXliTll.N Sl'liMiKY. Bloomiilgloii, 111.— F. K. 
Puauf IX. Kpring liata free, or the aet of fourcitaloguea 
poa4 free fcr twenty ceuta. jau '7&-3ui { 



DILLER & GROFF, 

AGENTS FOH 

m mm Ejifw iii mii 

The best in the market. Guaranteed to 
give satisfaction. 

No pay anked until the c_^udJtion« of the fri]araiitc« are ful- 
liiied. t'aU aud nee it ttith the late ini)>r*'veuieutH,^ 

.VLSO A 

FULL LINE OF HARDWARE, 

BUILDING MATERIALS. 
Aud cverMhiug uaually k«pt in a ilrat chtaa Hardware 

Hlorn, l( 

NO. 7 EAST -KING STREET. 

LANCASTER, PA. 



CHARLES A. LOCHER, 

DEALER LN 

DRUGS, CHEMICALS, 

MEDICINES, 

SPICES, TOILET ARTICLES, &c. 

Presriiptioue aud Faioily Hr-ci^.ts caretlluy coin- 
pouiidt;d. Al^c inaui.trfcturtr of Jaiu*-» Hmith'u 
Celebrated HoiBv acd Cattle Powuere. 

No. 9 EAST KING STREET, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



House- Furnisliing Goods 

AT 

JOHN D. SKILES', 

No. 25 EAST KING STREET. 

Jiiat received full linea of 

«i,r.ACiii:i) A\i) I .\i!i.i;.\(.nKi) 

ShirtiDL Sheeting &?illow-CaseMii!ilifls. 

IK KlNiiS, ( nil hs. 

TABLK I.JNKNS. TOWKIJ*, 
NAl'KI.SH, (JIII.TH, 

CorNTl.ni'ANKSaud lO.MFOKT!*. 
PUINTS— Xe»iMt Ktylea. 

miNTK— HhlrttiiK Klylea. 

t'AltlTTS, OH. CLOTHS, 

WIMioW HIIADKS, ki'. 

ALL AT LOWEST PRICES. 

Ureal Ileductlon in WINTKlt IJIIKHS (lOODS, SHA%1.M, 
SKIUTS, fir., to make ruolu fur Nprlni; atork. .VIAj, cIohIuk 
out our Winter Htock ol 

READY-M A 1 )E ( "LOTJIIXG, 

At Prices Regardless of Cost. 

0<lATIX<JS, CASSIMKKKS aud VKHTIN(JS, made to or- 
der or Hold by the yard at ifroatly redutH-d pricea. 



09 



H ATS, 

FURS, 

GENTS' GLOVES, 

AND 

WALKING CANES, 

AU :*t tbe lowest prions, at the 

CENTRAL IIAT STORE, 

39 West King Strfcet, 
Si'it to C«-'Opt!'e Hotel, 



^ 
^ 
y 



LANCASTEB, PEISTNA 

AMEE ii HESLET. I , 



111 



GILUS CITY GALLERY 

PHOTOGRAPHY, 

No. 19 East King Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 

OPENING OF THE NEW HOTEL. 

THE STEVENS HOUSE, 

COR. WEST KING & PRINCE STS., 

LANCASTER CITY, PA., 

/.v xoK^ OjP/:.v to receive guests. 

:m. h. "vvilso:^ «& sor 

F.lTKON'Alii: <n' FARMER*) NOI.ICITED. 

fii COMMODIOUS STABLING FURNISHED ON 
REASONABLE TERMS. 



Call and be eooviuretl. 



JOHN D. SKILES. 



Farmers, Attention! 

H. C. EICHHOLTZ, 

• NO. OS NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

Will sell you a Oood .\rtl>le of Cutlery of any Und. 

Will alao repair any t-uttiuK luHtruineut you may hare. In 
the l>06t Diauner, 

Will make you a stencil plate for markiUK your baga, 
your liuen or anything eUe. Anything in the at&iup Uoe 
made to order. 



NEW GOODS 

OrE.NEU IIAILV AT 

O XJ ISr ID ^A^I^ E! FL' s 

MILLINERY AND TRIMMING STORE. 



I..\DiK»^. ««i have ju*,t 01 ci»-d a IiirK*" a)«Hortiu«;iil of 

Hamburg Edgings and Insertings, 

At Gcts. pkk Yaiid ip to SL'25. 

Aleo all the bileat alylea of Dreaa Trlmniinga, auch a« 

aiMi»S; frt:n^oeb, 

OF EVEWY I»EHCBIl'T10N. 

Abo. everything ehie kept in a 

FIRST-CLASS 
MILLINERY and TRIMMING STORE, 

And will itlwuyrt (ruftranlW; our pric»s lu Ir- tin; VMr> Low- 
cet and (iiulUy tbe iK-tit. 
Otve utH B call ut 

GUNDAKER'S, 

142 and 144 North Queen Street, 



IV. . 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



W. D, SPRECHER, 



I>KA.I.Ert IN' 



f Uld, Bar den I- flawer Segii 

FARMING IMPLEMENTS, 

TERRE com aiiURON WATER PIPE, 

PUMPS, LAX J) PLASTER, 

FERTILIZERS. COTTON BAGS, 

ECLIPSE WHND MILLS, 

STUDEBAKER FARM WAGONS, 

XEAVCf/VWKPSEED. 

31 :EJ. X^TlSTGr ST., 

LANCASTER, PA. 



z 
o 
> 

X 
h 

<: 

ca 

z 

< 

w 

X 

CO 

w 



Iiliifst Faid on Bepesits. 

3I0XEY TO 1,0AX AT ALL TIMES. 

A GEXEUAI- I'.AXKIXa liUSIXESS 

TKAXSACTEI) JX ALE ITS 

r.llAXCIlES. 




GEORGE D. SPRECHER, 

DEALER iN ALL KINDS OF 

ROCJB^ r N ( i SL ATE- 

iiKi rrE : 

No. 15 EAST KING STREET, 

1.1, -T.Vly I.ANf ASTICK. PA. 



AGRICULTURAL STORE, 

No, ;V20 Xorlh Oueeii Street, Lancaster, 

(Near New JIai'ket Iloiiee). 

Riapers Eb Mcwers/OcTaiii Drills, 

Tho Improvrd Kn.-k:i\vay Ornin Fan. Pratt'n Patent Hay 

Hukf* and < 'nrii SIuIIpi-h for Horfc mid Hand Power, 

tUitliuy ]iiix*;s, Corn PlantfTN, and Imjiroved 

CUler Mills 

ot different kinds and pjzw ; also, all kinds of Coach- 
makers' Stull'. 

Farmers, look to your Interest before buying elsewhere. 
I can Bell ii( small iiroain. The Shop is two B'luares 
northwest of 1*. 11. R. Depot, and two sqnarefi wouth of 
Heading Depot. jrickoi*>* Lumber and Spuke "Wood taken 
in exchange for ^Miichinch'. 

PLANING AND SA-WING 

of all kinds at fhort notice ; and r'aptin;,'8 kej>t on hand for 
repairing Farm ^[achinery. AUo, Agrirnltnral imple- 
ments of every deficription on band. Wire and Sieves 
mad© to order for farmers. 

SAMUEL KEELEE, 

MnyH '74-lv Lancaster, Pa. 



FLOWER 

SEEDS, 

VEGETABLE 

SEEDS. 

jan '75-3Baos 



Spoener's Prize Flower Seeds. 

Spner's Bostti Martet 
VEGETABLE SEEDS. 

PeBcriptivo Priced Ci»talognie, with 
over ir»o illUBtratioua, mailed free to 
applicant. 

W. H, SPOONER, Boston, Hass. 




THE BEST 



>Ty annual c:italotrne of ^v■t;pt.'lLlf and Fhiuer Seed for 
lft75, will lie ready by Jan. 1st for all who apply, rustom- 
ers of last season need not write for it. In it will he found 
several valuable varieties of i*ew vegetables introduced for 
the firt»t time this season, having made new vegetables a 
specialty for many ye;irs. Growing over a hvndred and 
fifty varieties on my several farms, I would particularly iu- 
\"ite the patronage of market gardeners and all others who 
are especially depii-ous to have their seed pure and fresh, and 
of the very he.-<t ritrain. All ?eeds Hent out from my establish- 
ment are covered by three warrants as given in my cata- 
logne. JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 

CENTRE HATf 

Has now ready the Largest Stock of 



For MEN, YOUTH anfl BOYS, JtADE t^P OF EVEKY 
VARIETY OF GOOIiy and COLORN. 

PRICES TO SUIT EVERYBODY. 




CENTRE 11A.T.L 

Has an Immense Stock of 

PIECE GOODS. 

All the Latest Styles in the market to make up to order, at 
low prices, and at shortest notice. 

To save money, buy yonr Clothing at CENTRE HALL, a 
Live House, where they keep up with the times. 

MYERS & RATHVON, 

CENTRE HALL, 12 East King Street, 

my 'Ti-ly LAKCASTEK, PA. 

SECOSr AMUAL CATALOGUE 

OF 

SUSQUEHANNA GREENHOUSES 

AXTi 

PLANT lfUEBt;RIES, 

NOW KK'.DT. 

Containing dc-i- <• ii,tn of 
EOSEHanrt Smai.j. Plants. 
Send for Catalogue— //PC 
to aU. Addresa 

D. L. RESH, Columbia, Pa. 

p. O. BOX 330. 

M VM tACTCRER OI" 

XjiXJ]\/^:]B3E3T^, 

Wtllianisport aitfi XooA- ITave.n, 

Bill Mills— ROl'ND ISLAND k PORTAGE, PA. 
Retail Lumber and Coal Yard, 

NORTH WATER STREET, ABOVE P. R. R., LAHCASTEE, PA. 

AMOS MILEY, 

No. 108 North QueenSt., Lancaster, Pa., 

jiANUFACTrr.Ei; ov and deai.ek in 

SADDLES, HARNESS, 

Collars, Bridles, Whips. &c. 

Also, a Fine Lot of 

Tjuaks, ?aB§e§, Cispet lags, 

BUFFALO robes; &c. 

HARNESS ANP TRUNKS NEATLY EErAIEED. 




LANCASTER, PA. 

JOK^ REST, 

MANrFACTTRER OF 

Horizontal, Vertical and Portable, from 1 V. to 100 Uor»e-Pf. 

STEAM B0ILEES~AJ)A1'TE1) TO ALL 

PLTRPOSE.S. 

Castings of all descriptions, Heavy ajid Tiight, Made to Order. 



! 
1 


Illustrated Catalogues 

^«^ 1875 "'' 

EVERYTHING 

FOR THE 

GARDEN! 

( Seeds! Plants ! ) 

\lmplements. Fertilizers, etc./ 

Nambering 173 pages and containing five 
beauiiful cok)reil jyhit^ityra^WQii ou receipt 
of 50 cents. 
Catalogue, without plates, free to all. 

35 Cortlandt St., 

NEWTOBBi. 





H. G. LIPP & CO., 

No. IS EAST KING STREET, 

LANCASTER, PA. 

HOUSE FURNISHING GOODS, 

COOKING STOVES, RANGES. 

PARLOR STOVES AND HEATERS COMPLETE. 
S:OTTSE-STI"R,ES, 

Plumbincj, Steam and Gas Fitting. Te^ra 
Cotta, Iron andLead Pipes Tin Roofing and 
Spouting done. Prices as low as any, 

H. G. XiIPP & CO. 




Published Quarterly. Janxarv Xi'Mkrr just 

Issued, and cont.iiiis over 100 Pages, 500 En<;havings, 
rfcscriptii.ns of more riian 500 of our tisst Flowers 
and Vegetables, wltli I lirections for Culture, Colored 

Plate, tic. I'lie most useful .ind clegnnt work of 

Ihe kind in the world. Only 115 cents for the ye.-ur. 

Piibli^ihed in Kni;IiNh ;ind tlermaii. 

A.lrlre-, JAMES VICK. Rochester. N. V. 




Frol S. S. BATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. FEBRUARY, 1875. 



PEABSOL * OSIST, TaUltlun. 



THE FAEMERS' HOME OEGAN. 



mmt 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY, 
AND MISCELLANY. 



> Piiblished under the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. . 

Xditel by Frof. S. S. BATSTOir. 



With the Jsnnary iMue (1875) The Farmer entered nptm 
itn B©venth year, under a change of proprietore, the pnblicft- 
tlon ha^ing been trunsferred to the uoderRigned, who pro- 
pose to mako it In all reftpeclB a flrsl-claite local organ of tb6 
Important interwita to which it is especially devoted. 

With thin view Tne Fabmck hae been enlarged snd iti 
form changed to the Imperial Magazine style, each number 
containing twenty pages Imp. 8vo., each page meawuring 9}4 
by 13 Inches, sixteen of which will be eiclusively devoted to 
reading matter, the advertiwements and "standing matter " 
being limited to the remaining pages. This iucresse of size 
and change of form, together vc\\h the nse of a more compact 
type, enablen nitTo i^%'e twice as much readhig matter M 
wa» contained in the old form. 

If this effort to give the ngrioultnral community of Lan- 
CAater county a publication worthy of their honorable calling 
la liberally seconded, we proj owe to add other improve- 
menta from time to time, including lllnatrations of irnpor* 
tant topics of geueral interest, and pupere from special con- 
tribntOrs on the more imiwrtant local ludnstries and n- 
eources of the counly — a wide field, which has been very 
little oultivated by our local press. 

The contributions of our able editor. Prof. Rathvon, on 
fcubjecta connected with the science of farming, and partlo 
nlarly that apeoialty of which he ia so thoroughly a master— 
entomological science — some knowledge of wtiich has become 
a neceesfty to the suocAssful fanner, are alone worth much 
more than the price of this magazine. 

The Farmer wlU be published on the Iftth of eT«r7 
uonth, printed on good paper with cle^r. tyi)e, in oon- 
Tenient form for reading and binding, and nuiUed to aub- 
Mnibers on the following 

TEHMS: 

To snbeerlbers rf«ldiug within the comity— 

$i.oo 
- 5.00 

To subacribers cait«ide of LaDca«t«r oouDtf, Including 
postage pre-paid by the publishers: 

One copy, one y««r. - . >,^ Ji^ .V-Z • $'-»5 

Fiva copies, one year, . • • . • . 5.00 

All subecriptipna will eommenoe with the January Dum- 
ber unless olnerwise orderc<I. 

All com mil nicat ions intended for publication should be 
addressed to the Editor, and, to secure insertion, should be 
ill his bunds by the firat of the mouth of publication. 

All business letter*, containing siit>HuriptioDS and adwr- 
tiaonents, ahould be addnsHcd to the liulilishcrs, 

PEARSOL & GEIST, 

Eicpress Buildings, aa, South Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



One copy, one year, 
Six copies, one year, - 



BATES OF ADYERTISIBi'O.— T«n C'entfi a 
line for ends lu(w>rtlon. Twelve lines occupy one 
tsch of space. 5o Ct'Ts wider than a aingle column taken. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



EDITORIAL ARTICLES 

Our "Situation," 



PAGE. 
17 
The Potato Blieht (Peronofpora iufettaM,) 17 
The Patrons of Husbandry, - - - 18 
Blackberries, . . - - - 18 

What is " Anguentum ?" ... - 19 
Daniel Welwter (Kindness to Animals,) 
The Persimmon— Sex — Varieties, 
Good Butter, ------ 

Butter Making— The Cow— Odors— The 
Milk Room. 
Specimen Copies of The Farmer, - 
" Dying for our Country," 



19 
19 
19 



20 
20 
21 



Voices from Abroad— ''Here and There," 
Farming In IllinolB— Reminiswooea of 
By-gone Days — (Joseph W. Fawk»8) 
" iMe s Letter from Home"— (C. H. 
Stoltxfus.) 
The Farmers' Northern Market, 
Canaries, ---..- 
Our National Centennial {lUuflraltd,) • 

The Agricultural Department. 
Our Public Reception, - - - - 
Wh»l Others Siy of Ci. 
Culture of the Grape, J. M- W- Grist (777kj- 
<roM— .Three Engravings,) 

Flsnting the Vine— t'onntruction of the 
Trellis— Pruning «nd Training. ■ 

Lancaster County Apples, H. M. En<;le, 

The Smokehouse, " Wllliiim Peuu, " 

"Peun," "Pen," 8«ylor, All-SMmmer, 

Klaproth, Belmont, Fauuy, Fr«ukUn. 

The Persimmon {Diospyras Virginiana). 

CASPEKlIlI.bEK, - - - - - 

W heat C leanings. No. a. J. StaufF£K, 
Straw as a Lightning Conductor, - 
An Ohio Prize Milk Cow, . . - - 
Farmer John — A Domatic Poem. J. T. 
TuowniiimiE, . - - - - 

Our Local Organization. Reported by J. 
M. W. Geist, ------ 

Interesting Proceedings of the Lanca.- 
ter County Agricultural and Hortl* 
cultural Society. 
Fertility in the Soil. Am. Agr., 
The Relations of Hygiene to Practical 
Medicine, ...--. 
. Prof. Jarvla 8. White, M.1). Sanitarian. 
Agricultural Miscellany, • 29-:J0 

Binding Qraio— Imrorlint Inrention.— How 
to Restore Fertility.— How to Make the 
Farm Pay.— Plowing.— Education of Far- 
mers' Children.- Hay Producing and Mar- 
ketlug.— Hay Preaslug or Baling.— The Best 
Field BeanB.— How to.Xprly Lime.— Itaialng 
Potatoes.— Horse- Shoeing. 
Horticultural Miscellany, - - 80-31 

Evergreen Trees.— The Arhor-Vit».— The 
Culture of Flowere.^Pereunials aad Bed- 
ding Plants —Blanching Celery.- Remedy 
for the Pear Blight.— Jacob Cookliu— Au 
*' Old Digger." 

Domestic Economy, . - - - 31-32 
Valuable Domestic Reci|>e«— Roasting a Sirloin 
of Betf.- noasllng Turkey and CarylOK.— 
Boup Making.— Charcoal for I'oullrj.— The 
Curative Potato.— Glycerine for Preserving 
Fruit.— A Hnjipy Home.— I'naired Rooms. 
—Keep the Birthdays.- A Fruit Can 
Opener.— To Prevent Rusting. 
Literary and Personal, .... 
The Grape Culturist .— " The American Farmer 
M. The Colorado Potalo-Bestle." — I>escrii>- 
llve Catalogues of Se^^ls, Nursery Slock, 
Tborougli-Bnid Stock, .\gricnUural Publi- 
cations, etc. 
RairfnpnM AnnoDnrementa, • - <l. III, iv 
This department Is a lilrectory' to flrnt-clasa business 
hoQBea, to which we in\it« special atteuttoo. 



21 
21 

27 

28 



22 



23 



23 
24 
24 
24 

24 
25 



26 



28 



32 



^ 

TES UNCASTEB EIFE&SS, 

(DAILTr AND W KKKI.TJ 

1\)» \.ti.i\i)f Local Family and Busineu Nnitpaptr, and ths 
oi)ljr Independeijl Republicap Journal it) the Countj. 



THE 

WE 



THE -t 

E E KLY, [ 
1843. J 



FOUMDJL'D 

BY THE 

PRESENT PROPBIETORS. 



f ■ 



THE 

A I L y , 

666. 



Thk Wbbklt EXPREA8 bA8 been before th« oitli«ns of 

Lancaster oonnty for a period of thirty-two years, and Tas 
Daily Kxpbehn for ovpf righlwn yeors. During this long 
(leriod, and without chongo of mansK«ment, Tne F.xrBKss 
hoR fairly t>arn<d a large fibar« Af patroBaffe and flrmly 
estabhHhrtl lti*eif in the public confldencc, an an upright ana 
Independent Jonmal, ncrver hu«ltatln|t to defend the rlffht 
and denounce the wronR, no matter where found to exist. 
It has always Ween a journal of progress, and ttie ontapoktti 
friend of education, temperance, sound morals andreUglou. 
As In the (last, so it will continue in the future. 

TERMS OF THE EXPRESS. 

The Weekly Express, one year, - - $>.oo 

The Daily Express, one year, .... 5.00 

The Express and The Parmer : To any person residing 
within the llroltB of Lancaster county we will mail— 
The Weekly and the Lancaater Farmer, on* year, t>'SO 
The Daily and the Farmer, one year, - 5.00 

fiEAL ESTATE ADVERTISING. 

The exteadM rirciilation of Thr Kxi'HV.hs raakM it the 
be«t medium for advertisinR Real Estate and Personal 
Property in the <xmuly, a fad which can be ald'stcd by the 
many farmers and others who have availed themselves of 
the use of its columns, and to wluch we iurite Ihe atteotioD 
of all tuvlug proi>erty to dispose of. 

PRINTING SALE BILLS. 



Thr KxrBBSs printing ofHoeisoneof the best furnished 
establishments for tumluK out all kinds of pnntlng to be 
found in the Interior of the t4t«te. We are prepared to 
print any Job from the small \'isitinff card to the largest aaks 
or horse bill, jwsler, or broadnide, plain or In colors, as 
quickly as it can 1m' done at any other establJshiueut, and on 
as reasonable terms. We make the jirinting of Sal^^dilU 
for Farmev a speoteUy, and gu»r*«tee satisfactloa to our 
cuBtomerv. 

OUR STEAM POWER PRESSES 

include the various patt**mR adapted to printing booki, 
jiampblelH, posters, sale-bills, hand-bills, millers' recelpte, 
cataloKum of live st<<ck. and any kind of work done in a 
flrst-claw printing ofllre; in short anything that maybe 
called for by the farmer, merchant, banker, mechanic, or 
business man. and we guarant*^ to do the work as satisfac- 
tory ss it can be done in Philadelphia or elsewhere. 

With oue of the most complete Job Ofllcee In the State, 
and unsurpaKse*! conveniences for expeditiously tnming out 
work by thtOx-sf worknten, under the perwjual supervision 
of the proprietors, who arc l>oth practical printers, all per- 
sona m need of I'riiitlug will And It to their Intcrcet to glre 
UH a trial. 

PEARSOL & GEIST, 

BOOK. NEWSPAPER AND JOB PRINTERS. 

Express Buildings, aa, South Queen-tt, 

TiATTCASTER, FA. 

-^ 

Oar Preiait K«oniH are open to Visitors, and they %t% 
alw'ays welcome to look at oar machinery in operation. 



II. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 




Iflif^; 




A reliable time-piece sboald be In the possession of 
every farmer, and nowbere can a better, more correct 
and reliable Watch, either American or Swiss, be ob- 
tained, warranted In every respect as represented, than 

H. L.ZAHM&CO. 

NO. 20 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

NEXT DOOR TO MARBLE FRONT. 

SILVEBand SILVER PLATED WABE, 
KNIVES, FORKS AND SPOONS. 

A LARGE STOCK. 

Fanners, tls a pleasnre to have a good time-piece; tls 
also a pleasure to enjoy the beautiful In agriculture and 
hortloilture, and to seb the latest Improvements In 
these, and all things nature has blessed us with. There- 
fore. GOOD KVB siOBT is necessary lor the enjoyment of 
these pleasures. The eye Is often strained and weak- 
ened from different causes and should be helped In 
time, call on H. L. ZAHM & CO.. where H. L. Zahm. the 
oldest and most experienced optician, with A PRACTICE 
OF THIRTY YEARS, will nt you with glasses warran- 
ted to strengthen and renew the sight vrtthout a doubt. 

DO NOT FORGET THE PLACE. 

NO. 22 NOETH QUEEN STEEET, 

OPPOSITE BAER'S BOOK STORE. 

BPECIAETT : Spectacles, Jewelry and Watches. 
Repairing — Warranted First-class. 



'I 



THE ilST Mi S41F1TS 

ARE MADE BY 

THOS. W. BROWN, 

(SUCCESSOR TO ED. BUCKENDEBFER,) 

COVERLET AND CARPET WEAVER. 

STOEE, 542 EAST KING ST. 

FACTORY, 541 & 543 E. MIFFLIN ST., 

LANCASTER, PA. 

CUSTOMER WORK A SPECIALTY. 

J F. FRUEAUFF, 

Office-ao4 L,ocust-st. House-27 S. Secdnd-st. 

coz.xyacBXA. pa. 



BOOKS I 



Notes, Bonds, 

Mortgages, Wills, 

Deeds, Leases, 

Building Contracts, 

And all nunner of AOREEHENTS neatly and expeditiously 
drawn. Caaee carefully and tboroy^hly tried before 

JUSTICES OF THE PEACE, 

ARBITRATORS. ROAD- VIEWERS. AUDITORS. 

Or in any Courts of Lancaster County. 
COUNSEL GIVEN TO 

EXECUTORS. ADMINISTRATORS & ASSIGNEES, 

Or TruBteea of any kind. 

Collections, large or amall, made upon a uolform table of 
lates, 1q all parts of the United States. 

Special facilities for CoUectiouB of Estates or Debts in 
Europe. 

Conaultatlons and Correspondence conducted in either the 
Freuch, German or English languages. 

J. F. FRUEAUFF, 

Columbia, Penna. 



JOHN BAER'S SONS 

No. 15 North Queen Street, 

LANCASTER, PA., 

Invite the attention of the public to their large and well se- 
lected stock of 

Miscellaneous anl School Boots, 

English and German Publications, 
BLANK BOOKS, 

Comprising Ledgers, Day Books, Cash Books, Joonuls, 
Pass Books, be, Foreign and 

Domestio Writing Papers, 

AND STATIONERY. 

Having many years' experience in the business, ample 
capital and a spacious store, we 

HAVE THE BEST FACILITIES 

for conducting our business, and offer special inducements to 
all who may favor us with their patronage. 

t^~ Agents for 

Excelsior School Eumiture. 



GBO.W.BIDWN'S 

FDRNMRE WAREROOMS, 

No. 13 EAST KING STKEEI, 



Over Llpp's Tin Store, next floor td First 
National Bank. 



AND 

KITCHEN FURNITURE, 

UPHOLSTERING DONE IN 
ALL ITS BRANCHES. 

HAIR, HUSK & COMMON MATTRESSES. 

CANE AND WOOD-SEAT 

All kinds of Fnrsitore made to Order. 
tyRepalrlng of all kinds promptly attended to. 
GEO. W. RROWN. 



Established 1770! Established 1770! 

H.CDEMUTH, 



MANUFACTUKER OF 



AKD 



FINE CIGARS. 

JOBBER IN CHEWING & FINE-CUT TOBACCOS. 

Ail the best tobacco in the market at the lowest re- 
tail prices. 

114 E. King St., Lancaster, Pa. 



Rattivon fe PislieF, 

CHEAP, FASHIONABLE AND DURABLE 

III fllllllll 

e:st/^bi.isxiimi[e:nt. 

Cor N. QUEEN and ORANGE STS., 

LANCASTER, PENN'A. 




ENGLISH WORSTED, TRICOT, 

GRANITE, CASTORS AND 

CASSIMERE COATINGS 

AND VESTINGS. 

All the Fine and Common Grades of 

EoElisIi & American Pantaloonings and Yestings 

SILK, VELVET, MERINO, CHALLEE, 

AND VELENTIA VESTINGS. 

Plain and Figured. 

Ready-made Clotning of borne manutacture tor Men 
and Boys. Hosiery, a full line of shirts, Collars, Shams, 
and Neck Fixings, etc. 

Clothing: made to order promptly, and warranted to 
give satisfaction. Agents for the sale of Scott's Fashions. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

Practical Tatlora. 

E. J. BBJSICAIT, 

The Shirt Maker, 

AND DEALER IN 

FINE SHIRTS, SLEEVE BUTTONS, COL- 
LARS, CUFFS, DRAWERS, NECK- 
TIES, UMBRELLAS, GLOVES, 
SUSPENDERS, EMBROI- 
DERED SHIRT FRONTS. 

SHIRTS MADE TO. ORDER. 

WARRANTED TO FIT. 

118 isroiiTia: Q,"CJEEisr ST., 

(Next door to Horting & Schlott's Hotel), 
LANCASTER, PA. 



MARSHALLS' 



Centre Square, Lancaster, Fa. 

For French Kip Boots, For French Calf Boots, For Calf and 
Kip Boots, for heavy Boots and Shoes. 

GO TO MARSHALLS'. 

BOYS' AND YOUTH'S KIP BOOTS, 

RUBBERS OP EVERY STYLE. 

Ladies', Misses and Children's fine Button Work. Also, 
particular attention paid to customers leaving their meas- 
ure. We use nothing but the best of material, and employ 
none but the best of workmen. 

tS^Repalriug promptly attended to. * 



liAXTCASTSH, PA., 

With whom may be fonnd, at Wholesale and Retail, a large 
assortment of 



HUGS, ^EDICINES&pMKMICALS 

Fancy aad Toilet Articles, 

SPONGES, BRUSHES, PERFUMERY, be, Ac. 



Physicians' Prescriptions carefully compounded, and orders 
answered with care and dispatch. The Public will 
flud our stock of Medicines complete, war- 
ranted genuine, and of the beat quality. 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof. S. S. SATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., FEBRUARY, 1875. 



Vol VIL No. 2, 



OUR "SITUATION." 

It is not to be inferii'd lh;it when an indi- 
vidual assumes the editorial control of an 
agricultural Journal, that he therefore knows, 
or necessarily ouglit to know, more upon 
agricultural sultjects than all, or any portion, 
of his readers. K veil if he were an aeknowledReil 
oracle on the sulijeet, iiis stock of knowledffe 
would soon be exhausted. It is iirecioiis little 
real knowledge that any mw man has, on aiii/ 
subject, in this age of sliifting and constantly 
developing progression, and the more an indi- 
vidual knows, the more humiliated lie becomes 
at the scantiness of his stock of knowledge, the 
more deeply he will be impressed with the 
rertection that there is much for him yet to 
learn ; and these facts and feelings he may be 
doomed to carry with him through all his 
experiences, to the very end of the longest 
possible life-lease. An agricultural journal is 
essentially — or ought to be — a depository of 
the thoughts, experiences and knowledges of 
its readers, its contributors and its patrons, 
among the agricultural classes ; and an agri- 
cultural editor, at best, can be little more than 
"a gatherer and disposer of other men's stuff;" 
and to do this effectually would seem to pre- 
clude the possibility of his attaining proticiency 
in both functions. The functions of the editor 
are necessarily those of ktlers — .a collector and 
arranger of the external garments which clothe 
the ideas of practical cultivators; and although 
it may not be necessary for him to have a 
mechanical knowledge of the subject, yet he 
should be sufficiently intelligent to comprehend 
its scope and avoid impcjsition. 

Six years ago the editorial mantle was, in a 
manner, thrust upon our .shoulders, and the 
experiences of those six years have served only 
to astonish ns at the little progress we have 
made ; and if anything were necessary to in- 
crease our astonishment, it is, that the world 
itself has api)arently been progressing no faster, 
notwithstanding its many h^gh professions. 

Since the functions of an agricultural editoi', 
then, are mainly thoseof a ' 'gleaner, ' ' the value 
of his labor will be more or less apparent and 
effective, according to the character of the tield 
allotted him to glean. If there is nothing in 
it, nothing can come out of it. But we have, 
during all this time, felt a conviction that in 
the field which we are exploring there are 
valuable "mines of wealth," and we have 
never been without the hope that we would 
ultimately strike the rich veins for which we 
have so long been " prospecting." 

It is not personal pecuniary wealth, either 
present or prospective, that has stimulated us 
in this apparently bootless enterprise ; but the 
moral, social and intellectual wealth, which 
we felt was hidden in the deep recesses of rural 
minds, and the life-experiences of our fanning 
population. We have all along felt, and we 
still feel, that there is no independence more 
enviable than that of a Lancaster county far- 
mer, and if we have had any ambition in 
the matter, it is that he might stand socially 
and intellectually where he does physically and 
materially. 

From the very origin of The Farmer, in 
assuming its editorship, we never expected to 
dictate, or to teach practical lessons on agri- 
culture, but merely to manipulate the jour- 
nal .so as to make it a medium of the jjractical 
ideas of our farming public; and to do this 
successfully we did expect, and we still expect, 
the co-operation of our rural patrons. 

When the centennial jubilee of American 
freedom and independence transpires, we want 
to see our journal and its patrons occupying a 
position worthy of the "grand old county" in 
which was established the second printing 
office and printing press that dignified the 
early history of the American continent. If 



this is a fantasy in us, it is due to partialities 
and sympathies imbibed for farming occupa- 
tions through a five year's api)rentice8hip dur- 
ing a labor-iovhig boyliood. 

It is, of course, indisputable, that if an 
editor is so i'listructed and constructed as to 
combine all the practical and thiMiretical know- 
ledges of farming in his own fiiiK'tional com- 
position, he would possess superior (pialifica- 
rioiis for the work befori^ him, and could do 
much more good. IJut then we rarely, or never, 
find such rare combinations of talent, in any 
calling, consenting to work six or seven years 
without the hope of pecuniary compc^nsation. 

Even if an editor should not be able tocom- 
liose and write a single original contribution, 
he might still find the labor of selecting and 
compiling infinitely more onerous than origi- 
nal composition. There is much that finds its 
way into public prints of a most excellent 
character that may not be at all adaiiled to 
specific localities, and therefore if our agri- 
cultural and domestic readers cannot write 
themselves, we will feel ourselves under obli- 
gations to them for approi^riate selections ap- 
proved by their judgment, and which they may 
desire to preserve in a more compact and du- 
rable form, than they are in the journals where 
they first appeared. 



THE POTATO BLIGHT. 

{Peronospora infeitann.) 

On page 11, at the bottom of the third 
column, of our January number, is a brief 
notice of an important step that has been 
gained in the natural history of the "Potato 
blight," through the investigations of Prof. 
De Bary, of Strasburg, Germany, in which he 
has detected the existence of an "alternation 
of generations," in the life-history of the 
above named parasitic fungus, which causes 
the disease. 

A very full history of the "Potato blight 
and rot" is also given in the United States 
Agricultural Report for 187.3, with many 
microscopic illustrations, (pp. ISlJ to 19i)) 
through the investigations of Dr. Payen, Dr. 
Lyon Playfair, Rev. M. .1. Berkeley and other 
eminent mycologists of Europe. Although 
the researches of these distinguished savans 
are very interesting, yet, as their experiments 
were mainly microscopic, and under a power 
of 50 to 75 diameters, very few farmers, under 
the ordinary opportunities of observation, 
woidd ever be able to detect the minutia 
which they describe ; nevertheless, the 
"blight" aiid "rot" are the visible effects of 
causes which have their beginnings in just 
such minutia as are here alluded to, and Ihirc 
is where the remedy must be applied, if ever 
the disease is to be abated. 

It is stated that the potato disease was first 
observed in Germany, near Liege, in 1842 ; in 
Canada in 1844, and in England in 184.5. 
This may be so, in reference to the places 
named, but potato-rot was known in Penn.syl- 
vania, to our knowledge, at least ten years 
prior to the latter date, or about 18:i5, and 
was quite extensively prevalent throughout 
Lancaster county ; aiid especially on low rich 
grounds. Wc cultivated a lot that j-ear, and 
except in one end, which was little more than 
a bed of stone-coal ashes, the potatoes all had 
the "rot." 

It has been estimated that the damage sus- 
tained by Great Britain and Ireland alone, in 
the year 1845, amounted to at least Ui-mtij-one 
niiUions pounds sterJituj, and that in the follow- 
ing year it was nearly twice that amount. 

Tlie Tycmdon Titwa estimated that the loss 
sustained by Great Britain in 1872 reached 
about thirlti millions sterling. 

For the last quarter of a century the potato 



rot has been attributed by the most scientific 
and intelligent explorers, to a jjarasitii^ fungus, 
most (extensively known as Botrytis itifesUms;* 
but byaraciM>f cliarlatans it liasl)cen attribu- 
ted to all sorts of improbable, and in some 
instances inq)>ssihle, sources ; and on these 
theories remedies have been improvised, about 
as u.seless and as ridiculous as administering 
salt' to a bird's tail, or snuff to a di-sordered 
threshing machine. The researches of Dr. 
Payen, however, have resulted in the discovery 
of a form of fungus in diseased potatoes that had 
not been previously known, although Berkeley 
and others are of" the ojiinion that the new 
form discovered by Payen may be only a 
secondary fruit of li'itri/tis itself, the habits of 
which are not yet fully understocjd, notwith- 
standing some of the ablest explorers of 
Europe have for years been devoting mcjre or 
less attention to this subject. It has been 
discovered that the fungus attacks the stalks 
first, causing brownish blotches and then 'the 
disease is transmitted to the tubers. If a 
withered stalk be taken, which has decayed 
through tlie infection of the fungus, it will lie 
found that the brown marks have matured 
into forms similar to those discovered by Dr. 
Payen, and if a section of the same is made 
lengthwise, the interior wjU also exhibit spores 
highly matured, and generally connected with 
a very slender-jointed brown mould (my 
cclium). These details are interesting in a 
microscopical sense, but they arc too delicate 
to be of much practical advantage to potato 
growers in general. 

Here, however, is a statement that is of a 
more practical character, whether we can 
account for it on rational principles or not. 
Mr. Alartin McKinzie, of Boston, Ma.ss., wrote 
to the department at Washington, in Novem- 
ber, 187-2, to the effect that in a field near his 
residence. Early Ros(! and Jackson White 
potatoes were planted the previous season, in 
enclosures adjoining each other, but the Early 
Rose proved nearly an entire failure from 
fungus-blight, whilst the Jackson Whites 
were an entire success, growing to perfection. 
Not the slightest appearance of blight was 
manifested on them in a single instance, and 
it is further stated, that all the conditions of 
planting, cultivation, manuring and .soil, were 
in both cases iiractically the same. It is 
alleged that this is not an isolated case by any 
means, and may ultimately demonstrate that 
the disease was due to the condition of the 
seed before it was planted. 

It has often been stated that "the potato, 
from high cultivation, is running out, and 
that recourse should be had to the seed of the 
I)lant, as a means of renewing the crop." And 
here it may be stated that the tubn- or edible 
portion, and which grows and matures under 
gronnd, is not, properly speaking, the seed of 
the plant. Tkat is only an enlargement or 
tuljeral development of the root. The seed is 
contained in the berry, or apple, which grows 
on the tops, and in form is similar to that of 
all other solanacious plants, the egg plant and 
the t<miatofor instance. It is from the plant- 
ing of these seeds that new varieties are pro- 
duced, and it is to this source, many c intend, 
we nmst return to escape the diseases which 
now so extensively infect the plant. Some- 
thing analagous to Ibis obtains in i)erpetuating 
ths <inality of "live stock," and in all proba- 
bility it is the same in the vegetable world. 

To know exactly when the .seed is infected 
by di.scase, and to what extent, in order to 
prevent its increa.se and spread, is what potato 
growers want, and ought to know. But, if 
the presence of disease in the seed-tuber can be 
determined only by the aid or a .50 or 75 diame- 
ter microscope, there seems to be a poor pros- 

•Now referred to the genua Peronotpora. 



18 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 

» 



pect for tlie potato, unless the govenimeuts, 
State and National, should create Bureaus, 
and require all seeds to pass an ordeal of micro- 
scopic examination, and have a "stamp" 
attached before they are iiemiitted to be plant- 
ed, a thing more easily conceived than done. 
From the foregoing, it seems very evident 
that the seed of the Jackson Whites, in the 
specific case alluded to, may not have been 
previously infected, and that the product was 
proof against the attacks of fungi, although 
the spores were floating in the air by millions, 
and they must have been surrounded by them. 
It is well known that a superabundance of 
moisture and heat produce rank vegetation, 
and it is also quite as well known that when 
this peculiar combination of climatic circum- 
stances is prolonged when the tubers are ma- 
tured, that rot is more likely to follow than 
when the season is dry ; but when two varie- 
ties of the potato are growing side and side, 
and all the culture and climatic conditions are 
the same, and yet one variety escapes and the 
other becomes infected, we are almost bound 
to conclude, either that the one is rot-proof, or 
that insipient rot was in the seed-tuber of the 
other when it was planted. 

It appears that European savans liave no 
better remedy to suggest in such cases, than 
to cut off the tops as soon as the brown fun- 
goid blotches appear on them. This might 
answer the purpose if done just at the right 
time, and if the mere preservation of the tubers, 
as an article of food, was the object; but Amer- 
ican savans think that from the absence of 
stalks, leaves, and the healthy action of air and 
light, the tubers would not attain a healthy 
and consolidated growth, and would therefore 
be unfit for seed. 

It is conceded that the germs of a disease 
may exist in an animal or a plant— either con- 
stitutionally in their systems, or in the sur- 
rounding atmosphere— without said disease 
ever becoming developed, owing to antidotes, 
tillage, and other favorable conditions ; and 
hence, mir savans suggest that as potash has 
the property of absorbing and retaining moist- 
ure in a high degree, and keeping the soil wet 
and moist, while carbonate of soda has the 
property of giving oft' water in a dry atmos- 
phere, these conditions should be duly con- 
sidered in the cultivation of the potato. There- 
fore they recommend that when tubers in any 
locality have grown to a state of perfection 
'■' during per loch of I pidernic," as in the case of 
the Jackson Whites alluded to, a suflicient 
quantity of such should be selected for seed 
purposes, and planted in still more favorable 
localities, and that this course should be con- 
tinued, and by this means the disease might 
be ultimately prevented or entirely abated. 



THE PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 

The Lancaster Fakmer is not the .special 
adversary of secret societies — whether they be 
Granges or Religious Inquisitions — nor is it 
their special advocate. It does not an-ay itself 
against these institutions, neither does it cham- 
pion them any more than it does any jiarticular 
reaper or corn sheller, either pro. or con. It 
leaves that question entirely in the hands of 
the farming jmblic to dispose of as individual 
men endowed with common sense, and acting 
under the privileges of social and civil liberty. 
It believes that the moral and material w'orlds 
are large enough for Grangers and anti-Gran- 
gers to pass oh to their respective destinies, 
without jostling each other, if they only prac- 
tice a little self-denial, and subordinate tlie in- 
dividual will to the greatest good of the great- 
est nvmiber. 

In approving the seemingly good, and in con- 
demning the seemingly evil, there is one very 
essential pre-reqiusite necessary before we are 
in a proper condition to perceive things as they 
are in their inner essences; and that is, the re- 
moval of the "fccowi " before we attempt to 
remove the ' • nwte. ' ' We say seemingly, because 
the experiences of years have clearly illustrated 
to our mental perception that there are reed 
goods and upparent goods, as well as real evils 
and only apyarenl evils, and that these things 



take their colors and forms, more or less, from 
the qualities of the mediums through which 
they are reflected, or rather transmitted. There 
is a common old saw, to the effect that "if a 
rnrmkeij looks into a mirror, a prophet will not 
look out," which is a trite illustration of how 
the "line of incident" is influenced by the "line 
of accident " in the domain of Imman per- 
ception. 

While we are not prepared to believe that 
either all good men, or all evil men, are to be 
found within the folds of secret associations, 
neither do we believe that they are to be found 
outside of them. Good and evil are conditions 
that have their foundations upon mental and 
moral stratifications that lie down deeper than 
merely social organizations. A self-evident, 
or universally admitted good thing, in the 
hands and under the control of. evil men, may 
be diverted from its original purpose and be 
converted into an evil thing, and the reverse 
of this proposition may be equally true. Even 
the Spanish Inquisition, in the hands of men 
unbigoted and unbiased, and acting under the 
spirit of the "Golden Rule," wovdd have been 
a far better institution, and would have had a 
better reputation than that which is reflected 
from it in the pages of human history. 

In contemplating the diversified history of 
Christianity from its first foundation down to 
the present time, viewing its immense labors, 
hardships, self-denia!s,patience, endurance and 
sacrifices; takingaretrospectof the contumely, 
contempt and persecutions it has endured, no 
man endowed with the smallest spark of char- 
ity will deny that its institution was intended 
to redeem and regenerate the human family 
from an impending state of evil and sinful 
degradation; and yet its great symbol has, in 
many instances, been converted into "a banner 
under which madmen have assembled to glut 
the earth with blood." But this does not, 
legitimately, nor essentially, militate against 
Christianity in any of its denominational forms, 
so far as the fundamental spirit of the church 
is concerned— it is a manifestation altogether 
outside of its spirit. 

In noting the characters and qualities of the 
men who compose the secret organizations of 
our countn— their difterent social, religious 
and i)olitical sentiments— their varied clerical, 
professional and mechanicalcallings— it would 
be as "far-fetched" or gratuitous, to denomi- 
nate them combinations organized for the pur- 
pose of advancing social, religious and politi- 
cal ends, against the interest of those outside 
of their organizations, as it would Ije to esteem 
all outsiders arrayed in combinations against 
them. There are interests, likes and dislikes, 
laws of affinity and congeniality, which deter- 
mine the social and fraternal relations existing 
among men, that lie deeper and are anterior 
to those which merely draw them together in 
these external organizations, and these affini- 
ties will determine the quality of their affilia- 
tion in spite of others. 

Whether the social organization known as 
"Patrons of Husbandry" or "Grange," 
among the agricultural population of our 
country, is a necessity or a superfluity, time 
and circumstance will determine. The Miver- 
ted— and we may also add, jjccverted- condi- 
tion of human society imposes many things 
which in a more periect state of order, would 
be regarded as entirely useless ; and if these 
things have the least shadow of right in other 
industrial interests, who has the power to 
limit themtotho.se interests alone? As we 
said in the beginning of this paper, our pur- 
pose is not to ai)prove or condemn, simply 
because no man standing outside of a house in- 
to which he has never been admitted, is com- 
petent to judge of its contents, nor to deter- 
mine the" character of its occupants or the 
quality of its appointments, in an intelligent 
manner. 

If the time should ever come when we could 
speak as experimentally of the "Grange" as 
we think we can of other secret organizations, 
and we feel it our bounden duty to do so — 
upon the basis of public and private use— we 
should not hesitate to speak, if we felt we were 
doing a correspodiug good thereby. In the 



meantime we would counsel all to meet the 
issue amicably, and without i)rejudice or 
partiality. There is no necessity of luidue 
exasperation upon the subject. It is either a 
necessity and a good, or it is not. If it is not 
it will come of itself to naught ; if it is then 
there is no power in human society that can 
prevent it. One thing is certain : it is extra- 
judicial and entirely outside of our civil, 
organizations; therefore, every citizen has the 
political right to act in freedom under the 
dictates of conscience and of reason. 

Whilst we do not proffer an unqualified use 
of oiu' columns to a heated discussion of the 
questions involved in granges or other secret 
organizations, still we shall from time to time 
note the progress they are making, the good 
they are accomplishing, or the evils they are 
engendering, so far as we understand them. 

We will also cheerfully grant the use of our 
columns in publishing statistics of them, in 
correcting errors in respect to them, in dissi- 
pating wrong impressions and other inadver- 
tencies which may grow out of their discussion 
when such communications are couched in 
courteous language, are confined to facts, and 
of a reasonable length. But we accord the 
same facilities to those who are averse to 
them from jirinciple, and under the same niles. 
In conclusion, the Grange cannot be ignored ; 
so far as its external organization is concerned 
it is a /act, and must be met and treated as a 
/ttcf. 



BLACKBERRIES. 

To the question, "What kind of blackber- 
ries should we plant ?" the following, con- 
densed from the United States Agricidtural 
Report for 1B73, may be of some importance 
to those engaged in growing "small-fruits." 

Mr. C. Gillingham, of Accotink, Fairfax 
county, Va., describing the condition of his 
blackberry canes during the spring of 1872, 
says, that in lSCt> he planted ten rows of 
" Kittatinny " and ten of " Wilson " in the 
following manner: First four rows of Kitta- 
tinny, then following, alternately with Wilson 
and Kittatinny, six rows each, ending with 
four rows of Wilson. All had been treated 
alike from the time they had been received by 
him, and all appeared healthy until the spring 
of 1872, when the Tvittatinny became covered 
with " rust. " At a short distance the Kitta- 
tinny appeared as if painted with yellow ochre. | 
Some were destroved from its eilects. None 
of the Kittatinny canes bore fiuit. The Wil- 
son were uninjured, although surrounded by 
an atmosphereladen with fungus spores. Every 
leaf of the Kittatinny was covered with thou- 
sands of spores, yet not a single leaf of the Wil- 
son was affected. The Wilson canes bore their 
usual complement of fruit. Mr. GiUingham. 
states that the canes have not been manured 
for several years. Although this circumstance 
may not illustrate that the Wikson blackberry, 
under all conditions, is absolute proof against 
rust, nor that the Kittatinny, under similar 
conditions, is always subject to it, it still will 
have some effect upon sn'iall fruit-growers, in 
determining what varieties they ought to select. 
These are but the effects of causes perhaps not 
yet fullv understood, and therefore a full and 
true solution of the question will have to be 
developed by future investigations. In the 
meantime it may not be amiss to state the 
pbvsiological theory on the subject. 

The glossy covering on fruits and leaves con- 
sists of wax; that of the grasses, of siliceous 
matter. The wax may be removed by sulphu- 
ric ether, the siliceous matter by caustic alka- 
lies, or by hydrochloric acid. Should plants 
fail to secrete and cover their surfaces with 
wax or silica for their protection, their albu- 
minous substances will then alford food for the 
growth of fungi. Future investigations may 
prove that in the case of the Kittatinny black- 
berry alluded to, the absence of this outer pro- 
tection was the cause of their destruction; but 
it will not amount to much, practically, until 
the atui^e of the disease can be given, and also 
the remedy to cure or prevent it. The fact that 
rust only appeared five or six years after the 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



i9 



canos were planted is not (piite in liannony 
witli the tlii'ory tliat the (liscasc wa.s trans- 
milti'd thronuli jilanls that iiail luen previ- 
ously inf('ctf<l, or (Iffcclivf. Tliis yellow or 
orange colonel nist, wliieh occurred on the 
Kitlatinny lilacklieriy, is prol)aliIy the same 
that is sonietinies found so ]>lenlilul!y on the 
raspberry. It is the l'rt<l'i /((/^nii/y/iol' AIvcolo- 
gists, and we have .seen the " l'hiladel|phia 
raspberry" very seriously infected with it, in 
the inclosme of Mr. Peter Uiley, formerly of 
Lancaster city. There seems to be no reiiiedy 
yet discovered for it, but the complete ile.struc- 
tion of the plants, "both root and branch;" 
and unless this is unhesitatingly and thunuighly 
done, in a few years the whole blackberrv or 
raspberry i)lantation may W destroyed. jThis 
orange colored fungus lias been notir:ed in the 
State of Pennsylvania, both on the blackberry 
and the raspberry, these many years, but es- 
pecially on the dewlwrry, where it is sujiposed 
to have originated; and Dr. Michener, of New 
Garden, Pa., wrote a paper on the subject as 
early as IStlS. 

In coulirmation of Mr. Gillingham's experi- 
ence, we may add that Dr. ^iicbeuer states 
that he i)lauted the Wilson blackberry on 
ground from which other varieties hadbpen 
removed on account of their infection some 
years previously, and that they were free from 
the infection. 

Even if the theory of the superficial wax 
secretion is correct, how are the [plants to be 
restored to their normal condition when they 
cea.se to secrete or eliminate sufficient wa.\ for 
their own protection again.st Ur((h>' Can the 
soil be so chemically manipulated as to afford 
this substance in sufficient ipiantity V Even 
if it can, it would seem almost suicidal to de- 
pend upon a process so tardy and delicate in 
its operation. It might an.swer as a future 
preventive, but when the disease is once pres- 
ent, then, like a hopeles.sly decayed and aching 
tooth, the best thing is to pull it out entirely. 



WHAT IS "ANGUENTUM?" 

Near the bottom of the first column, on 
page 14 of the January number of The 
Fau.mei{, among a li.st of" insecticides used, is 
one called "Anguentum," and we are asked 
—"What is it?"' Well, in good truth, we 
find we cannot tell. The article was ntkrUtl 
from a respectable source, upon which we, 
lierhai»s, relied more implicitly than upon our 
own judgment, if we noticed it at all. Since, 
however, our attention is specifically called to 
it, we feel pretty safe in saying that the word 
is a misprint, and that UiujufnUun was in- 
tended. An Unijmnt, is a compound, mainly 
of oil and bees-wax, to which may be, and 
often are, added other ingredients, according 
to the specific use that is to be made of it — in 
short, an ointnunt. It is somewhat thicker, 
or stiller, than a liniment, but not so still as 
a cerate, which is generally composed of bees- 
wax and tallow. The most connnon illustra- 
tion of an unguent, or a cerate, is the sub- 
stance used by tanners, and eonnnonly called 
"Dubbin" or "Dubbing;" and we can now 
[listinctly recall the circumstance, that when 
we, its a boy, worked on afanu, full fifty years 
ago, tluhbiti was frequently used as an antidote 
311 lousy calves and pigs. And just here we 
venture to add a few remarks upon the value 
}f the remedies used by the writer of the 
paragraph under discussion. He .savs that all 
jf them failed except the "sprinkle" of 
uilphur, "well rubl)ed into the hair," and the 
nternul administration of ginger. 

Now, notwithstanding all this, we confess 
hat ICC have more confidence in unguents or 
liniple oils well rubbed in, as an insecticide, 
han we liave in any dry application of sulphur. 
3ut the oil or ointment niu.st reach tlie insects 
-come in actual contact with them— for they 
lave too much aversion to such substances, to 
leliberately walk into and envelop themselves 
vith them. 

In connection with this subject, no time 
ould be more ajipropriate tluui the present, 
o admonish our fruit, fiower and shrubbery 
iiltivators, that before the buds begin to swell 



ill the Spring —if they have any stock infested 
with "scale insects." "bark-lice," " Scnb- 
liee." or whatever other common name may 
be |applied; to them— is the iHDjier time to 
a(hiuii.>ter a coat of oil to tlie braiKthcs thereof . 
Ungueutum, or ungiuiits, may be too slitT 
ill cold wi'ather, and to wait until the weallwr 
is warm enough for this application il may lie 
too late; therefore, almost any li(iiiicl grease 
would be more effectual. The oil closes up 
the breathing pores of insects and is sure to 
kill all it reaches. When dead they loosen 
from the bark and the spring rains wash them 
oil', and leave the trees and shrubs clean and 
heallhy. This is almost a sovereign remedy, 
esiieci;illy in young apiile and pear trees, an<l 
has received the endorsement of the highest 
authorities. Indeed, the late M. Walsh, of 
Rock Island, 111., deni<uistrated that oil was 
eiitirelj- eflectual, where every other sub- 
stance had failed. The oil is administered 
with a comnion paint or varnish briisli. It is 
true, that on large trees it would be almost 
impracticable, liut the greatest danger is to 
young trees and mirsery stock — old trees may 
not need it. In conclusion, we commend the 
habit of asking such quustions. It exhibits 
an interest in the subject and a desire 
to read understandingly, whetlK^r a remedy 
is efiectual or not. To know to a certainty 
what a thing is not, or what it irill wit do, is a 
lirogressive step towards finding out what it ix 
or what it tcill (Jo, and this cannot be too <iflen 
or too earnestly impressed upon the human 
mind. 



DANIEL WEBSTER. 

" Daniel Webster was a farmer, and took (ielieht in 
eounlry tliinsrs. He had a patriarcli's love of sheep. 
Clioiee breeds tliereof he had. He took delif;lit in 
cows. He tilled paternal acres with his own oxen. 
He loved to ijive the kine fodder. It was iilcaeant to 
hear him talk of oxen, and hut three days l)efore lie 
left the earth, too ill to visit them, his oxen, lowiiii,', 
came to see their sick lord, and as he stood in his door, 
his i^reat cattle were driven up, that he mii,'ht smell 
their healthy breath, and look his last on those broad, 
generous faces that were never false to him. 

" What an attecting scene is here deserit)ed ! Daniel 
Webster loved these animals for thitir own sake and 
not for their value in silver or .i^old. He l^ived to teed 
them with his own" hands in order to witness their 
hajipiness while satisiyino: tlieir hun<;cr, and to win 
their love lor him. They loved their kind owner, 
and no wonder they came lowinsr. one by one, to see 
their sick lord! The scripture says "The ox 
knoweth its owner." Then all the splendid animals, 
numberine between one and two hundred, knew 
Daniel Webster, as they were driven up and looked 
on him lor the last time, and who shall say they did 
not miss him and mourn lor him when he eould 
see them no more ? No doubt this ^rcal man enjoyed 
more real happiness in the society* of these dumb 
brutes of every kind on the Marshtield farm, than he 
ever realized in hearini;the plaudits of his fellow men, 
as his eU'ijant words raiijr out in the Senate ehamher 
of our ^reat nation, and thousands of worship- 
ers were Ibllowiiif; in his train. He knew that fame 
was but a breath, and learned, by bitter ex|M'rienee, 
that the most devoted of his worshipers mi^lit des<'rt 
and betray him, but that not one of these guiltless 
creatures would ever prove false to him." 

Any one who has been brought up on a 
f^iriii, or who has ever lived on one, must have 
noticed, in many instances, the affections, or 
at least the partiality, which some of the farm 
animals have niiuiife.sted for certain memlK'rs 
of the family, and that preference has otleii 
been for the master, or head of the family. 
On the other hand, they cannot have failed to 
notice the aversions, dislikes and even hates, 
V Inch some animals have entertained agiiinst 
Certain memlwrs of the human species. Now 
this is not mere caprice on the ]iart of the diinil) 
animals, but has its foundation in rejuson, wheth- 
er the animals in question are able to reason 
upon the subject or not. It usually has its origin 
in the kind of treatment which the animals 
have received from man. These instances art; 
quite frequent, and often manifest themselves 
in a very striking manner on the part of 
horses, dogs, poulti-\' and birds, btit are not 
unusual among cattle and slieei). And when 
their kind human friends have absented them- 
selves, through removal, sickness or death, 
the animals have seemed to l)e impres-sed with 
a feeling that something has gone wrong with 



j their lienefactors, and they have exhibited feel- 
! iiigs of anxiety or sorrow. Poor creatures — 
how true il appears that "the ass knoweth 
his master's crib, and the ox his stall." 
Kindness is appreciated and rewarded by 
animals, whether il comes from a Washington, 
a Webster, or one of the biimlilest iiieml«'rsof 
the hiiiuan family. This incident in the life 
of Daniel Webster recalls maiiv similar a.s.so- 
ciatioiis of long ago, Uith "fortunate and 
adverse," and we have no doubt many of our 
rural readers have had like experiences. 



THE PERSIMMON— SEX— VARIETIES. 

( )ur valued correspondent, C.VsiMCit IIll.l.Klt, 
who furnishes an interesting paper in thisiss'uc 
on 77((' I'emininion, expresses some apprehen- 
sion about the scientific accuracy of the con- 
clusion of the first paragraph, where he alludes 
to the sex of the trees. Practically, he is cor- 
rect. Although the persimmon, so f;ir as our 
knowledge of it exti^nds, cannot be classed with 
purely (//orioii.s trees, yet, according to Dr. 
Gray, its lloral system is "diieciously jwilyga- 
moiis;" that is, the fertile and sterile llowers 
— although generally on the same tree — are of- 
ten on two dill'ereiit trees, the fertile being 
axillary and solitaiy , while the sterile are often 
in clu.sters, and moreover are much smaller 
than the former. As to the sex of the trees, 
we can only recommend to Mr. II. to make a 
minute examination of tlii^ llowers next s<'asoii 
when they are in bloom. He has had sufficient 
experience in strawlieny culture to Ix; able to 
distinguish between the pistillate and staminale 
llowers. 

We are glad to see attention called to per- 
simmon culture, and find that the inquiry is 
spreading — indeed, if we are not much mis- 
taken some nurserymen have them already 
among their stock. There are about twelve or 
fifteen species described by botanists as mdi- 
geiious to different iiarts of the world. 

The Dioniji/ws Kaki, or Chinese persimmon, 
is rei)resented as being as large as an apple, 
and when dried, far superior to dried figs. If 
Chinese seeds could be obtained fnnn di.stricts 
in our own parallel of latitude, we iirobably 
might propagate that sjieeies in this country. 
This fruit in fcneign .countries is not known 
under the name of " Persiiiinion;" it is called 
the "Date-plum" in English, and has other 
local names, rcrsimmon is the Virginia In- 
dian name. 

^ 

GOOD BUTTER. 

Deservedly high as much of the butter of 
Laiica.ster county stands among butter con- 
sumers, yet, on the general ipieslioii of quality, 
it seems almost self-evident that there is ample 
room for improvement, not only in the elemen- 
tary principles of butter itself, but also in but- 
iar'-iiKdiiui — its process in detail, :us well as the 
necessary previous conditions involving itssiic- 
ccssful production. 

We, therefore, feel that the following extract 
is most appropriate on this occitsiou, coming, 
as it does, from such a distinguished source, 
in the domain of American clii-ese and butter- 
mtiking. We commend every word of it to 
the thoughtful perusal of the professional and 
amateur dairv lolks of our county. Although 
tlie butter of Eanca-ster county, taken as a 
whole, may very justly lie iiroiiounced ijood, 
yet there is a higher degree of comiiarison cul- 
hiinating in vci;/ ijood, that Lanca.ster county — 
except ill very special cases — has not yet 
reached, simply because she has not thor- 
oughly comiilied with the neces-sjiry previous 
conditions to any great extent. 

It is very .seldom that we see .so mucli on a 
practical .subject so well .said, and condensed 
into so limited a space; and, judging from the 
many specimens of butter which have come 
under our observation, and have lieen forced 
upon our ga.strononiic disctission, we feel sure 
that butter-makers will find somtUiing in it 
worth remembering. 

There is no good rejison why there should be 
fill// bad butter iirmluced in Lanca.ster county. 
Biitter-making [involves the sublimest priiici- 



20 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



pies of chemical transformation, or transmuta- 
tion, and depends more or less upon precwus 
conditions for its successful results ; no matter 
how common place it may seem, or how much 
farmers and farmers' wives may hoot at the 
idea of scientific butter-malving. Things 
"worth doing at all are worth doing well," 
and the sooner this is perceived and carried 
out in any department of human industry, the 
sooner the hoped for "good time" will be 
"coming." Health, happiness, long life and 
prospeiity are more intimately connected with 
quality than they are with quantity, and the 
sooner this is seen the better for the progress 
of the human family. 

We have always felt what we deemed a justifi- 
able pride in the quality of our Lancaster county 
butter as compared with other counties in and 
out of the State ; but we were rather " taken 
down" when we were infbrmed in a Philadel- 
phia market that the butter from Chester and 
Montgomery counties took rank above it in 
texture, color and flavor. Lancaster was con- 
ceded to be good, but Montgomery was Ixttcr, 
and Chester best ; and to our reply that travel- 
ing agents from Philadelphia made it a point 
to stop in Lancaster merely for the sake of 
getting a taste of Lancaster butter, we were 
met with the response that their boarding 
houses had not access to, or could not aftbrd to 
buy, Chester county butter. Of course, tlie 
quality of things sometimes depend upon parti- 
ality, or personal preference, but there is a 
possibility that our butter-makers, as a general 
thing, do not attend to the conditions pointed 
out in this article : 

BUTTER MAKING. 
THE COW. 

The French cook, in givinp directions how to cook 
a rabbit, began by saying- : " First catch the rabbit ! " 
— it seeming essential, in his mind, that the rabbit 
should be caught before it was cooked. So we, in 
discussing the question of butter-making, will say — 
first get the cow ! This is an important step, and 
more im'portant than many think — for you cannot 
make good butter unless you have a good' butter cow 
to begin with. Do you ask what breed is best? We 
answer, it does not make any difference what breed, 
if you only get a good butter cow . There are good 
cows among all breeds — more among some than 
among others — and only experience — a practical test 
■ — can decide the value of a cow for making butter. 
She may not give a large mess, but she must give a 
rich mess, and it must have a clean, sweet flavor. 
We see that the farmers in some sections seem to 
understand this point. They have in Otsego county, 
along the Unadilla river, to some extent at least, 
introduced Devon blood, and we And among tlie 
butter-makers there fine herds of grade Devons. 
They are not generally reputed the best butter cows, 
as a breed — most preferring the short horns or 
Jerseys. But the short horns are not adapted to 
hilly regions. For this reason, perhaps, the Devons 
crossed on the best native stock, with a sprinkling of 
Jersey blood, are the best for that section. 

But whatever blood you introduce, be sure it is 
from a milking family. This is the main point to 
look at. Get males from the best milking families — 
males strongly marked with the characteristics of a 
good milking family — and use no others. Cross these 
only with your best butter cows, and if you have cows 
that havecome from good native butter stock, so much 
the better. But never trust to grade bulls, however line, 
except in rare cases, where you are sure of the native 
stock having proved good for several generations. 
When you use a grade male, you never know what blood 
you will breed from. He is just as likely to transmit 
his bad qualities as his good ones, and give vou only 
■worthless, or next to worthless, stock. You cannot 
aflord to take the risk of trusting a grade bull, if you 
are trying to improve your dairy stock . Thereibrc, we 
say, use none but pure bloods. It is better to pay a 
little more for them than to run any risks— but be 
sure that j-ou get a full blood from a good butter 
family and with a good pedigree— for' without a 
good pedigree he may prove as worthless as a grade. 

With a good butler cow and proper care and feed, 
you are in a fair way to make good butter; but with- 
out such a cow, your case is hopeless. No amount of 
care and feeding will make a good cow out of a poor 
one. But you may greatly injure, if you do not spoil, 
a good cow by neglecting to give her an aliundance 
of clean, sweet food and pure water. She is a 
machine for working up raw materials into milk, and 
she cannot make good milk out of poor materials. 
The milk, and the butter and cheese made from it, 
will be flavored more or less with the food which the 
cow eats. See to it that she has sweet, nourishing 
food and pure water in abundance. 

ODORS. 

The cow being all right, and her food and drink 
being all right and in abundance, the milk will be all 



right, and we have only to look at its handling and 
subsequent management. It must be milked from 
the cow in a clean, sweet atmosphere. There must 
be no taints in the atmosphere for the cow to breathe 
or the milk to absorb. If there are, you will find traces 
of them in your butter. Fats of all kinds have a stroilg 
affinity for odors, and are used by the chemists in ex- 
tracting the fragrance from flowers for the purpose 
of making perfumes. These fats wUl absorb odors 
from the atmosphere quite as readily. Hence, milk 
and butter, from first to last, must be kept in a sweet 
place. Even a coal stove or the use of a kerosine 
lamp in a milk room, will flavor butter. The Prac- 
ticnl Farmer relates an instance where a fancy butter 
maker discovered a bad flavor in his butter — very 
slight, but nevertheless to be tasted by his fastidious 
customers — and he traced it to the kerosine lamp 
used to light the milk room. lie at once ran a tube 
from the lamp chimney up through the roof, for the 
smoke to escape, and the evil was remedied. 

Not one cellar in a thousand is fit to set milk or 
keep butter in, because of the mustiness or other bad 
smells in them. The scent rising from vegetables, as 
they sweat and steam — and especially if there is any 
decay about them — will injure the flavor of butter. 
A product so delicate and valuable should therefore 
be kept by itself in a cool, sweet place. 

THE MILK ROOM. 

The milk house, then, must be clean and free from 
all bad odors. It must also be well ventilated, and 
ought to be so built that the temperature can be reg- 
ulated and kept at about sixty degrees. It should be 
built with double walls, so as to have an air chamber 
between. If filled in with sawdust, all the better. 
The windows should be double. The doors should 
be double, and far enough apart so that you can 
stand between them and shut one beibre opening the 
other. The room should have facilities for giving it 
an even heat in cold weather, and be provided with 
means of introducing cool air through an ice-box 
overhead or on the side near the ceiling, in hot 
weather ; or, what is better, be put in communica- 
tion, by means of tubes, with your ice-house adjoin- 
ing and standing on a little higher ground. The 
floor of a milk-room should be elevated above the 
ground, and made double, like the sides, and have a 
free circulation of air underneath ; or it should be 
made of stone or cement laid on the clean earth and 
made impervious to moisture at all points, so that it 
will not absorb milk or other liquid spilt on it, and 
generate bad odors. An elevated double floor is 
much the healthiest to work on, as it will always be 
dry and warm, whereas stone or cement will always 
be cold, if not damp, and bad for th«dairywomen to 
stand on. This is an important point to be considered 
by all who desire to have their wives or daughters, 
or whoever may work in the milk-room, healthy and 
happy. Cold feet and limbs are sure to have a bad 
etiect on the health and spirits, if they do not lead 
directly to consumption and a premature grave. 
Farmers should therefore always bear in mind the 
health, comfort, convenience and happiness of the 
women folks in all their arrangements about the 
dairy-room, kitchen, and wherever women are em- 
ployed. Too much attention cannot be paid to their 
welfare. 

The air of the milk-room should not only be kept 
clean and sweet and the temperature even, but water 
should be kept in the room, so that the air will not 
become too dry. Where milk is set in tanks of water, 
of course the necessary moisture will always be 
present in the atmosphere. It is also essential that 
light should be admitted. We know that some think 
a milk room should be kept dark, but it is a mistake. 
Without light there will be no color to the cream, 
and it will be poorer in quality and deficient in flavor. 
The butter will also be pale and insipid in taste. 
Light is essential to color and fine flavor. Any one 
can make a simple experiment which will go far 
toward satisfying him of this fact. Put a bit of 
board over one-half of the pan, or so as to cut off the 
light. He will have yellow, rich cream where the 
light falls, and white, poor cream where the shadow 
falls. It is also an advantage to let the sunlight into 
a milk room. Of course, it should not falf on the 
milk ; but let it strike the liuilding and shine through 
the windows on the floor. Sunlight is a wonderful 
purifier and promoter of health. It is not desirable 
to have the hot sun shine into the milk room in the 
middle of the day ; but instead of excluding it with 
blinds, we should jirefer white curtains, that would 
let the light through while excluding the heat. Of 
course, if cream stauds long exposed to light, the 
bleaching process will begin. Some think a steady 
dim light the best. We prefer full daylight a ix)rtion 
of the time, at least. During the middle of the day 
the light may be shut otl' altogether. — Syracuse 
standard. 



A WORD FOR THE FARMER. 

Prom the time it was brought into existence 
I have not ceased to feel interested in the 
continuance and prosperity of The Lancaster 
Paumeh. I know that it has had for six 
years " a hard road to travel," or rather the 
editor and publishers have had. This, how- 
eve'r, proves great tenacity and perseverance 
somewhere. I had no anxiety on account 
of its recent change of proprietors, but was 
somewhat concerned for its change of face 
and size. With the first number of the change 
I am very agreeably disappointed,and if it is a 
fair ;sample of what is to follow, Lancaster 
county will have made quite a stride in Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural literature. Should 
our citizens, and farmers especially, fail to 
patronize it as it deserves, the fault will be 
with them, and not with the periodical or its 
editor and publishers. The latter cannot pos- 
sibly have embarked in this enterprise with 
prospects of a lucrative business ; for it cer- 
tainly required a new impetus to keep it from 
sinking. It is therefore evident that their 
giving' it a new lease of life and business 
momentum is more for the honor of Lancaster 
county and its tillers, than for the "almighty 
dolhir. " I therefore renew my appeal to my 
brother tillers of the soil of "the garden 
county." Let us "put our shoulder to the 
wheel," and give The Lancaster Parmer, 
an impetus that will keep it going up for the 
next six years instead of going down, after 
which I have no fears of its permanency and 
ability to stand on its own bottom. 

H. M. E. 



This nujiber of The Pakjier will be sent 
to some of our agricultural friends who are not 
subscribers, that they may have an opportu- 
nity to pass upon its merits, and in the hope 
that they will become sub.scribers. We invite 
the attention of all who receive it in that way 
to the prospectus on first page. 



"DYING FOR OUR COUNTRY." 

In times of war we hear much said about the duty 
and glory of dying for our country. Orators who are 
careful to keep their precious selves out of the bloody 
fray, will harangueaudiencesbythehouronthe noble- 
ness and reward of other people laying down their lives 
to save their bleeding country. So meritorious is this 
sacrifice considered by some, that they are ready to 
promise eternal happiness in heaven to those who make 
it, whatever may be their characters, or other deeds 
while here on earth. 

But the religion which prepares men for heaven is 
not manifested by imbruing our hands in the blood of 
others, and the act of rushing intothe cannon's mouth 
will not atone for other sins which have been com- 
mitted throughout a lifetime. 

Dying for one's country generally means, when 
stript of its sophistry, dying for those who wish to gov- 
ern the country. It is dying for kings and nobles and 
other great men who quarrel among themselves, and 
then, too selfish to do their own fighting, meanly call 
on their subjects to do it for them. And when thou- 
sands or hundreds of thousands of these subjects have 
" bitten the dust," how soon they are forgotten and left 
to moulder in unremembered graves, while their poor 
families and friends are euflering forthe want of their 
care and support. What has been the gain of dying 
for the countries during the many centuries whose 
history has beenwritenin blood? In many eases where 
men have died for their country their country has died 
with them. This was the case with ancient Greece and 
Kome, and has been also with many modern nations. 
They have resorted to the sword to avenge some fancied 
insult, or secure some unlawful end, and mightierones 
have paid them in the coin of their own choosing and 
blotted them from the map of the continent. 

How much more wise and noble to live for one's 
country instead of dying for it. When dead there is 
an end to all eflbrts to promote the welfare of our 
friends and neighbors. But while we live we may daily 
perform deeds and exert an influence that shall bless, 
not only our friends and our country, but the world. 

Let then this false maxim, that it is our duty to die 
for our country, be relegated to oblivion along with 
that equally false one, that the way to preserve peace 
is to prepare for war. Both had their origin in times 
darker than our own, and are unworthy to be cher- 
ished or believed by enlightened people. L. 

There is, most unquestionably, a time and a 
sense in which the foregoing is just as true as 
any "proof of holy writ," and that time is when 
a nation or a country is enjoying a profound 
state of peace. Although "in peace there's 
nothing so becomes a man as modest stillness 
and humility;" yet, when the "blasts of war 
are blown in his ears, " at the behest of others, 
he imitates the action of the tiger, "stiffens up 
the siuews, summons' up the blood, and dis- 
guises fair nature with hard favored rage," 
and it is then too late, and altogether useless, 
to preach to hun the doctrines of peace. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



21 



There is doubtless s<ich a thing as disin- 
terested patriotism, or love of country, but we 
never hare believed, and never ran believe, that 
all manifestations of patriotism are in reality 
what they appear to l)e. How can men, daily 
subjccteii to the vicissitudes of the cannon's 
fell moutli, indulge in wanton acts of theft, 
rapine, pillage aiid destruction, and at the 
Siime time be disinterested patriots? or what 
must be their ideas of lieaveu and its beati- 
tudes, and their fitness for such a jilace, when 
they are ready to die ostensibly for their coun- 
try, with their hands so imbrued in blood. The 
farmers of our country are characteristically 
men of peace, and when wars ensue they are 
not brought about by the patienl and humble 
tillers o^ the soil, who liir for humanity, l)ut 
by scheming, intriguing, and ambitious idlers, 
who esteem " the world as booty, and men as 
brutes." 

Xothing but a state of moral and intellectual 
culture will impress men with a true knowledge 
of their resiwnsibilities and their rights, and 
teach knaves that " those who br.eed the quar- 
rels should be the men to light." 



VOICES FROM ABROAD. 
"UERE AND THERE." 

The following extracts from letters to The 
Express will be read with interest by our farm- 
ers, coming as they do from two former resi- 
dents of Lancaster county; not only on account 
of the information they impart as to what is 
transpiring in other parts of our widely ex- 
tended countrj', but alsoon account of the sug- 
gestions they make in reference to the com- 
munication of items of information on the 
farming progress of the county, which would 
be interesting to local readers, but more «.^pe- 
cially to those residing far beyond our limits, 
but who still retain an affectionate recollec- 
tion of their dear old homes. Should any of 
our rural population contemplate a change in 
their local habitat, they miglit find something 
worth knowing in these letters, by way of com- 
parison or contrast with their present stalun. 
If we, however, owned a farm in Lancaster 
county worth S'500 per acre, and it was paid 
for, we would not trouble ourselves much 
about cent, per cents, on first investments, or 
large profit margins. Many of the farmers of 
Lancaster county have come into possession 
of their broad acres through inheritance, and 
have subsequently imjjroved them without 
counting the cost, and who prefer moderate 
profits and healthful ease more than they do 
the increa.sed labors, the responsibilities and 
ianxieties of larger and more complicated 
operations. These, of course, will be content 
with what they have and remain where they 
are. Others will act according to necessity. 

FARMING IN ILLINOIS— KEMINISCENCES OF 
BY-GONE DAYS. 
Maroa, Macon co., Ill, Jan. 16, 187.5. 
Winter has laid itR icy hand upon us in earnest. 
The thermometer on Saturday marked twenty-one de- 
grees below zero. Kansas calls upon us for material 
aid, and the good people re.spond cheerfully in money, 
clothinc:, corn and other necessaries of life; and it is 
ritrht they should, for seldom we see a iieople so pros- 
perous and happy. Oureropsof all descriptions have 
been Rood, with remunerating prices. The health of 
our comnuuilty was never better. The doctors say, 
"distressingly healthy." 

DWEM.IN'I! HOUSES, 

large and beautiful, are springing up like magic in 
every direction, and few thrifty farmers are found liv- 
ing in huts, or riding to chureli in a lumlier Wiigon. 
Almost every necessary of the farmer hasgonedown, 
■while the produce of the farm, except wheat, has 
gone up. 

DUB nOMR MARKET. 

Lumber sells at from $lo to #40perthou8and; coal 
from $3 to $4 i>er ton; wheat, SOcents; corn,.5.5cents; 
oats, 50 cents; while i)ork stands (irni at (i'-i gross. 
These arc balmy days for Central Illinois, and if the 
money obtained is properly used will prove a great 
blessing. 

Thisdate, A. D. 187.5, reminds me that my flftieth 
birthday is nigh at hand, and that 

FORTY TEARS HAVE PASSED 

since the managing editorof Tlic A' j-prcs.? and I struck 
glad hands, not over the bloody chasm, but over the 
silver stream, made alive, not with flsh, but with mini- 
ature water-wheels and tilt-hammers, made and ope- 



rated by our own hands near our olil homes In Bart. 
I pause for rcllcction, not for the return of those 
" balmy days" of our boyhood, or to return to the 
rocks and hills of my native State, to obtain a liveli- 
hood; for eleven years' experience has proven beyond 
all doubt, that Illinois stands pre-eminently over her 
sister States in agricullure, and will continue so 
through all lime to conic. She lias never sutlercd to 
any great extent from any natural calamity, and has 
never called uiK)n her sister States for assistance, yet 
many of her inliabitants emigrate East, West, North 
and South; but I will venture the assertion that no 
other State can boast of so many 

" RKTCRXINO I'RODIGAI,8." 

Farmers who believe there is more money made, 
and made easier, among the rocks and hills of an 
E.isterii farm, which costs $:!00 per acre, than we do 
on our .?;J0 prairie lands, wilt be interested in the fol- 
lowing : 

Four boys, age<l from I'l to 20 years, raised during 
the past season l,(i'i9 bushels of small grain and be- 
tween 8 ,tKX) and 9,000 bushels of corn , besiiles potatfu's , 
sorghum, Ac. We will now take :i'20 acres of land at 
$'!0 per acre .and add $1,400 for horses and imple- 
ments, and wc have f 11,000 capital hivested. 
Cash sales for hogs and other articles - $2.21.5,00 
Value of corn and oats on hand . . - - 4,01.5.00 
Earnings off the farm -------- 240.00 



»(i,470.00 



Int. at 10 per cent, on investments $1,100.00 
Taxes --.-----.- 125.00 
Cash paid out for labor - - - . 140,00 

$1, .105.00 

Balance ---------- $5,105,00 

My own time has been spent chiefly on improve- 
ments, as follows, with cost of material added : 
240 rods of three-board fence - - - - $ 180,00 

40 rods picket fence inclosing house - - 140,00 
One corn-crib holding 4,000 bushels of corn 250.00 
One two-story dwelling house 10 by 28 feel 2,000.00 

Total - - - - $2,570,00 

Now, Mr. Editor, if some one owning $'i00 land 
will show a better year's work, with the same amount 
of capital and labor, I will consider the subject of 
emigrating East. 

THE EXPRESS — 

long may it live to express its condemnation of bad 
men in high places — send it regularly, as I claim a 
life-lease upon it. Please find a ten dollar " stamp " 
to pay the printer. J. W. F. 



"LIKE A LETTER FROM OUR OLD HOME," 
Powell'SjStation, Tenn., Jan. 18, 1875. 
[Extract from a business letter,] Enclosed find 
post-office order from Knoxville for $8 for The ^'cekly 
Express, which will pay arrearages and one year in 
advance, I will try to be more punctual the ne.xt 
time. Your paper has come very regularly and we 
have perused its columns with a relish. It always 
seems like a letter from our old home. As Salisbury 
township, Lancaster county. Fa., is our native place, 
the articles written by your Gap correspomlent have 
always been interesting. Could he not give some 
items of the farming, &c,, in Pequea Valley — how 
many cattle are fed by our old neighbors, prices paid 
for them, prospects of growing crops, how much 
sowed, planted, Ac, what good horses are selling for 
and general items in the valley ? C. H, S, 



THE FARMERS' NORTHERN MARKET. 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the Farmer's Northern Market Company, 
of Lancaster, the President, David Evans, 
presented his annual report. It states that — 

"While reasonable profits may soon be expected, 
they will not be as large as they ought, as long as 
sellers will prefer to stand on the street with their 
marketing, and people as willingly buy there as in a 
place better adapted for the iiurp<isc. But let us hope 
that what we have inaugurated here will soon be 
follnwed in the three quarlcrs of the -city; and while 
affording the public these belter facilities, will also 
give the stockholders adequate renumcration for their 
investment. Indeed, there arc no places in any city 
of the same population, and laid out on the same 
plan, that, affonl tiner and more suitable sites for 
markets, than the places now occupied by the old 
Indian Queen Hotel, in the eastern section of the city, 
the Plough Tavern in the western section, and the 
spot on the southeastern corner of South Queen and 
Mid<ile streets, in the southern section of the city. 
With the markets thus located, and two held on 
Tuesday and Thursday, or Friday, of every week, and 
the other op|iositc two on Wednesday and Saturday 
of every week, there would be convenience afforded 
to the cititizens of our city enjoyed by few ot her cities; 
and, withal, create an impetus to improvement in the 
different parts of the city not now to Ije realized. The 
only objection that can tie urged to such a step is that 
of a supiiosed decline in the value of property where 
the market is now held. But this is not founded on 



good reason. The exiiericnce of other places is not 
such. And if the case were such, who would feel a 
justification in the pleu — that general prospi'rity and 
convenience to the public should be sacrificed for the 
bcni^fit of a few ? Let us hope that this great need 
will s(K)n be suiiplried to the full measure of its press- 
ing claims." 

The closing of the evening markets one hour 
earlier is suggested, together with such rules 
as will prevent the congregation of boys using 
vulgar and indecent language, and the habit 
of smoking in the market liouse. The punish- 
ment of a f(!W transgressors by way of exam- 
ple is recommended. 

The Treasurer's annual report shows the 
financial condition of the company. The re- 
ceipts from rents of stalls were $:i,23li.'.»-2 ; for 
rent of restaurant, .?.'!")'i.."5S, making total re- 
ceipts ."Silj.Wii.:!!!. The whole amount expend- 
ded WiW S4,0rt4.4H, leaving the excess of ex- 
penditures over receipts S4!iM.lH, which is 
$1H2.28 more of a dificiency than in the pre- 
vious year. 

For the current year the receipts are estima- 
ted at - - - - - - 8.5,052.00 

and the expenditures at - - - 2,980.13 



Leaving a balance of - - - 82,071.77 
which the report states may be applied either 
to the reduction of the debt or the payment 
of dividends to stockholders. 

The following persons were elected directors 
for the current year: Benj. L. Landis, .John 
Buckwalter, .Joseiih Samson, Isaac Powl, 
John Hess, Clirn. Zecher, C. A. Bitner, Con- 
rad Gast, David Evans. 



'FARMER JOHN." 



On page 24 we print a little domestic poem 
which impresses an instructive les.son and is 
veiy appropriate to the fin^sides of both 
"ti>wn and country." We insert it in The 
F.\u>iEU because we feel it will be welcomed 
by the wiser class of our readers, and serve to 
break the dull monotony of perpetually playing 
upon a single string. 

We have long thought of devoting a 
"corner" in our journal to the reception of" 
effusions of this kind, but want of space, 
heretofore, has prevented it. But, should we 
conclude to make this a feature, of course we 
must re.serve to ourselves the privilege of judg- 
ing the quality of what should be iulmitted and 
what denied. 

Many poetical effusions are only flights of 
fancy and written to merely please the fancy; 
still, there arc many of the true "ring,"" 
which speak in more imprassive language than 
the tame numbers of prose, and "Farmer 
John" we conceive to be of that cluiracter. 



CANARIES. 



Rather more than three hundred years ago, 
a ship partly laden with little green birds 
captured in the Canary Islands, having been 
wrecked near Elba, the birds made their 
escape, flew to the island, and there settled 
themselves. Numbers of them were caught 
by the inhabitants, and on a<rcount of their 
sprightly vivacity and the brilliancy of their 
voice they soon liecamc great favorites, and 
rapidly spread over Europe. The original 
color of the canary is not the bright yellow 
with which its feathers are generally tinted, 
but a kind of dai)pled olive green, black and 
yellow, either color predominating according 
to circumsUvnces. By careful management 
the bird-fanciers are able to procure canaries 
of every tint between the three colors, having 
instituted a set of rules by which the quality 
and arrangement of the coloring is reduced to a 
regular system. Still the original dappled 
green is always apt to make its appearance, 
and even when two colored birds are mated, a 
green one is pretty sure to be found in the 
uest For our own part we care little for the 
artificial varieties produced by the fanciers, 
and to our mind an intelligent bird and a good 
song.ster is not one whit the less attractive 
because the colors of its plumage are not 
arranged precisely according to the fancier's 
rules. 



22 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



CULTURE OF THE GRAPE. 

PLANTING — THE TKELLIS — PEUNING. 

Whatever else in the cereal or vegetable line 
a landowner or householdci' may not have room 
for, space can always be found for at least one 
or more grape vines, the fruit from which is 
among the most wholesome and delicious that 
can he eaten; and coming, as it does, at the 
season of the year when other small fruits are 
scarce, it is the more desirable. This sketch 
is not written for those practical horticultur- 
alists who know more about the culture of the 
grape than the WTiter, but for those 
who have given little or no attention 
to the subject, and may not have access 
to such able and exhaustive manuals 
on the subject as " The Grcqje Ciiltur- 
t«t," by Andkew S. Fuller, which 
is noticed more fully on another page. 
This class, we apprehend," includes the 
bulk of those owning faniis and gard- 
ens in Lancaster county; and it will 
therefore be our aim to make this arti- 
cle as plain and itractical as possible. 
For the accompanying illustrations, we 
are under obligations to Mr. Fuller, 
whose system of trellising and pruning we 
adopted and experimented with someyears ago, 
and which we still regard as the best, at least for 
amateurs or those who desire to grow grapes in 
limited quantities or for their own use. Whether 
it is the best for vineyard purposes we leave for 
the determination of those who have had expe- 
rience in that wider field of culture — though we 
think that few who read Mr. Fuller's reasons 
for adopting and adhering to it, after a careful 
consideration and trial of all other plans, will 
fail to be impressed in its favor. 

PLANTING THE VINE. . 

Although our object is to treat more particu- 
larly of constructing the trellis and pruning che 
vine, as the season is approaching for planting 
vines by those who did not plant last fall, a few 
words on this subject may interest and profit 
some of our readers. As a general rule, when 
young vines are purchased from careful nur- 
eerymen, who understand their business, the 
roots will be pruned ready for planting ; for, 
however carefully they may be taken from the 
nursery, the ends of the roots will be more or 
less broken. These should be trimmed ofl' 
smoothly before planting. It is also beneficial 
to shorten the roots considerably before plant- 
ing, especially if they are long and destitute 
of branching fibers. Two feet is long enough 
for any rootupon a two or three year old vine; 
longer ones should be cut ofl', not only for con- 
venience in planting, but to incite the main 
roots to throw out new ones from their ends, 
as well as their sides. The soil will thereby 
become filled with 
feeding roots, instead 
of a few long naked 
ones, which have no 
power of absorbing 
food except through 
the small fibres which 
exist only at their ex- 
treme ends. The soil 
within the radius oc- 
cupied by these long 
roots is useless, so far 
as furnishing nutri- 
ment is concerned, 
because they are not 
capable of absorbing 
it. It will therefore 
often be necessary to 
shorten the roots to 
less than two feet, 
and it is best to cut 

off a portion of the ends, no matter what their 
lengthmaybe; for it is not the number or length 
of the roots that determine the quality of the 
vine, but their condition. If long, soft, spongy 
and unripened wood and roots are left upon tlie 
vine, they are of little benefit to it at best, and 
they will often die, and in their decay commu- 
nicate disease to the other and more healthy 
portions of the plant. Vines will sometimes 
have so many roots that when transplanted the 
buds left upon the stem are insufiicient to call 



them into action, and they perish; forroots will 
not remain entirely inactive for any considera- 
ble time during the growing season without 
suffering. K the roots are so crowded that they 
cannot be distinctly separated and a clear space 
allowed for each when placed in the groimd, a 
portion should be entirely removed. 

The roots properly trimmed, the stem should 
be cut off to almost eighteen inches, if not 
already done. The hole to receive the vine 
should be dug in a circular foim, and from six 
to ten inches deep on the outside, and four to 
six inches in the centre; then set a good strong 




Fig. 1. 

stake in the centre of the hole, by which in- 
jury to the roots is prevented after planting. 
feet the vine in the centre of the hole close by 
the stake; spread out the roots in every direc- 
tion, and throw on a little soil as you proceed, 
to hold them in position. When all the roots 
are properly distributed, fill up the hole, press- 
ing down the soil with the 
foot. The depth to which roots 
should be covered depends upon 
whether the soil be heavy or 
light, and on other conditions 
— deeper covering in light than 
in heavy soils being necessary, 
because the air has more ready 
access through a porous than a 
tenacious soil ; and while it is 
necessary that air should reach 
the roots, it is not judicious to 
allow it to penetrate too freely, 
because roots require a partially 
confined atmosphere, and not 
one that has any apparent circulation. There 
are those who advocate plantmgasdeepasone 
or two feet, while others, going to the other ex- 
treme, barely cover the roots with earth, and 
then depend on mulching for moisture. Mr. 
Fuller recommends a medium depth as the best. 
If the vines are planted in the fa 11 a little mound 
should be raised around the stem to protect the 
lower buds from freezing out ; but if planted in 
spring a shallow basin may be left about the 
stem to allow the rains more readily to reach 



two inches of the young shoot. As the young 
cane grows, keep it loosely tied to the stake. 
At the end of the first season the vines wiU 
usually be large enough to be pruned for train- 
ing, but many of the more feeble varieties will 
require another year, and they should be cut 
back in the fall or winter tatwo or three buds, 
only one of which should be allowed to grow as 
in the first year. 

CONSTKUCTION OF THE TEELLTS. 

While the usual manner of making trellises 
with wires running horizontally is regarded as 
objectionaVde for reasons which we have not 
room to discuss, it is a much more expensive 
method than the one shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration (Fig. 1) consisting of two hori- 
zontal bars and perpendicular wires. In trellises 
constnicted in the ordinary way there is a diffi- 
culty in keeping the wires straight, owing to 
contraction and expansion imder a change of 
temperature and weight of the fruit and vine; 
besides, unless placed unusually close, the wires 
are not where most needed when the young 
bearing shoots first start. Mr. Fuller's method 
is to select posts of durable wood of from four 
to six inches diameter, and six and a half feet 
long, and to set them in the ground two and a 
half feet deep, and in a line with the vines, 
about eight feet apart, the vine being in the 
middle of each trellis. AVe used ordinary pine 
three-inch scantling, with the lower end tlipr- 
oughly saturated with parattineor gas tar, and 
they have lasted for years and are still sound. 
Nail on strips of ordinary lath, one inch thick, 





Fig. 3. 
the roots. It can be filled up when the vines 
are fairly started in growth. 

When the buds begin to push into growth, 
select the strongest and rub the others off; a 
bud near the ground is preferable to one that 
is a foot above, and this is one reason why the 
vines should be cut ofl'quite short when planted, 
as itmakes the lower budsmore certain to push. 
After the one bud or shoot has been selected, 
the old stem above it may be cut off to within 



Fig. 2. 
one strip being placed one foot from the ground 
and the other at the top of the posts. Then 
take No. 16 galvanized iron wire and put it on 
vertically, twisting it around the lower and 
upper rail, each wire being placed just where 
the upright bearing shoots are to grow. The 
distance'between the wires will differ, accord- 
ing to the variety of vines, as the distance be- 
tween the buds varies; but usually from eight 
to twelve inches will be the proper distance. 
The wires can be eas- 
ily moved to suit the 
buds. No. 16 wire 
runs 102 feet to the 
pound and is there- 
fore inexpensive. \ 

PKUNING AND 
TRAINING. 

The first year the 
single vine is allowed 
to grow to the stake 
set in the planting, 
the lateral shoots be- 
ing stopped by pinch- 
ing back. The next 
season this cane is to 
be cut back to within 
twelve or fifteen inch- 
es of the ground and 
only the ujiper two 
buds allowed to grow, 
all others being rubbed oft'. From these upper 
buds two canes are produced, each one of 
which should have the same treatment as the 
single one of the previous season. These canes 
by fall should be from eight to twelve feet long 
and at least half an inch in diameter. If 
much smaller than this, one of them should 
be cut away and the other cut back to two 
buds, and two canes should be grown, as in the 
previous season ; but with good vines and 
good culture they will be ready for training at 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



23 



tlip t'lid of tlie scconil season. Tlic two CiUics 
of the vine arc now slidi-tt'iicd to four fciH eacli 
aii<l bent down in opposite directions and laid 
against the lower barof the trellis to form arms. 
Select live or six of the buds on tlic upper side 
of the arms thus laid down, to be >;rowii into 
upriglit (^anes, making a mark on the trelHs bivr 
opposite to each, and arrange the upright wires 
accordingly. When the buds have all started, 
and made ii growtli of two or three inches, the 
arms should 1h^ brought up level and fast- 
ened to tlie side oft lie lower bar. All buds and 
shoots not wanted for upright canes sliould lie 
broken otT, and so soon as those remaining are 
longeliough to tie totlie uiirighl wires, it should 
be carefully done. AVhcn the upriglit canes have 
grown to almost two feet, they should lie stopped 
by iiinching otF their ends, which will cause the 
remaining leaves to grow healthy and more 
vigorously. When they grow again to a few 
inches, they should be again checked, so as to 
keep them within the limits of the trellis, and 
not allow them to grow much, if any, above it. 
All the liitcr<ds or sldesliootssliould bestopjied 
as thongh thej' were on young vini's. Figure 
2 represents a vine at the end of the first .sea- 
son aftertlie armsare formed. The first ujiright 
cane at the left hand of the middle, shows the 
position of the three branches of fruit, which is 
all that should be allowed to grow on each .shoot 
this year. No more fruiting canes should be 
allowed to grow on one side than the other — 
the vhw should be kept equally Ijalauced in 
fruit, foliage and wood. 

The upright canes are pruned Uick the first 
year of training to two buds; the small cross 
lines near the ba,se of the canes (Fig. 2) show 
where they should be cut. The next year a 
cane will procee*! from each of these biuls, and 
all otluT shoots which may start from the 
sniiiU ends near the arm should be rublied off; 
or, if the buds should produce two shoots each, 
as they will sometimes do, only the strongest 
one should be allowed to grow. The second 
year the caues will each produce three or four 
bunches of fruit, and instead of twelve uiiright 
canes (supposing that to have been the number 
the first year) we now have twenty-four, and 
allowing three bimchesof fruit to each, it gives 
seventy-two bimches to each vine ; and Mr. 
Fuller says this is not an over-estimate for the 
product of a vine the fourth year after plant- 
ing. The canes are to be treated the same aa 
regards stopping, pinching laterals, etc., dur- 
ing each year of their growth. Figure :S shows 
a vine at the end of the fourth year (the second 
on the trellis,) but with only five spurs with 
two canes on each, making ten bearing canes 
on each arm. The first two canes at the right 
hand of the middle are represented with the 
three bunches of fruit on each. The cross 
lines near the base of the shoots show where 
the vine is to be pruned at the end of the fourth 
year. The uppermost of the two canes is cut 
entirely away, and the other is cut back to two 
buds. The vine in siibsequent years is to be 
pruned in the same manner; but each year the 
pruning should be reversed, if the position of 
the lowi^r bud will .admit of it; that is, if we 
cut away the left hand cane this season, we 
should cut away the right hand cane thene.xt; 
in this way the spur will remain nearly upright. 

The olijection to this system of training has 
been urged that in time the simrs liecome so 
long as to be unsightly and iiK'onvenient; but 
taking the average of .some twenty varieties 
that he had trained, Mr. Fuller foiiiid that the 
spurs do not increase more than three-fourths 
of an inch each year, and if the foregoing de- 
tails are strictly followed, the <i.nus need not be 
renewed oftener than once in fifteen or 
twenty years. If necessary, new arms may be 
formed by allowing the two middle .spurs to 
produce but one cane each, and these may 
grow four or five feet long; at the next prun- 
ing the old arms should then be cut away and 
these two new canes bent down to form new 
ones. 

For garden culture the trellis is as indis- 
pensable as in the vineyard, as the vines should 
never be fastened directly on the side of a 
building or fence, but should be at least six 
inches from them; a foot is still batter, as 



this allows a free circulation of air liehiml thi^ 
vine, and i>revents, in a great measure, the 
brui.sing of the leaves, which usually occurs 
when vines are laid against tiu- boards or 
walls. Where the space is limited, as in a 
yard, the form oftrellis may be varieil to suit. 
15y doubling the height of tht^ tnOlis and train- 
ing four tiers of arms instead of two, the 
(piatitity of fruit may be doublcil ; thongh 
where economy of space is not an object it is 
better tn conline the system to one titir. 

There arc many whys and wherefores which 
may suggest themselves to the mind of the 
amateur, which we have not space to explain 
in this article ; but it will Iw the pleasure of 
TllK F.MtMKlt to answer any spe(;jal iiKiuir- 
ies on this as on other sul)jects, as well as to 
give expression to the views of any of our 
friends who may be partial to any other .sy.s- 
tem of pruning and training. j. M. w. o. 



LANCASTER COUNTY APPLES. 

THE SMOIvKIIOUSE. 

One of the most popular apples in this 
State, and especially in this couidy, is tlie 
SMOivElKU'SE, and unless it proves inferior in 
other sections it is destined to become much 
more widely disseminated. Its history and 
description can probably not lie better given 
than has been done by Downing, as follows : 
"Origin — Lancaster county, Pa,, near Mill- 
creek; grew on the farm of Gibbons,* near 

his smokehouse ; hence its name. " Downing 
pronounces it "good; valued for culinary 
uses." This description has no doubt made 
an impression, where it is not known, that it 
is valued for culinary uses only. 

This, however, is a mistake wherever such 
an impression exists, for in this section of 
country, if (in its season) it is not sold iiutrc 
readily by hucksters and retailers than any 
other ajiple, it certainly sells second to notie. 
" WM. fenn" — "penn" — "pen." 

Origin — Columbia, Lancaster county. It 
is the opinion of Charles Downing that the 
above names represent one and the same 
apple. Although a great deal of controversy 
has been had of late on account of another 
apple becoming somewhat disseminated by 
the name "Pen," it has since been conclu- 
sively shown to he "Baldwin." .Suffice it to 
say that the "Wm. Penn" is a Lancaster 
coimty apple, described by Downing. It is 
an excellent keeper and a prolific bearer. It 
is important to pomology that there should 
not be two fruits of the same class put out 
under the same name. Should this article 
cause further controversy, I shall be prepared 
to show conclusively how and why the confu- 
sion between two such different apples has 
occuired. 

SAYLOR. 

The original tree of this apple stands now 
in this town, (Marietta, Pa.,) on the property 
formerl}' owned by Edward Saylor ; hence its 
name. It has been an enormous and is still 
an excellent bearer. It is described by Down- 
ing under the name "Ned," which name 
was aft(!rwards objected to by Saylor's friends 
on account of its being a nickname givini to 
him. In the nurseries it is now, I believe, 
grown under the name of Savior only. It has 
to .some extent been fruited on young trees, 
and promises to be one of the most valuable 
winter apples, for this section at least. As 
an early, regular, and prolific bearer it is fully 
equal to that iiopular apple, "Smith's C'ider;" 
probably not quite equal in size, but of belter 
quality, and ipiite as good a keeper. Whether 
it will ]irove eiiually as valuable in other sec-- 
tions will require further testing. 

all-summer, 
is another Lancaster county seedling, destined 
to Ix-come popular. As a summer apple there is 
nothing again.st it except size, which is, how- 

*To be more explicit, this popular apple originated about 
the year 1805, ou the farm of WiIIi;im Oibbona, a ^^nind- 
uncle of Dr. Jo«. Gibbous, who atill reside)* ou tlie old 
homestead, in Ui>per Leacock, aud keeps up a fiue supply 
of the aucestnU fruit. o. 



ver, more attributable to overbearing than to 
its real nature. When not lierinitted to over- 
liear the fruit is niedium si/e, very crisp and 
tender, the flavor resembling Farly Harvest, 
but fruit of much more perfect form. The tree 
bears very young. It was first brought to 
imblit^ notice, I believe, by Casper Hiller, of 
Coiiestoga ("entre, Lancaster county. 

KI^APROTU 

is also a Lancaster county a))iile, brought into 
notice by Dr. J. K. Kshleiiian, on the farm of 
Mr. Iheneman, lint he does not locate it. A 
vigorous grower and prolifii^ liearer; pro- 
nounced very good. August to October. 

IIELMONT. 

This very popular aiipN? originated near 
Strasburg, Lancaster cimiity, in the garden of 
Mr.s. Beam, at her gate— hence, the name 
"(iate ap]il(%" as also other synonyms. 
Although tliis valuable fruit is a native of our 
county, it has not been extensively ]ilante<l 
here, while in the west it is one of the most 
popular winter apiiles. Its season is from 
November to February. Size, medium to 
large ; quality very good. 

FAN.W. 

This apiile also originated near Strasburg, 
on the farm f<irmerly owned by .Jacob I5(;am. 
Fruit large ; (luality very good. A new apple 
of great promi.se. 

FRANKLIN. 

A native of Lanciuster county, not located 
by Downing. Pronounced good. Septenilwr 
to November. 

These are all described by Downing in his 
great work, "F^ruit and Fruit Trees of 
America" — a work which should lie in the 
possession of every fruil-grower in the land. 

There are other valuable apples in Lancas- 
ter county mit yet brought to public notice, 
which should be liroiight out and fairly tested. 
Not that the present catahigues contain too 
few'varieties, but because fruits generally suc- 
ceed best when not too far from their native 
home. Lancaster county has already cfintri- 
buted its full share to our native list of apples, 
but as there are still valuable kinds not brought 
liefore the public, may I, in behalf of progres- 
sive pomologists, solicit all who possess valuable 
apples, a-s also other fruits, not yet brought to 
publicity, to bring such to the monthly meet- 
ings of our Agricultural and Horticultural 
Societj', where they will l^e examined by com- 
petent committees, and reported through 
The Lancaster F'aumer. u. m. e. 



THE PERSIMMON. 



Tlie persimmon {Diospi/ms Virriiniana) 
sometimes called the date iilnm, from the re- 
semblance of the dried fruit to that of the 
true date, is found from T,ouisiana to New 
York. In some soils it grows only to a large 
bush, while in rich bottom land it is freiiuently 
found twenty or m<ire inches in diameter, and 
as much as sixty feet high. Some of the 
trees appear to be i)ure males and are barren, 
while others have perfect flowers, and bring 
forth fruit without the aid of the ]iurely male. 
Hut a male plant in the vicinity of the others 
is of much advantage in producing large 
crops. 

The fruit in its wild state varies considera- 
bly in size and (piality. In cultivation it 
shows a disposition to increase, in size, and 
from this we might infer that the horticul- 
turist would have but little difliculty in bring- 
ing about results .as favorabli- as have lieeii 
accomplished in the peach, plum, &c. 

The fruit is iiroduced abundantly and ripens 
after most fruitsare over ; heni:e it would prove 
a valu.able addition to our fall siqiiilv. Ft is 
very pleasant to most palates, and in its dried 
state is by many considered much superi<ir to 
the true date. I have no doubt that by and 
by we shall have seedless varieties, as we 
have kinds now that are almost so. 

Indeed, I was under the inqiression for sev- 
eral years past that that desideratum was an 
accoinplished fact. A tree growing on the 
premises of Mrs. Rogers in East King street, 



24 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Lancaster, to which I have access, had large 
fruit, and all the specimens I ever got from it 
were entirely seedless. I procured a sucker 
from it which produced the third or fourth 
year after planting about a dozen specimens, 
which were likewise entirely seedless. For 
several years past some of the fruit was seed- 
less, while -.he majority of them had from two 
to six seeds. Still it is a decided acquisition, 
and by skillful management may bring forth 
good results. 

The seeds, if kept moist and frozen during 
the winter, will grow readily, though sometimes 
some will not come up until the second year. 
The seedlings can be budded or grafted, and 
will bear as young as the apple. c. h. 



WHEAT GLEANINGS. No. 2. 

The farmer, who, after all, is the most inde- 
pendent and useful member of the common- 
wealth, has to contend with drawbacks and 
occasional short crops, in spite of all his skill 
and industry. The weather and the seasons 
he can by no means control, but he can observe 
and note the results. He finds that a continu- 
ance of dry or wet weather alters the relative 
proportions of corn and straw in a crop of cere- 
als. A spell of wet and warm weather will 
favor the growth of the leaves, stalk aud roots, 
as also the formation of new shoots. This ex- 
hausts the material that should go to make up 
the seed, hence the yield of the crop is dimin- 
ished. On the otlier hand, a spell of dry weather, 
before or during sproutmg time, produces the 
opposite effect ; that is, the store of formative 
matter accumidated in the roots is used in far 
greater proportion for the production of seed, 
and the quantity of straw will be less. The pro- 
ductiveness of the wheat plant by division may 
not be familiar to all. The experiment was 
published by Mr. Stowe, who, on the 13th of 
July, 1850, planted a single grain of wheat in 
his garden. It came up in ten days and grew 
luxuriantly till the 13th of September. It was 
then taken up and divided into slips and 
replanted. The plants lived and flour- 
ished until the 13th of November, when 
they were again i-aised, divided and i-e- 
planted, and sufiered to remain until the Kith 
of April, 1851. The weather then becoming 
unfavorably wet they were aU taken up again 
and divided into no less than 114 plants; these, 
being planted, were permitted to stand until 
the month of August, when they were produc- 
tive of the amazing number of 520 ears of wheat, 
many of them of full size, containing more than 
fifty grains each. This shows what may be done 
with a single seed ; but what bearing it has on 
thin or otherwise sowing in the open field, I am 
Dot able to see. It is more curious to learn of 
its amazing productiveness under such a course 
of treatment. They say "straws show which 
way the wind blows." I therefore give it in 
substance as I find it. The experiment is easily 
made by any one who doubts it. 

As the weather is mentioned as one of the 
unavoidable hindrances, allow me to mention 
that the learned W. H. Webster, a surgeon in 
the Royal Navy, England, affirms (after the 
most critical attention devoted to the subject 
for a considerable period in all quarters ) that 
"the weather is constantly marked by recur- 
rences, separated by a solar month of thirty 
and a half days. According to him tlie same 
day of the montli, or nearly the same days, are 
critical — either show the highest or lowest 
barometer of the month, or else tlie highest or 
lowest thennometer. " Tliis he affirms he has 
verified in an enomious number of instances, 
of which he gives a few. Of course, we neitlier 
admit nor deny, but as he sets aside the suj)- 
posed influence of the moon altogether, his 
meterologieal pulses being "solar," he may be 
astride of a hobby not yet recognized as of any 
importance to the surgeon or the farmer. Our 
"Prob.,"at Washington, seems to know some- 
thing about the shifting winds, and hits it very 
well on an average. 

In my gleaning, the experiment of Mr. Ilal- 
lett, an Englisli agriculturist, came to my 
notice, on what is called by him "Nursery 



Wheat." " A grain produces a stool, consist- 
ing of many ears; each grain is planted in a hole 
twelve inches apart every way, each head in a 
row. From all these he selects the best grain. 
This process he repeated. I copy his tabular 
arrangement: 

Year. length in in. No grains. Ears on stalk. 

1857. Original ear, i% 45 

1S.58. Finest, 6>^ 79 10 

1859. Ditto, 7% 91 22 

1860. Ears imperfect from wet season, 39 

1861. Finest ear, 8% 128 .52 

Mr. Hallett also states that the improvement 
in the sixth generation was even greater than 
in any of the others. " Thus," he continues, 
' 'by means of repeated selection alone the length 
of the ears has been doubled, their contents 
nearly trebled, and the tillerir.g power of the 
seed increased five-fold." By " tillering," he 
means the horizontal growth, or root before the 
vertical stems are thrown up. This certainly 
shows what selection and proper attention can 
lierform; besides, it would go to prove that 
thin seeding is not necessarily attended by a 
thin crop, but rather, that thin seeding and 
early sowing are both beneficial, and that an 
immense saving may be made in the quantity 
of wheat used annually for seed. It is also 
alleged that when thinly sown or planted it 
grows stronger in the straw, and is better able 
to resist a storm. 

Plants require not only a porous, arable soil, 
with a goodly mixture of humus, but there 
are certain salts, such as chlorate of sodium, 
nitrate of soda, and salts of ammonia, which 
experience has proved to exercise under cer- 
tain conditions a favorable action upon the pro- 
ductiveness of a field. The woudeiful property 
in arable soil of attracting and retaining these 
elementary food principles, so that when liquid 
maniu-e, however deep in color or strong in 
smell, is filtered through it, the soil retains 
all the coloring matter and odor, as well as 
the ammonia, potash and phosphoric acid 
which it holds in solution. This absorbent 
quality of soil is important. A soil abounding 
in clay, with a small proportion of lime in it, 
possesses the absorptive power in the same 
degree as a lime soil with a small admixture 
of clay, but the amount of humus substances 
will alter the absorptive relation, as it is 
founded on the greater or less porosity of the 
arable soil. Hence, a dense, heavy clay soil 
and a loose sandy soil possess the absorptive 
power in the smallest degree. The disente- 
gration of minerals and rocks by mechanical 
agency, or combined action of water, oxygen 
and carbonic acid, during a period of thou- 
sands of years, have deposited the soil in the 
plains and low lands, with their properties 
suited for the nutrition of plants. The same 
causes, in the course of a few years, will con- 
vert wood or vegetable fibre to humus, result- 
ing from its decay. Yet saw-dust, when fresh, 
has no more the property of humus than 
powdered rocks have the property of arable 
soil. It requires time and chemical changes 
to bring about these conditions, and it is 
questionable whether the art of man can arti- 
ficially produce like results, due to ages and 
special action. Lime and magnesia may be 
blended with it ; these aid in separating pot- 
ash from nitric acid and help to decompose the 
nitrate of potash. A sort of double action 
takes place in tlie soil. Soils vary, even in the 
same field and difl'er essentially in their com- 
ponents, whether manured or not, yet one 
soil may have conditions or nutritive substan- 
ces, eitlier adapted to cereals, tuniips, clover, 
potatoes or the like. The food elements for 
cereals and clover, and the food elements of 
oats and rye, are essentially the same ; and the 
nearer these elements lie together in one field, 
the larger will be the result in the yield. J. s. 



Prize Milk Cow: The Ohio Farmer says 
that the first prize milk cow at the late Ohio 
State Fair was a five-year old Short-Horn, 
which gave 406 pounds of milk in severi days 
on grass alone; the milk making 14 pounds 13 
oxmces of butter. 



FARMER JOHN. 

Home from his journey farmer John 

Arrived this mornina: safe and sound. 
His blacl< coat off, and his old clothes on, 
" Now I'm myself!" says Farmer John ; 

And he thinks, "I'll look around." 
Up leaps the dog : " Get down, you pup I 
Are you so glad you would eat me up?" 
The "old cow lows at the gate to greet him ; 
The horses prick up their ears to meet him; 

"Well, well, old Bay! 

Ha, ha, old Gray ! 
Do you get good feed when X am away? 

" You have not a rib !" says Farmer John ; 

The cattle are looking round and sleek ; 
The colt is going to be a roan. 
And a beauty too — how he has grown ! 

We'll wean the calf next week." 
Says Farmer John, " When I've been off, 
To call you a^ain about the trough. 
And watch you, and pet you, while you drink, 
Is a greater comfort than you can think I" 

And he pats old Bay, 

And he slaps old Gray ; 
"Ah this is the comfort of going away I 

"For after all," says Farmer John, 

" The best of a journey is getting home. 
I've seen great sights ; but would I give 
This spot, and the peaceful life I live, 

For all their Paris and Rome? 
These hills for the city's stifled air, 
And big hotels all bustle and glar». 
Land all houses, and roads all stones, 
That deafen your ears and batter your bones ? 

Would you, old Bay ? 

Would you, old Gray? 
That's what one gets by going away ! 

"There money is king," says Farmer John ; 

" And fashion is queen ; and it's mighty queer 
To see how sometimes, while the man, 
Kaking and scraping all he can, 

The wife spends every year. 
Enough you would think for a score of wives, 
To keep them in luxury all their lives ! 
The town is a perfect Babylon 
To a quiet chap," says Farmer John. 

"You see, old Bay, 

You see, old Gray, 
I'm wiser than when I went away. 

"I've found out this," saj's Farmer John, 

"' That happiness is not bought and sold, 
And clutched in a life of waste and hurry, 
In nights of pleasure and days of worry ; 

And wealth is n't all in gold, 
Mortgage and stocks and ten per cent., 
But in simple ways, and sweet content, 
Few wants, pure hopes, and noble ends. 
Some Land to till, and a few good friends, 

Like you, old Bay, 

And you, old gray, 
That's what I've learned by going away." 

And a happy man is Farmer John, 

O, a rich and happy man is he ; 
He sees the peas and pumpkins growing. 
The corn in tassel, the buckwheat blowing, 

And fruit on vine and tree ; 
The large, kind oxen look their thanks 
Ashe rubs their foreheads and st rokes their flanks ; 
I'he doves light round him, and strut and coo. 
Says Farmer John, " I'll take you too, 

And you, old Bay, 

And you, old Gray, 
Next time I travel so far away I" 

J. T. TKOWBRIDGE. 



A CHEAP CONDUCTOR. . 

An extraordinary account has appeared in 
a French agricultural journal, to the eflect 
that straw forms an admirable lightning con- 
ductor. It had been observed that straw had 
the eflect of discharging Leyden jars without 
spark or explosion, and some one in the neigh- 
borhood of Tarbes had the idea of construct- 
ing straw lightning conductors, which wers 
formed by fastening a wisp or rope of straw to 
a deal stick by means of brass wire, and cap- 
ping the conductor with a copper point. It is 
asserted that the experiment has been tried 
on a large scale around Tarbes, eighteen com- 
mtmes haying been provided with such straw 
conductors, only one being erected for every 
750 acres, and that the whole neighborhood 
has thus been preserved from the effects, not 
only of lightning, but of hail also. The state- 
ment comes from a reliable source, and the 
apparatus being extremely simple and inex- 
pensive, it is at any rate worth a trial. Cop- 
per conductors are expensive, but every cot- 
tager almost could set up a straw one. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



25 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATION. 

INTERESTING ntOCEEDlNGS OF THE LAN- 
CASTER COTINTY AOUICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

This Society met statedly on Monday, Feb. 
1, in the Orjihans' Court room, Lancaster, 
the president, Jolinson Miller, in the chair. 

The followini; members were present : 
Johnson Miller, Warwick ; .lacuh Musser, 
East Donefial ; .)olm 15. Erl>, East Lamiieter ; 
Dr. r. W. lliestand, Millersville ; Epliraim 
Ihiber, Manlieimtwp. ; .](ihn l{nssler,Maiilieim 
twp. ; Wm. M. Ihiihalver, and Henry S. Sonan, 
East Ilempliekl; Jonas JUickwalter,"East Lam- 
peter; Abraham Snyder, C'lav tw]). ; Levi IS. 
ileist, Warwick ; Eeter S. Heist, Manlieim 
twp.; Abraham Zollinger, Warwick; Thomas 
Wood, Fulton; and Alex. Harris^ Geo. W. 
Schroyer, Daniel Smeych, Wm. McComsey, S. 
S. Ratlivon, D. G. Swartz, and J. M. W. Geist, 
city. 

The reading of minutes of last meeting was 
dispensed with and reports of standing com- 
mittees called for. 

Dr. Hiestand, from the committee ap- 
pointed to confer with tlie County Conunis- 
sioners relative to the use of a room to meet 
in during the current year, reported that they 
had the consent of the Connnissioners to use 
tlie Orphans' Court room, they having agreed 
to compensate the janitor for keeping the 
room in order. On motion, his compensation 
was fixed at 50 cents a meeting, or $(5 a year. 

REPORTS ON THE CROPS 

■were necessarily brief, owing to tlie season of 
the year. Mr. Erb reported the grass, grain, 
etc,, in good condition, so far as was apparent. 
He had not examined the fruit buds, but did 
not suppose they had been injured. He re- 
ported the springs and wells as being very 
low, with no prospects of improvement in 
their condition. 

The President called attention to the fact 
that the secretary had served them faithfully 
since the organization of the Society, with 
the exception of the last year, when his place 
was filled by another at his owii request, and 
submitted whether some compensation ought 
not to be allowed for his time and labor. The 
proposition was favored by Mr. Erb and 
others, and the compensation fixed at $12 a 
year. 

UNDER THE HEAD OF NEW^ BUSINESS, 

Mr. Hoover called for information on this 
point : Three weeks ago, when the thermome- 
ter was six degrees below zero, his pump did 
not freeze, but on the day following, with the 
thennometer at four degrees above zero, it 
was frozen. How was this to he accounted 
for? Mr. Ililler said it might be explained 
from diflerent causes. There might have been 
more pumping when it was coldest. Then, 
while the temperature remains below the 
freezing point the freezing continues and pen- 
etrates deei)er. It has this effect on streams. 
Although the temperature may be several 
degrees higher to-day than yesterday the ice 
still thickens. Mr. Erb suggested that it 
takes some time for the cold to penetrate 
through the pump, and thought this was the 
true explanation in this case. 

THE APPLE TREE BORER. 

Mr. Hoover proposed the question — How 
can we best an-est the ravages of the ap])le 
tree borer ? He said this was an important 
question in some localities where the twier is 
so bad that scarcely any trees can be raised, 
■while in other localities the pest is scarcely 
known. 

Mr. Hiller said the trouble lay not so much 
in what we don't know as in not practicing 
what we do kuow. It requires vigilance and 
■work to conquer the borer ; but it can lie done. 
Trees should not be i)lanted without taking 
certain precautions. His plan was to wrap 
the base of the tree witli paper or nmslin from 
the ground upwards about one foot, and keep 
it wrapped during the season when the borer 
deposits its eggs, which it always docs right at 
the ground, or rather under it. This must 
be done at time of planting. Occiisionally a 



borer will deposit above the wrapping, but as 
this operation must be d<ino in fidl view of the 
eye, it can be frustrated by proper vigilance. 
An old linen cloth is perhaps the best, but 
paper answers the purpose. It had been sug- 
gested to coat the wrapping with tar, but lie 
thought that unnecessary and liable to injure 
the tree. In answer to a <piery from a mem- 
ber he said oil clolh would do. In the case of 
the iieach borer he liad found a thin mixture 
of cow manure applied about twice a year an 
ellectual preventive. 

Mr. Hoover said his plan had been to ex- 
amine his trees, spring and fall, and destroy 
the liorers; but he thought Mr. Hiller's pre- 
ventive the better plan, as prevention is always 
better than cure. 

Some one suggested tliat the use of oil cloth 
might be injurious, as likely to draw too much 
heat to the ba.se of the trees, in which Mr. 
Hiller concurred: and in answer to a sugges- 
tion from Mr. Smeycli, that the borer might 
work through cloth and still deposit its eggs, 
Mr. H. said such had not been his ohservation. 

Prof. Rathvon said they had l)een seeking 
information about the borer, but there were 
half a dozen of them. The most injurious, 
however, and the one best known, is that which 
deposits its eggs in the tree near the earth. It 
does this becau.se heat and moisture are two 
necessary conditions for hatching the eggs. A 
young brood of small white grubs is hatched 
from these eggs in from six to ten days— ac- 
cording to the temperature of the weather — 
which immediately penetrate the tenderest 
portion of the bark, and the aperture of ingress 
is soon closed, on account of the small size, by 
the subsequent vigorous growth of the tree. 
It takes from thi-ee to five years for these Inn-a 
to mature. During the first year their opera- 
tions are mainly conducted immediately under 
the bark; the second year they penetrate the 
wood, and subsequently tliey go in still deeper. 
Their galleries are usually perpendicular, or 
with the grain of the wood, but when the larva 
is matured it cuts a transverse gallery out- 
ward to the bark where it changes to the pupa 
form, from which it emerges a perfect beetle 
and cuts a hole through the bark and conies 
forth in June, or the early part of July. Itis, 
then, from three-quarters to an inch in length, 
of a white velvety color, with three broad 
brown stripes reaching from the head to the 
hinder end, and distinguished by a pair of long 
antenna, or horns. Heuce, it is called the 
"striped apple tree borer" {Sapenht candid(i') 
but the same insect also attacks the quince 
and the pear. The quince is particularly sub- 
ject to its attacks, and from the usually small 
size of that tree it suffers more from it than 
larger trees. An allied species of the same 
form and size, but of a fawn color, with a few 
blackish spots on the wing-covers (Haperila 
vestita) infests the Linden trees, and has ruined 
nearly all the trees of that species in the city 
of Lancaster. These borers can be sometimes 
dislodged by the introduction of a barlied steel 
wire, or if not dislodged at least killed. No 
one has such good opportunity for oliserving 
its habits as the farmer, who ought to closely 
observe and make a record of it. In this county 
they generally make their apjiearancein June. 
Nearlyall insects belonging to tliisorder mature 
in June. In rare instances he has noticed them 
as late as the first of August. This is a point 
which every one should closely ob.serve for him- 
self. They don't live more than six weeks or two 
months, as a beetle, and it is only during this 
period that the eggs are de|)osited ; and. if the 
trees are protected during that time, as sug- 
gested, they arc safe from their depredations. 
The borer next best known always works 
higher U]), and never goes into the wood, but 
keejjs under the bark, where the "sap-suckers" 
readily get at thein. This grub is much the 
.shape of a horse-shoe nail. Another variety 
make longitudinal cells in the twigs. The Ijase- 
borer works right into the wood, slowly but 
surely. 

THE PEAR AND ROSE SLUG. 

Mr. Erb saw a slug on the leaves of his pear 
and quince trees resembling the horse-shoe 
nail in appearance. AVas it the same V 



I'rof. Uathvon said the pear slug was a 
different species. Another infested tlie rose, 
and a third the cherry. They belonged to 
the same order as the wa-sj) — the Ilymenop- 
tera. The first brood go down near the 
ground and form a chrysalis, and then come 
up and (U'liosit their eggs. The second brood 
go down into the ground and sleep there 
until Spring. The rose slug can be con(iuered 
by vigilance. I^ast season he had efleclively 
destroyed them in his garden. In May, when 
they lir.st come, the fiy can be seen early in 
the morning. They should be destroyed, and 
lest you should not have found all, look for the 
little caterpillar or slug on the under side of 
the leaves and destroy it also. Early attentioa 
and close vigilance will do the work. 

THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE. 

Mr. Erb desired Professor Katlivon'soi)inion 
on the best method of iin'venting the ravages 
of the i)otato bug in the coming st-ason. He 
said last year he commenced fighting them, 
but later in the season they came so fast ho 
had to give it up. 

Piof. 11. said his opinion no^w is the same 
as it always was since he first warned the 
fai-mcrs to preiiare for its aiiproach. It is 
increasing rapidly and the farmers will be 
sorry they did not pay attention to it sooner, 
as he had advised them to do. There was a 
pamphlet of 14 pages, entitled the " Pest and 
its Uemedy" published in New York, which 
gave the most valuable i)ractical information 
on this subject he had yet seen in so small a 
comjiass and within the comiirehension of the 
unscientific reader. It recommends I'aris 
green as the remedy for extiri)ation, and tells 
how to apply it without danger to the iilant 
or the 0|>erator. He said he had i)reiiare<l a 
notice of the pamphlet and the name and 
address of its publishers, which would apjX'ar 
in the next number of The Lancaster 
Farmer. 

The President suggested that the ravages 
of the pest might be prevented by planting 
nothing but the Early Rose potato, as he had 
noticed that in certain localities that variety 
had not been attacked. 

Mr. Erb said that he had raised that variety 
last year altogether, and although the early 
crop had escaped pretty well, the later one 
was eaten out. Another member said he ol>- 
served that they were as bail on the Early 
Rose as on other varieties. 

A CASE FOR INVESTIGATION. 

Mr. Hoover said that in his neighborhood 
there were five acres wliicji had Ix'cn eaten up 
by the bugs, while a half acre separated only 
by an ordinary fence had escai>ed. There 
seemed to be no difterence in the soil or cul- 
ture. 

Mr. Erb suggested this might be owing to 
the fact that the bug always goes for the ten- 
derest stalk.s. 

Mr. McComsey thought Mr. Hoover's state- 
ment was so remarkalile and important tliat a 
committee ought tobeaiipoinled to investigate 
the facts, .and learn what the varying condi- 
tions were. This suggestion was acted u]ion, 
and the Chair apjiointed Messj-s. AVm. Mc- 
Comsey, Ephraini Hoover, and Prof. Rathvon 
as the committee to report at next meeting. 

BEST MODE OF WINTERING CATTLE. 

The question, " AVhat is the best mode of 
whitering cattle," proposed at a former meet- 
ing by Mr. Eshleman, was laid over owing to 
the aiisence of the propounder. 

REST JIODE OF EXTRACTING STUMPS. 

Mr. Huckwalter proposed for discussion the 
l>est mode of extracting stumps, to which Mr. 
Musser replied that a neighbor of his (Mr. 
Dully) had cleared aluuit forty acres of from 
600 to "(«> stumps, by a New \'ork extractm-, 
working on the screw principle, which was 
effective and exjieditious in taking out any 
stumps not over Iwentv inches hi diameter. 

Mr. Brubaker said the easiest way was to 
plow around them and wait until they rot. 

Mr. Miis.ser said that was a waste of time 
and ground. Rather than do that one could 
afford to pay a dollar a piece and make money 



26 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



by it. He never cuts a locust without digging 
out the stump at the same time. 

Mr. Hiller said he had them talcen out 
piece-meal by hand labor and did not find it 
expensive, although his \yere mostly chestnut 
and more easily taken out than some others. 

In answer to a query in regard to burning 
them out with coal oil, Mr. Musser said he 
had tried both coal oil and benzine, which he 
had seen recommended, but both were failures, 
although he had given them a fair trial. 

RUST ON FE.\US AND SMALL FRUITS. 

Mr. Erb inquired, " What is the best means 
of preventing rust on pears and to keep them 
from prematurely falling off?" remarking 
that his Flemish Beauties were nearly all lost 
last year from this caase. 

Mr. Hiller said he had no information to im- 
part that he considered worth anything, but 
he had an opinion which might suggest the 
proper inquiry. He thought, ih the course of 
cultivation, we were robbing the soil of some 
particular ingi'edient which was necessaiy to 
the healthy growth of the pear, and that not 
Ijeing replaced, rust or premature decay re- 
sulted. Some pears, which did well years ago, 
are now worthless for cultivation. Those pres- 
ent would remember the old " Butter Pear '' 
which was unequalled by any now cultivated, 
but it will no longer flourish. Then, there was 
the old "Winter Pear," which ripened in the 
cellar as regularly as winter apples, but now 
it is a failure. By continuous culture we have 
been robbing the soil of a particular element 
which should be replaced, if we can learn what 
it is and how to do it. We ought to study 
what that deficiency is. He did not pretend 
*• to know, but he was clear in his mind that 

;^, ■''this is the direction in which we should make 

* ■ our investigations. 

Prof. Rathvon said that vegetable physiolo- 
gists claim to have discovered that the outer 
coating of pears is a sort of wax, which is 
formed by a certain element derived from the 
soil, as silicate is supplied which is assential to 
the healthy growth of grass. Whenever this 
rust or mould olitains on the pear there 
has not been enough of that secretion to pro- 
tect them. To make these experiments suc- 
cessfully requires the aid of a microscope of 
seventy-five diameters, and hence we must de- 
pend mainly on the researches of vegetable 
physiologists and keep read up in their dis- 
coveries. One variety of the same plant may 
require more of a certain element than others. 
Mr. Gillingham, of Virginia, had communi- 
cated some interesting results of his experi- 
ments with the blackberry to the agricultural 
department. He had planted different varie- 
ties under the same conditions of soU., &c., 
four or five yeai^s before. Two years ago the 
Kittitany was affected with the red rust, and 
did not bear or mature its fruit. Both leaves 
and stems were covered with rust. The Wilson 
came out unscathed. Even if the theory of 
absorbing from the soil to make the wax or its 
- etiuivalent be true, some plants may absorb 
more than others, the soil and the climate be- 
ing the same. A few years ago he noticed in 
Mr. Riley's garden, in this city, that the Phil- 
adelphia ras|)beiTy rusted while the Black Cap 
did not. Therefore, it would require a care- 
ful analysis of the soil, and close observation 
of other conditions of the plants to determine 
this point. 

Mr. Erb said he noticed the "horse-shoe 
nail " slugs on Ins pears which were rusted, 
and that they had injured the leaves. 

LEAA'ES THE LUNGS OF THE PLANT. 

Prof. Rathvon — These were the "pear slug. " 
Tlie leaves are the lungs of the tree. Injuiy to 
them alone would cause the fruit to fall. A 
healthy condition of the leaves is essential to 
the health of the tree and the maturing of the 
fruit. The same holds good with the grape or 
any other fruit. 

CULTIVATION OF NATIVE TREES. 

Levi S. Reist had noticed that the Buerre 
Diehl and Duchesse pears are liable to rust 
when grown as standards, while they do very 
well as dwarfs. He therefore suggested that 
more attention should be paid to native 



varieties. In illustration, he referred to a na- 
tive pear grown at Reading, which flourishes 
there, but fails elsewhere ; and the Vicar of 
Wakefield seems to do better in Lancaster 
than anywhere else. He had no doubt that 
native seedlings would be free from many of 
the diseasesiucident to foreign varieties. 

THE STRAWBERRY PEST. 

Mr. Erb desired 'some information on the 
subject of raising strawberry plants. He said 
he had failed to raise both plants and berries. 
He planted a half acre last spring and before 
the summer was over he could scarcely see 
where the rows were. A kind of lice had 
eaten the roots. They were of a whitish, dull 
blue color. He couldn't even raise the Wilson, 
conceded to be the liardiest variety. 

Prof. Rathvon said this insect belonged to 
the same order as the Phylloxera vastatrix, 
which had been creating such terrible devas- 
tations on the vines in France, that 100,000 
francs had been oftered by the French Acad- 
as a standing reward for a remedy. They 
were called " the Grape root and leaf aphis, 
or louse." You might have noticed little 
tuber-like projections on the leaves of the 
grape. Cut them open and you will find a 
female aphis and several eggs. In the fall of 
the year they go down to the ground where 
they attack the roots. They are analagous 
to the aphis which attacks the strawberry. 
Prof. Riley, of 8t. Louis, recommended pierc- 
ing holes in the ground and putting in acid 
and lime, keeping oft" far enough not to injure 
the roots. His remedy was tried in France, 
but did not seem to do much good. 

Without, however, seeing the insect itself, 
it would be impossible to determine its species, 
its genus, or perhaps its family even. The 
insects that attacked the roots of Mr. Erb's 
strawberries may have been a species of 
"Spring-tail" or "Snow-flea" (Poduridce). 
Two years ago Mr. Mehaffey, of Marietta, 
brought me several thousands of these insects, 
that occurred in his garden in millions, with- 
out however doing any perceptible injury to 
the vegetation therein; but Dr. Fitch describes 
them as injurious to vegetation. Pulverized 
gas lime or sawdust saturated with carbolic 
acid, and mixed with the soil, has been recom- 
mended as a preventive. I would recommend 
experimentation on these subjects by farmers 
and fruit growers, and a publication of the 
results. A failure may be of as much impor- 
tance to be known as a success. 

MANURING CORN-STUBBLE LAND FOR OATS. 

Johnson Miller proposed for discussion the 
question, Would it be profitable to manure 
corn-stubble land for the oats crop ? He pro- 
po.sed the question because the oats crop has 
become a failure, and he attributed it to the 
fact that we manure for all other crops but 
this. He proposed to try it next spring, 
but he wanted tli^e opinion of older farmers. 

Mr. Musser said he need not be afraid of 
manuring too heavily for oats. 

Mr. Levi S. Reist looked upon that propo- 
sition as a progressive" step. The time was 
when oats came to maturity without manur- 
ing, iind would have grown rank with it ; but 
now that the soil is less fertile he thought 
manuring on the corn-stubble would not only 
produce a good crop of oats but would mater- 
ially benefit the succeeding crop of wheat. 

Mr. Erb thought one cause of the failure of 
the oats crop was to be found in the loose 
manner it was put in. It dries out in our 
seasons and hence will not mature. He be- 
lieved in more thorough cultivation. 

Johnson ^Miller said his plan is to cultivate 
as thorougly as for other crops. He plants 
"broadcast" with^the drill, but not in rows, 
which he ccrasiders better than hand-.sowing. 

Mr. Musser — The best plan is first the ]ilow, 
then then the drag. He weighted the drills so 
as not to get beyond a certain depth. The 
best crop he ever raised was put in in this 
manner. 

EXPERIMENT AND REPORT RESULTS. 

Mr. McComsey hoped the president, who is 
one of om- most progressive farmers, would 



make this experiment of manuring corn-stub- 
ble for the oats crop and give the farmers the 
benefit of his experience, if it was only on a 
single acre. The question in his mind was 
whether on farms where manure is scarce it 
would pay to rob other crops of fertilizers. 

The president urged the importance of not 
only experimenting, but of reporting results. 
This was the only certain way of investing the 
meetings of this Society with interest and 
profit, and of advancing the members in prac- 
tical agricultural knowledge. 

THE LANCASTER FARMER COMMENDED. 

Mr. Rathvon presented the Society with the 
ninth volume of the Proceedings of the State 
Agricultural Society, calling the members' at- 
tention to two articles of his it contains, one 
on Potato Beetles, another on "White Cabbage 
Butterflies." He also advised them to read 
the article on the Potato Bug in The Farmer 
of last July, and if they would keep up with 
the literature of this and other important 
subjects to subscribe for The Lancaster 
Farmer for 1875— a recommendation which 
the President and others heartily seconded. 
The Farmer now contains more reading mat- 
ter,and on a greater variety of subjects relating 
to the farm and fireside, than any other onedo 
liar journal in the Union — only a fraction over 
cu/ht cents a month — and no matter how many 
other papers he may subscribe for, the Lan- 
caster county farmer should patronize his own 
home journal; not only by his subscription, 
but also by his contributons to its columns. 
The more he gives in this way, he will find the 
more he will have to give. 

business FOR THE NEXT MEETING. 

Casper Hiller was appointed essayist for the 
next meeting. Subject—" Our Orchards." 

The following questions were proposed for 
discussion at the next meeting: 

1. What is the best method of wintering 
cattle ?— W. P. Albright. 

2. What trees are most profitable to grow 
for fencing and fuel ? — E. S. Hoover. 

3. What is the best food for milch cows ?— 
Jolmson Miller. 

4. What variety of corn produces the most 
bushels to the acre. 

WHAT OUR FARMERS OUGHT TO DO. 

This being the first meeting of this Society 
at which we listened to all the discussions, we 
cannot close without expressing our deep con- 
viction of the wide field of practical usefid- 
ness which it is in the power of the members 
to occupy and improve. Although it is now 
over thirty yeare since we held the plough, 
swung the scythe, or drove the ox, and there- 
fore do not claim to be " much of a farmer," 
we are free to confess that we were deeply in- 
terested in the discussion of the various topics 
presented, and pleased with the ])ractical off- 
hand manner in which they were treated by 
the different members. If the farmers gene- 
rally would appreciate the advantages of par- 
ticipating in these meetings and become mem- 
bers, the benefit which would result to the 
agricultural interests of Lancaster county 
would be incalculable. As the President re- 
marked in his annual address, the large court 
room ought to be filled with farmers at every 
meeting; and it would be, if every one inter- 
ested would take some special pains to impress 
the importance of the organization upon the 
fanners generally. There is a vast fund of 
practical and valuable information "lying 
around loose " among them which could thus 
be brought together and utilized for the gen- 
eral good. J. M. w. G. 



So FAR as practical agriculture is concerned, 
the great storehouse of fertility is in the soil, 
and not in the atmosphere. We must plow 
better and perhaps deeper and more fre- 
quently. Very few of us work our land 
enough. Mr. Geddes says he plowed up this 
old pasture because it "did not produce one- 
quarter as much feed, as when newly seeded ;" 
and yet many people think that grass and 
clover " enrich " land. — Am. Ayr. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



27 



OUR NATIONAL CENTENNIAL. 
THE AGRICULTUU AL DEl'A RTMENT. 

In our .lammiy issue we took ocrasion to 
say tliat " wc cannot too often admonish tlio 
farmers of Lancaster county to l)usy tliem- 
selve.s in ' working up ' a physical and intel- 
lectual representation of the resources of the 



there, as the faithful and aiipropriate advo- 
cate and exponent of those interests." And 
we now add, with all the emphasis of the 
accompanying lieautiful illustration, that one 
of the most impressive sections of the Cen- 
tennial Exi)Osilion will certainly be the Aijri- 
cullural liiiihliinj. This fine structure, havim? 
in its immediate vicinity a stock 3'ard, with 




' Garden spot of the Keystone State ' in the 
approaching Centennial, which is scarcely 
a year and a half in the future. We want to 
see the farminjr interests of our great county 
honorably standing by the side of the greatest 
in the land. We want to sec our journal 



divisions for horses, cattle, sheep and swine, 
and poultiy houses, will be located north of 
the Con.^'fvatory and on the east side of 
Belmont Avenue. The ground plan of this 
department, covering an area of about ten 
acres, is a parallelogram of 540 by 820 feet ; 



constnactcd chiefly of wood and glass, it will 
consist of a long nave crossed by three tran- 
septs, both nave and transepts Ijeing con- 
stituted (if truss arches of a (Jothic siyie. 
This is intended for the recejition of every 
kind of agricultural and dairy iniplemi-nia 
and utensils, except, of course, such as are 
properly included in the machinery depart- 
ment. iSuch an ex- 
hibition, aided as 
it will be by tho 
fraternal feeling 
which now exists 
among the farming 
j)rofession, cannot 
fail to inspire a 
lively interest in the 
present, and be pro- 
ductive of substan- 
tial benefit in the 
future. There will 
also be arranged in 
this section speci- 
mens of grain, and 
products of the .soil 
generally, which, 
ctmsidcring the 
wide area and ca- 
pabilities of the 
country, should 
insure a national 
display of vast im- 
portance, and |)la<:e 
the Agricultural 
interests of • this- 
country in a posi- 
tion to compare fa- 
vorably with other 
developmentsofthe 
national pntgi'css 
during the past cen- 
tury. TheFarming 
fraternity should 
certainly take a 
lively, earnest, and 
liberal interest in 
making this de- 
partment in partic- 
ular, and the Cen- 
tennial Exposition 
in general, an un- 
doubted and proud 
success. 

WeA-(imc that the 
farmers of Lancas- 
ter county, their 
wives, sous and 
daughters, are sec- 
ond to none in the 
Union, when they 
choose to let their 
presence be seen 
and felt; and there- 
fore, we would 
admonish them 
against that indif- 
ference or (imidity 
which may prevail 
on account of the 
imposing character 
of the approaching 
£.cp'iii>iiin}. A 1 1 
those architectural 
conceptions for the 
accommodation of 
a still more magnfi- 
ccnt display of the 
results of hiunan 
industry— all llio.se 
gigantic appoint- 
ments and their 
multitudinous de- 
tails—all the de- 
signs and plans 
necessary in carry- 
ing out the "com- 
ing event " into 
practical effect, arebut the nut births of human 
thought — human ingenuity and human energy; 
and, whether a farmer or a king, " a man's a 
man for 'a that." Fundimentally, tbeCreator 
has made all nun alike, all possess the same 
organic principles — the same mental elements; 



28 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



the difference in manifestation is only a differ- 
ence in energy, and a perseverance in pur- 
pose. On tliis great occasion the farmers of 
Lanca.ster county ought not to be content with 
merely self-gratitication ; they ought to do 
something to gratify others, and we ktww that 
they can ch it — their thouglits should be run- 
ning in that direction now. A like opportunity 
will not again be aiforded to this or the next 
generation. 

In this connection we would state that C. 
M. HosTETTER, esq., of this city, has been 
appointed General Agent for Lancaster coun- 
ty of the Centennial Board of Finance, for 
the sale of stock and medals, his head-quar- 
ters being at the Stevens House. He has 
shown us samples of the Centennial Medals, 
of which there are four sizes and styles, silver, 
bronze and gold — all very beautiful, with ap- 
propriate State and National emblems, and 
bearing the following inscriptions : On the 
face — "These united colonies are, and of 
right ought to be, free and independent States, 
177G." On the reverse — "In commemniora- 
tion of the hundredth aimiversary of Ameri- 
can Independence. 187(3." Act of Congress, 
June, 1874." These sell at prices ranging 
from one to five dollars, or the set in a beauti- 
ful case, for $11. The proceeds go to aid the 
building fund. 



THE RELATIONS OF HYGIENE TO 
PRACTICAL MEDICINE. 

BY PROF. JAR VIS S. WHITE, M.D. 

"Who clothe tlje young ? It is done under 
the guide of maternity. How is it done ? The 
legs are bare, the arms are naked, the neck and 
upper part of the chest are exposed, scanty 
clothing is \>\\t on the horly, and that is all. 
"Wliy so '? Would you believe it ? It is done 
to harden the little ones, to give them good 
constitutions ! How cruel, how sad, how 
touching, and how lamentable may be tlie re- 
sult ! The mother means this for good. But 
let her dress herself as she does her infant; let 
her give it a fair trial; depend on it, the trial 
will not last long. Will you dissipate on the 
winter air the warmth that God has provided 
for developing your child into the full vigor 
of manhood and womanhood ? W^ill you imi- 
tate that poor mother, who gave her new-born 
infant a daily snow-bath ? The gods had com- 
passion on her tender babe and took it away. 
I will not say that she was guilty of infanticide. 

Intramural sepulture has been found to be 
detrimental to health. This is simply a matter 
of experience. In theory, the same result is 
obtained. Sepulture now takes place outside 
of cities; but the city grows — it invades the 
place of sepulture, hence it is alleged that sep- 
ulture is not accf>rding to the principles of 
Hygiene. Why delay the change of " dust to 
dust and ashes to ashes V" Why wait hun- 
dreds of years for tlie decomposition of the 
body ? Repulsive mummies, putrid flesh, and 
disagreealjle bones are all surely going back to 
dust again. I do not, at present, undertake 
to give an ophiion on this subject; but they 
tell us to burn the bodies of the dead — to imi- 
tate that which nature does — but what we do, 
to do quickly. A handful of gray ashes in a 
sepulchral urn will symbolize the "ashes to 
ashes and dust to dust," and rivet the links 
of memory, wliile the uprising gases from the 
furnace will symltolize the si>irit that's gone. 
And then of a truth — the dead cannot harm 
the living. 

Where shall Sanitary Science be taught? 
And to whom shall it be taught ? I will 
answer this q\iestion by and liy. In the 
meantime, let me ask : Who need aanitari/ in- 
struction ? In my opinion, the people need it 
—and the medical profession need it. Let the 
elements of Hygiene be taught in every com- 
mon school, ni every academy, in every private 
school, and in every college in the counti-y. 
The bodies of our youth need the saving grace 
of cleanliness. And when they grow up they 
will teach their children the simple and 
health-saving rules of Hygiene. But where 
shall we begin to dissipate ignorance V Why, 



of course, begin with the medical profession, 
and begin with undergraduates. 

It was a damaging thing when one of the 
officers of health of New York city gravely 
informed Judge Whiting that "highjinnicks" 
meant "a bad smell arising from dirty 
water" — damaging both to politics and 
medicine, but most damaging to the people, 
whose most important interests were in the 
hands of ignorant keepers. 

But what shall I say of medical schools and 
Hygiene ? If medical schools taught Hygiene 
per sc, and insisted upon their graduates being 
"posted " in the principles of sanitary science, 
officers of health would at least have the 
merit of being sanitarians. 

The obstetrician is the sanitarian of the 
cradle and of maternity. He heralds the 
advent of the "little stranger," and watches 
over the function that mvests the invisible 
with the form divine. His office, ^:»er se, is the 
prevention of disease, and when disease super- 
venes he is no longer the obstetrician — but the 
medical practitioner. 

What hope is there for Hygiene in this 
country ? Will it succeed ? Can it be planted 
among the people ? And will it grow and 
flourish V In my opinion. Hygiene has a 
grand future in this country ; I will tell you 
why I think so. The American youth — and 
especially those who come here to study 
medicine — have a practical turn of mind ; 
they do not believe much in theories — they 
believe in the useful first, and after that the 
beautiful. It is an acknowledged fact, that 
our. medical men are among the. best practi- 
tioners in the world ; they have more science 
on the other side of the ocean, but our stu- 
dents are always wanting to know what will 
cure their patients, and they generally find 
out, too. Now, I hold that this practical 
turn of mind is the best kind of soil for the 
cultivation of a sanitary science. Let the 
seed be planted there — it will take root and 
grow, and it will be perennial ; the seed will 
be scattered over the length and breadth of 
the land, and the harvest will abound more 
and more ; the calamities that befellMemphis 
and Shreveport will not occur again ; the 
beauty and healthfulness of our rivers will 
not be marred by dead animals, by the refuse 
of factories, and by sewage ; there will be 
more to live for,, and life will be more desira- 
ble ; there will be less sickness and less need 
of medicine. Hygiene will be invited to come 
to our banquets ; she will be a perennial guest 
in our homes ; she will be the presiding genius 
of our hospitals ; she will adorn our temples ; 
she will be sculptured in marble and wrought 
in bronze in our public parks ; and she will 
be raised high above Medicine, and enthroned 
in the Capitol of the nation with Liberty. — 
Sanitarian. 



OUR PUBLIC RECEPTION. 

The reception of the first number of The 
Farmer in its new dress, both by the press 
and the agricultural public, has been most 
cordial, and shall incite us to renewed efforts 
to make still further improvements. We 
stated that it would be our aim to make each 
succeeding number an improvement on its 
predecessor. We think a careful examination 
of the present issue will show that this prom- 
ise has been redeemed. In no other jomnal, 
furnished at- the same price, can there be 
found an equal amount of original and valua- 
ble matter, of practical interest to the farmer 
and fruit-grower, and especially of the same 
local interest to the farmers of Lancaster 
county. Nor is the favorable impression it has 
made confined to our own county. Business 
letters of encpdry from parties engaged in 
stock raising and agricultural merchandizing, 
Ln different sections of the country, indicate 
that, aliroad, a first-class farmers' organ of the 
great county of Lancaster is regarded as an 
important enterprise, especially as a medium 
of communication between our fanners and 
the class referred to. We have room for only 
a few of the many flattering compliments paid 
to the appearance of our January number. 



WHAT OTHERS SAY OF US. 

"The. Lancaster Farmer." The first number 
of The Lancaster Farmer issued by the new pub- 
lishers is just out, and the general verdict is that it 
is in every respect creditable to the editor, the pub- 
lisliers, and the agricultural community, whose in- 
terests it proposes to promote. The new head, en- 
graved by one of the best artists in the State, is a 
beautiful and life-like representation of a Lancaster 
county farm scene, representing farm work in different 
stages of its progress. Prominent among its features 
is the ' big barn ' for which our county is noted by 
strangers from every section of the country. The 
motto which forms the base line, is that suggestive 
and truthful declaration of the Statesman, Webster, 
that ** the farmer in the fottndation of civilization^^' in 
itself a text for an enlarged dissertation on one of the 
noblest occupations in which man can engage. The 
table of contents presents a great variety of interest- 
ing and valuable information relating to the Farm, 
the Garden, the Orchard and the Home, the number 
of articles, large and small, footing up one hundred. 
Even the advertisements are invested with a peculiar 
interest, being made up of business announcements 
of forty first-class houses, all engaged in different, 
kinds of business — a very unusual feature in a work 
of this kind. The publishers are conscious of pos- 
sessing a valuable advertising medium in The 
Farmer, and they propose to exercise the same care 
over that department that the editor will over the 
reading matter proper. All swindles and humbugs 
will be rigidly excluded. Two thousand copies of 
this number have been printed, and we see no reason, 
why the circulation of The Farmer should not reach 
ten thousand copies in Lancaster county within six 
montlis. It will certainly be the cheapest local agri- 
cultural newspaper in the country. We invite atten- 
tion to the prospectus in our advertising columns, 
where it will be seen great inducements are held out 
to those who wish to subscribe to The Express in 
connection with The Farmer. Specimen copies will 
be sent to any who express a desire to examine it. 

The next issue will be on the loth of the month. 
Business men desirous of specially reaching the 
farmers, cannot find a better medium through whicli 
to do so effectively than by The Farmer.^ As the 
space is limited, those desirous of advertising in the 
next number, should make early application for the 
space wanted. — Lancaster Express. 

The Lancaster Farmer. This publication comes 
to us this morning, opening its seventh volume with 
great improvements manii^cst in its editorial manage- 
ment and in its form of publication, which has been 
changed and enlarged to twenty pages imperial, Svo., 
the cover being devoted to advertisements and sur- 
mounted with a handsome and appropriate head. 
Prof. S. S. Rathvon will henceforth be editor of The 
Farmer, and his ample qualifications for the posi- 
tion guarantees its success as an organ of the agri- 
cultural interests of Lancaster county. Pearsol & Geist 
are the publishers, and announce their intention to 
make still further improvements. — Lancaster Intelli- 
gencer. 

The Lancaster Farmer. This deserving valua- 
ble English agricultural monthly is now published in 
this city by Messrs. Pearsol & Geist, and the first 
number of the seventh volume, with every ap- 
pearance of external and internal improvement, is now 
before us. Prof. S. S. Rathvon will for the future 
occupy the position of editor of The Farmer, and his 
acknowledged ability and experience are equal guar- 
antees for the excellence of the contents of this useful 
publication, as are the names of the publishers for the 
proper and attractive typographical execution of the 
work, for which we wish a widely extended circula- 
tion. — Lancaster Volksfreund. 

Number one of volume seven of the The Lan- 
caster Farmer is before us. This is one of those 
excellent niontiilies so necessary to every intelligent 
farmer, and indeed to all persons who feel interested 
in agricultural or horticultural progress. Prof. S. S. 
Rathvon, the editor, deserves great praise for the 
improvement made on this journal. Everything 
written or selected is worthy of a careful reading. — 
Lancaster J^xaniiner. 

The Lancaster Farmer, which has recently 
changed hands, now makes its appearance in an en- 
larged and greatly improved form, and presents a 
very fine appearance, while its contents are of such a 
character as to be of great value to farmers and 
others, and especially so to the farmers of our great 
county. Prof. S. S. Rathvon is editor, and Pearsol & 
Geist are the pubhshers; subscription, $1.00 a year. 
— New Holland Clarion. 

The Lancaster Farmer has been enlarged apd 
otherwise improved, and is now published by Pearsol 
&. Geist. The January number is before us, and 
abounds with interesting agricultural reading. It is 
still edited by Prof. S. S. Rathvon. — Lancaster In- 
quirer. 

We have just received a specimen copy of the Jan- 
uary number of The Lancaster Farmer, the first 
one we have ever seen, and we are favorably impressed 
with its style, form and general arrangement, and 
cannot see why it should not succeed and prosper. 
Wishing to encourage this noble cause, aud at the 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



29 



same time add a trifle to its advaneement, we have 
coneluded to lu-come one of your eutisiribers and 
advertisers. — I'roprielvrs of CliJ'lon larms, C'he»ler 
County. 

TiiK Lancaster Fahmer. We are in receipt of 
The Lancaster Fahmer, a niontlily newppapi-r, 
devoted to tlie interests of a<;rieiilliire, liortieulliire, 
domeslie eecinoniy and niiscelliiny. _ It is a valual)le 
comjiendiuni of useful knowledire. a'nd should reeeive 
nliundant putronaf^e. — York TtUi/ram. 

The first ximuer of The Lancaster Farmer, 
under its new proprietorshij), presents Ifi pacres of 
Bolid reading matter, that indicates diserinnnatini: 
enterprise on the jiart of the publishers. The farmer 
will lind in it nnieh to interest and suggest. It is 
issued monthly, at $1 a year. — l.ihanon Courier. 

The Lancaster Farmer. The January number 
of this monthly, edited by Mr. S. S. Hathvon, and 
published by .Messrs. Pearsol & Cei.'st, is before us. 
We have nohesitation in [jronouneine; The Farmer 
one of the best papers of the kind now published. 
Price $1.00 a year. — Laiicaslcr JJuily Xewt. 



AGRICULTURAL MISCELLANY. 

Binding Grain — Important Invention. 

Prof. Dana, in the Wesleru .Vev-Yorkcr, describes 
a new grain binder, whieli liids fair to be an import- 
ant acquisition to our agricultural machinery. He 
says a new era has dawned iu the culture of the cere- 
als, the golden age of farmers and farnuTs' wives, a 
day of deliverance from a crowd of hungry, high- 
priced laborers in harvest time. Mr. Daniel .McPher- 
Bou, of Caledonia, N. Y., has invented an attachment 
to the Marsh harvester, which binds securely, with 
No. 19 annealed wire, the grain as last as it is cut. A 
trial of the machine was held on tlic farm of the in- 
ventor, in the presence of several grain farmers and 
machinists. The trial was a perfect success. No 
better work was ever done in a harvest field. Every 
spear was bound in the sheaves; no rakings were left. 
The strip, fifteen feet wide, between the standing 
grain and the straight line of bound sheaves, was per- 
fectly smooth and clean. The line of sheaves, ar- 
ranged with military praeision, looked like a batta- 
lion of soldiers. The iron fingers of the machine bind 
thistles as easily as grain, without gloves. The draft 
Is about the same as that of ordinary reapers which 
do not bind. A team of medium weight made very 
easy work of it. In going six times around a five acre 
field of oats, not a failure occurred which could be at- 
tributed to any fault of the binder. The wire, winch 
was of jjoor quality and badly reeled, was broken a 
few times. One circuit was made without missing a 
single sheaf. 

Mr. J. A. McKinnon, a skillful machinist, who has 
repeatedly examined the machine, says that it cannot 
possibly fail to do its work perfectly, and that, if well 
made of good material, it will last a lifetime. The 
machinery is very simple, very strong, and w orks with 
very little noise or friction. Major H. T. Brooks 
thought that the binder would save the wages and 
board of five strong men, say fifteen dollars a day 
during harvest time. With it, a man can cut, rake 
and bind ten acres a day. It can be set to bind a 
sheaf once in any required distance; and, if the grain 
Is very uneven, the distance passed over can be varied 
for each sbcaf by means of a lever worked by the 
foot. Sheaves may be bound tight or loose by vary- 
ing the tension on the wire. All objection to the use 
of wire bands is obviated by the use at threshing time 
of a pair of nippers which cut the wire and hold it 
fast by one end until it is dropped into a basket. The 
wire bands can thus be removed as rapidly as straw 
ones can be cut. 

Not an objection could be raised by any one present, 
which was not lully removed. The inventor has been 
studying and working upon his invention I'or fifteen 
yearsi and has expended fifteen thousanil dollars uiw)n 
it. A bushel basket would hold the result, but fifty 
thousand dollars would not buy it. The nujthcr, wife 
and sister of the inventor were present at the trial. 
Their delight over its success may be imagined. The 
nation and the world will reiterate their joy. MePher- 
Bon's binder must be as world-renowned as McCor- 
mick's reaper. That the inventor may not, in any 
way, lose the honor or the pecuniary reward of liis 
labors is the wish of the writer. 



How to Restore Fertility. 

Agriculture presents no problem more difficult of 
solution than that of restoring fruitfulness to an im- 
poverished field in the most economical way. A 
practice that will do best in one soil and climate may 
signally fail where the conditions and substance are 
entirely different . In the matter of soils and sub.soils, 
parent rocks, climates and plants, nature delights in 
an endless variety. Hence our best rules for practice 
have necessarily many exceptions. We will state facts 
briefly, and let the reader draw his own conclusions 
from them, how one can best restore fertility or 
Impart it to land that is naturally .poor, and, it may 
be, nearly worthless. 



Wood ashes and land plaster have been used about 
one liuniired years in this country to increase the fer- 
tility of land "and both have stood the test of this lung 
experience. C'(il. \ViMcr,of .Massachusetts, is reported 
as saying, at a i)ublic agricultural discussion, that he 
regarilcd good ashes as worth •'iO cents a bushel to 
apiilytothe commtm poor lands of New England. 
Others of much experience in their use spoke in high 
terms in favor of ashes as atop-dressing fiirmcaihiws 
and pastures. Some use plaster and others salt, or 
both, with ashes, on clover and other plants, at a 
large profit. Simple and truthful as these statements 
are, there are very few farmers who understand their 
full meaning as compared with stable and cow yard 
manure. As a general fact, not over two or tbrc(^ 
parts in a hundred, and often less, are incombustible 
iu the solid droppings of farm stock. There is no 
part of eowdung or ]ilanls that will rise into the air 
when either dceoniiioscs which will not fall again as 
plant food to the earth in rain and dew. If 
this were not so it would be inpossible for wood ashes, 
plaster and soluble phosphates to act i)reciscly like 
good stable manure. Most obviously good nnncral 
fertilizers are nothing but the best stable manure 
with the volatile or gaseous parts left out 

The venerable Mr. U. Lee, writing in The Country 
on this subject says that for sixty years he has seen 
with his own eyes the fertilizing power of plaster, 
ashes and lime, and it is aliout that length of time since 
Sir Humphrey Davy, Black and other chemists 
taught confidently that jilants were composed of com- 
bustible carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. 
Before Liebig wrote a' word on agriculture, the fact 
that decaying forest leaves send millions of tons of 
carbon yearly into theatmospheresuggcstedtoothers 
as well as to him that this carbon in some way re- 
turned into new plant growth. For himself, the 
writer had no doubt when a stuiient fifty years ago, 
that plants led largely on air and water, like moss 
growing on a rock. The farmer must learn to utilize 
in a thousand ways this power in clover, grass and 
other plants to organize air and water, that will cost 
him next to nothing, and convert tliem into staple 
crops. In an address before the Monroe County 
Agricultural Society, iu October, 1844, and published 
in the Genesee Farmer, Mr. Lee said : " I regard it 
as one of the greatest discoveries of the age, that 
about ninety-seven per cent, of the ingredients which 
make up the whole substance of wheat, rye, oats, 
barley, corn, beans and peas exist in the air in inex- 
haustible (luantities. To transnmte these aeriform 
bodies into the plants above named, and into grass 
and roots, at the smallest expense, is the object of 
nearly all your hard work." 

lie now reiterates that what he regarded thirty 
years ago as "the greatest discovery of the age," 
has not yet come home to the knowleilgc or api)reeia- 
tign of American farmers. In 184.5, when secretary 
of the New York State Agricultural Society, he lec- 
tured in nearly half the counties of that State on the 
above and kindred topics, but the idea of making 
agriculture a science and a learned profession, was 
generally regarded as the dream of a visionary. 



How to Make the Farm Pay. 

Our veteran friend Major Freas, of the German- 
town Teleijraph, has been often heard to say that it is 
amusing to listen to people who tell us how to make 
the farm pay ; and ho again thus i)its practical suc- 
cess against theoretical precept : It is fair-time and, 
the Hon. General Jones is invited to tell >is 
what is the matter with the thing. He is able 
to tell just bow many greenbacks there should 
be to every man, wf>man and child in the country, 
and knows precisely how many miles of rail- 
oads and canals arc necessary to the National 
prosperity. Moreover, he ^^•as educated at the great 
Jonesliorliugh University, and served his country well 
on the bloody fielil of Jones' Cross-Koads. He ad- 
dresses the farmers assembled on the situation and 
shows chrarly that unless we have our beefsteak 
analyzed we can hardly expect to have healthy 
brcakfa.sts, and that the whole heart of farming is in 
the nitrogen of the .soil. And the man covered with 
hayseed laughs. The beefsteak is good enough as it 
is for him, and he has made "a pile of money and 
knows notion" of these tarnal things." 

We turn from all these abstractions and look at 
things as they arc. We find lots of people who are 
as intelligent as the world can make tbi'm, and lots 
of others who pride thcniselvi's on •■knowin' nothin' 
but natur," and both alike fail; and then there are 
many of both classes who have all the success any 
one could wish for. 

We have one such just now in f)ur mind. An 
ae<iuaintance who has city business, has a farm of 
alK)ut one hundred acres connected with his country- 
seat. He has no time to farm it himself, so rents it. 
For the first ten years, though every care has been 
taken to get good men, there had l>een an annual 
change. In some cases there had been a loss of rent ; 
in all there was the profession that nothing could be 
made of that farm. Two years ago a man took it 
who was not a professional farmer, but an intellgent 
ntan who had already much experience in matters 
connected with farm affairs. He took it at $800 a 



year rent. He made sometliing the first year, how 
nuu'h we did not liear ; bnt llie last year it is said 
that his profits are not less than live thousand 
dollars ! 

We might go on and show in detail how all thig 
was done, but it would not teach anybody anything. 
He simply finds out what will grow anil how to grow 
it, and what will wll best, and raises that which best 
will sell. He is liberal in his expemlilurcs after he 
8c('S <'learly that expenditures will pay, and careful 
to slop all li'aks that so often fritter great suecesBes 
away. It is simply common. sense business tact 
which nobody can teach but which everybody may 
learn. 

Now, it does not hurt any one to know how much 
carbon, or nitrogen, or phosphoric acid, or what-not 
there is in his breakfast steak; it hurts no one to be 
able to say that he was able to hold the plow or take 
his turn with the mowers when he was fifteen years 
of age. We like to know that people are well-in- 
formed on these topics; but when we are aekcd liow 
to make a farm pay we like to jwint to such men as 
the one we have just described, for our answer. 



Plowing. 

A correspondent of the Country OentUman notices 
that new fashions in plowing are coming into vogue 
in Illinois, by which much expense Is saved. Instead 
of the old plan of one man and a pair of horses and a 
twelve-inch plow, an aiUlitional horse is used with a 
sixteen or cighteen-inch phiw. One nnin therefore 
attends to the work of three horses instead of that of 
two. A further improvement is in the use of sulky- 
I)low8. These are provided with seats so that lM)ysor 
cripples can take a hand at plowing, and thus leave 
the stronger hands free to do other work. Whether 
much on the whole will be saved tiy this last contri- 
vance remains to be seen. In a large number of eases 
the heavy weights, as well as the light weights, will 
not walk when they can ride, still theiwwerand abil- 
ity to save, if one w ants to, is so much gain; and no 
doubt these Illinois improvements will become ixjpu- 
lar all over the country. 

Another move, although not a western one, is to 
provi<le umbrellas, which are attached to the plow- 
handles, and thus the plowman Is shaded from hot 
suns, .\ltogether it would seem as if farming was 
about to become rather a means of pleasurable exer- 
cise than the hard and severe labor it was regarded 
to be at one time. Laying all pleasantry aside, how- 
ever, it is wonderful how great is the advance in 
labor-savnig machinery, and easy, comfortable imple- 
ments, over fil'ty years ago. 

In striking contrast witli the above, is the following 
description (jf iirimitive plowing, as written by a .Mexi- 
can correspondent of the Louisville Courwr: " On 
our way back to Temiseo, we had an opixjrtunity of 
observing more closely than diligence or railroad can 
permit, the process of plowing as practiced in this 
country. The plow itself is almost a fac-similiTDf the 
pattern used by the Egyptians in the time of Abra- 
ham, and certainly commends itself to all agricultur- 
ists on account of its great simplicity and cheap- 
ness. It consists of a wooden shaft about fimr feet 
long and four inches thick, armed at its lower ex- 
tremity with an iron point, slightly flattened, and 
sometimes presenting a feeble forward curve. The 
other end is provided with a round slick that passes 
through a bole and serves as a handle. The \xi\c, 
consisting of the Stem of a small tree, from which the 
bark has been jieclcd, is fifteen feet long,and attached 
to the shaft by means of a mortise and peg. The im- 
plement thus constituted is fastened at the extremity 
of the pole, to the middle of a very light wooden yoke, 
about .-even feet long, which rests immediately behind 
the horns of a pair of oxen, and is fastened there by 
thongs of rawhide jassed anmnd the roots of the 
horns. Not less than fiftysueh contrivances crawling 
at a snail's pace over the' field which we stopiwd to 
notice, scratching up the ground to the depth of two 
or three inches, certainly to us, was a novel sight. 



Education of Farmers' Children. 

IIow is it that we can see men, who liavc mouIde<l 
themselves on the anvil, who will not let their boys 
be mimldcd on the anvil loo ! As the leather dealer 
pounds the leather together to make a sole, so the 
boy needs pounding to make him a man. If you 
doii't you will bring up a tender child, a child that 
will not wear well. And the same with a girl that 
is brought up without knowing how to work. There 
arc misfortunes enough that fall nimn the fair sex; 
there are adversities and sudden revolutions iu affairs, 
that more often fall like pitiless storms uixin their 
heads than u|>on those of men; but of all adversities, 
a tofilisli mother for a fair daughter is the most 
adverse ; one who will not teach the child how to earn 
her living, who will not teach her fruitful industry. 
Music may be heard instead of spiniu'ng. In some 
way or another, work sliimld be part of the education 
of every boy, and the Ixjy who is brought up without 
knowiiig how to work is not brought up at all ; he is 
abused." The old Jews used to say, that a man not 
brought up to a trade is brought up to be a thief. 



30 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



and we are of the same opinion to a larreat extent. So 
then, parents, if you would bring up the best crops 
here, that your p;round will allow, bring up stalwart 
boys that are able to work and are not ashamed of 
it, and bring: up good, buxom girls, that are able to 
work in the kitchen and about the house, and are 
not ashamed of it either. 



Hay Producing and Marketing. 

Hay producing as a marketable crop, at first looked 
upon as exhausting to the soil, has demonstrated, by 
experiment, that it does not reduce the condition of 
land, even if the whole crop is marketed, pro%iding 
the fall growth is not pastured too close. Indeed, 
prominent farmers in the old hay-producing sections 
claim that their land is steadily improving. We are 
aware that most agricultural men, who have not had 
the advantage of experience or observation, will dis- 
agree with us on this point, but we will only refer 
them to the old hay-producing districts near our large 
city markets' or leave it to time and personal experi- 
ment to convince them of the fact, that the sponta- 
neous product, evidently designed *by nature as a 
protection to the soil, draws less from it than it 
returns. All, however, will agree with us that there 
is no crop attended with 9o little care and expense as 
the hay crop. Harvesting and marketing is all there 
is to do, and even this is more rapid and less expen- 
sive than with any other crop. In many sections it is 
also considered the surest and most remunerative 
crop, and in most active demand. 



Hat preesing or baling is comparatively a new 
feature in most parts of the country, and, even in the 
most flourishing hay sections, we have not far to 
retrace the past to find our markets filled with loose 
hay, and barges stowed with it in the same condition 
for transportation. To supply our large cities thus 
now, would be hardly practical, if possible; nor is it 
diificult now to see the advantage of bailing hay pre- 
paratory to marketing. Indeed, it has now become 
necessary to bale hay to market it, even in towns and 
villages, and a few years hence loose hay cannot be 
found except on the farm. 



The Best Field Beans. 

The American Jim-al Home says that in western 
New York the Medium and Marrow are most planted 
and the White Kidney and Early Pea to a limited ex- 
tent. The Medium is considered the most reliable, 
as, from its early ripening, it is less aflfected by the 
vicissitudes of the season. It sells for less, however, 
than the other varieties named. The Marrow is 
quite a popular variety, and on a strong soU is very 
productive. It is quoted thirty-five cents a bushel 
higher than Medium in the Kochester market, now, 
and the same as Kidney. The White Kidney has large 
stalks, requires a longer season to be matured in, and 
is more liable to be six)iled in ripening. When everj'- 
thing, however, is favorable it will produce large 
crops. It will, of course, make a ditlerence in what 
way the beans are planted as to the quantity of seed 
required, but farmers generally use about a bushel of 
the Marrows and Mediums to the acre, rather more 
of the Kidneys, and about half as much of the Pea 
bean. 



How to Apply Lime. 

We think lime should never be plowed under, as it 
sinks rapidly in the soil when placed on top, and it 
needs the action of the atmosphere to produce the 
best result. Mr. .1. S. Goe, of this State, says he has 
plowed up lime from the bottom of the furrows ten 
to fifteen years after sowing it upon the surface on 
grass. This showed a rapid sinking, and that, if 
plowed under, it would go below the reach of the 
plow . Mr. G . regards it as of great imjjortance in bring- 
ing up a poor soil, and says that many of the fields 
formerly the poorest upon his farm, are now the 
most productive, and made so from top-dressing with 
lime, at the rate of tilty to five hundred bushels to 
the acre. We should recommend to slack the lime 
with brine made of refuse salt before top-dressing. 



Raising Potatoes. 



J. R. Cooney, in the Prairie Fanner, gives the fol- 
lowing, in brief, as his mode of raising potatoes : "I 
break my ground as early in the spring as the season 
will adnnt of, and rclireak it again after I have my 
corn planted, which is about the i:'.th of May; I then 
harrow my ground level and mark it ofi' both ways 
with a marker three feet four inches, riding on the 
marker to make it go in. I plough then three times 
with the cultivator. My yield this year is about three 
hundred bushels to the acre." 



Horse-Shoeing: In Holland, horse-shoeing is 
done in a way very comfortable lor the horse and 
convenient for the smith. The horse stands in a stall, 
across the end of which is fastened a bar. The horse's 
leg is bent at the knee, the foot tied to the bar, and 
the smith having both hands at liberty the work is 
speedily finished. 



HORTICULTURAL MISCELLANY. 



Evergreen Trees — The Arbor-Vitse. 

One of our most valuable evergreens, says the 
Germantown Telegraph, is the native arbor-vit», but 
we see it so common everywhere that we hardly stop 
to think what we should do without it. Though 
found in its native places in swamps and low grounds 
it has learned to accommodate itself to most of our 
wants, except that of growing under the shade of 
trees. Indeed, in our garden culture, it seems to pre- 
fer to grow in a high and dry place rather than in a 
low or wet one. One of its best olHces is to serve as 
a screen from unsightly buildings or objects. It 
grows so well under these circumstances that one 
could not possibly do without it. It occupies little 
room, seldom extending more than two or three feet, 
and though it grows up tolerably rapidly it keeps 
itself clothed with branches close to the ground. 
Then it is so very hardy — in this respect it is sur- 
passed by no evergreen known. 

For hedges to mark boundaries we have nothing so 
cheap or tractable. The hemlock is far more beauti- 
ful but requires more skill to manage. If let alone 
for a few years the idea of a hedge is gone, but 
tliough an arbor-vitae hedge has nothing done to it for 
a long time, it is some sortof ahedge still. Of course 
the idea of having evergreen hedges about one is often 
pushed to extremes. They are often made where it 
would look better without one. But the cases where 
they do look well are numerous, and arbor-vitfe is one 
of the the best things to employ. 

Though there are many places where hedges are 
used that would look better without them, there are 
a large number of people who have none who would 
find a great advantage in one. Most of our gardens 
and grounds suffer terribly from winds in winter, and 
tall screens or hedges of arbor-vitie would make such 
places comparatively warm and comfortable. Vege- 
table and fruit gardens would be especially benefitted 
by tall arbor-vitie hedges around them, particularly 
where early spring vegetables are among the good 
things aimed at. Most of our gardens are very 
much exposed ; sometimes nothing whatever, and at 
best a mere pale fence around them. A good warm 
arbor-vita; hedge would often be as good as two weeks 
added to the earliness of the crops. 

And then as single specimens on a lawn there are 
few things that will command more respect than a 
well-grown arbor-vitte. To be well-grown means to 
have a good ojjen place all to itself and to have only one 
good leader allowed to grow. When several shoots 
are permitted to grow up together the time will come 
when rain, or snow, or wind will separate them, and 
then the beauty of an arbor-vitae is gone forever. 
The keeping of the plant to one main shoot or leader 
guards against any contingency like this and tHfe 
plant's beauty is not only maintained for years and 
years, but is annually added to. 

Horticulturists are continually appealed to,to get out 
something new. It is a laudable effort, but it is well 
once in awhile to look on our olil and tried friends and 
note what they are to us and what we should do 
without them, and thus it comes about that we have 
been led to look into the merits of the common arbor- 
vitie and to say a good word for it. 

As having an important bearing on this subject, the 
Scicidific Aiiicricaii calls attention to the value of 
evergreen trees' when planted among fruit trees. It 
says, a well grown evergreen tree gives oQ' continually 
an exodium of warmth and moisture that reaches a 
distance of its area in height ; and when the tree 
planters 'advocate shelter belts, surrounding a tract 
of orchard fifty or more acres, when the intiuence of 
such belt can only reach a distance of the height of 
the trees in said l)clt, they do that which will prove 
of little value. To ameliorate climate, to assist in 
prevention of injury against the extreme climate, cold 
inwintcrand of thefrostingof thegerm bud offruitin 
spring, all orchards should have planted in and 
among them, indiscriminately, evergreen trees at dis- 
tances each of not more than 1.50 feet apart. Such a 
course pursued, we have no doubt will render greater 
health to the trees, and be productive of more regular 
and uniform ci-ops of fruit. At all events, it isw-orth 
trial, and we shall be glad if our readers can inform 
us of any practical experiments on the subject. 



The Culture of Flowers. 

James Vick's Floral Guide for 1S7.5, which as a 
specimen of typogra])Iiy and artistic taste far sur- 
passes any of his previous ertbrts, is also a st i »re -house 
of lieautiful thoughts, as well as of useful facts .iliout 
flowers and how to grow them. "The culture of 
flowers," he says, "is one of the few pleasures that 
improves alike the mind and the heart and makes 
every true lover of these beautiful creations of Infinite 
Love wiser and purer and nobler. It teaches indus- 
try, patience, faith and hope. We plant and sow in 
hope, and patiently wait with faith in the rainbow 
promise that harvest shall never fail. It is a pleasure 
that brings no pain, a sweet without a snare. True, 
some fail to realize their hopes, but these failures are 
usually partial, never embarrassing, and are only 
such as teach us to study more carefully and obey 
more strictly nature's beautiful laws. Thus we gain, 



first, wisdom, and then success as the results even 
of our failures. I have endeavored in a plain and 
pleasant way to give some suggestions on the phil- 
osophy of vegetation that I think will prove valuable, 
revealing the causes of past failures and insuring 
future success. Indeed, I have hoped in this improved 
number of the Guide to make the subject so plain as 
to render failure next to impossible, and success 
almost certain. Exiierience, however, is the great 
teacher. The book of nature is open, but its wonder- 
ful beauties and mysteries are revealed only to the 
careful student. Every species of plants has pecu- 
liarities which must be studied, and while we can 
give a few general principles we can furnish nothing 
that will compensate for the pleasure and profit tol)e 
derived from work and study in the garden. Above 
all things, we caution our readers against over-confi- 
dence. There is no one with less confidence in his 
own skill and knowledge than the experienced gar- 
dener. Every season he seeks for new facts : every 
year adds to his store of knowledge. Do not, for a 
moment, think that the purchase of a few seeds and 
the perusal of any work on flower culture will make 
a florist. The purchase of a drug store and a medical 
library will not make a physician, nor does the pos- 
session of paints and canvas constitute an artist. To 
become skillful in any art requires both study and 
practice, and this is especially true where we have to 
deal with nature's laws. The study of Agriculture 
and Horticulture has engaged the attention of the 
wisest from the earliest ages, and yet what wonderful 
discoveries and improvements have we witnessed in 
our own day ; and we are still learners." 



Perennials and Bedding Plants. 

We are pleased to see that the eminent horticultur- 
ist, Mr. Hogg, in his new Ameriean Garden, has a 
good word to say in favor of the too much neglected 
perennial plants. The writer of this has sjient con- 
siderable money and time in the purchase and grow- 
ing of flowers, but the investment which gave us most 
lasting pleasure was the purchase, a few years ago, 
of Peter Henderson's collection of select hardy herba- 
ceous plants, the set of one hundred varieties costing 
us eighteen dollars, among which were a number 
scarce and valuable, and all being in such good order 
that not one was lost. We therefore heartily endorse 
Mr. Hogg when he says: 

" A fter our long and dreary winters, lovers of flowers, 
especially if they are residents of the country, long to 
greet their eyes with something bright and cheerful in 
the way of flowers. This thej' can do by making a pro- 
per selection of hardy perennial plants. Commenc- 
ing with Crocuses in March, they may, at little ex- 
pense, have a hundred or more species bloom in suc- 
cession before their bedding-out plants are fit to be 
seen, which cannot be before the first of July. How 
mucli more jileasure and interest is to be derived from 
a [ilat a ciuarter of an acre in extent, planted with a 
hundred species of such plants, lasting season after 
season, and sulRcient to stock the whole ground, than 
from a single bed costing twice as much, and contain- 
ing fifty Amaranthus for an outside row, twenty- 
five Centaureas for an inner row, and twenty-five 
General Grant Zonales for the centre — the plants to 
renew which trlie next season have, nine times oiit of 
ten, to be again purchased. 

*' With our almost tropical summers, we can do 
that which gardeners abroad cannot equal in sub- 
tropical gardening. What the various species of Ri- 
cinus, Cannas, Erythrina, Caladiums, and similar 
plants, we can give a variety and uniqueness to our 
gardens, at but little expense, which the wealthiest 
nobleman abroad would envy. Such plants are as 
easily kept as Dahlias, Gladioli and Tuberoses; and 
these added to the former will, with good taste, give 
us all necessary means to divest gardens of any appear- 
ance of sameness or lack of distinctive features. If 
we add a judicious mixture of plants of colored or 
striking foliage among our perennials, our gardens 
will never be wanting in that individuality which 
should distinguish one gartlen from another; and thus 
each would become a continued source of delight to 
its owner from March until November or December." 



Blanching Celery. 



Some time since a correspondent of the German- 
toii'ii Tektjraph gave aninterestiugaecountof the pre- 
servation of celery during the winter season, by stand- 
ing it in spring water under a shed. Few persons 
will have the chance to preserve celery in this 
way, nor is it perhaps desirable that they should, as 
there are many ways of preserving it which answer 
just as well, and which allow of the celery being just 
to hand, which it is not likely to be by any plan such 
as that proposed, as it is rare indeed that a spring 
would be close to one's house or that one would be 
willing to put a spring to that use if it was. But for 
all this the hint of our correspondent is a good one, 
not so much for what it teaches as for what it suggests. 
We know of one whose celery did not grow very 
' well last season on account of the drought. At dig- 
ging time it was what he termed " poor and small," 
and hardly worth preserving; but taking the water 
hint of our corresiX)ndent, he concluded that by pack- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



31 



insr the roote in wet earth and keeiiinir thorn in a ei'I- 
lar the vital princiiilewnulil tu'siistaiiieil anil i>eriia|iB 
the whole heeonie wlilte. The ex|jcriment wasaeoni- 
plele BHeeess, anil ho has hail an alvumlanee of white 
crisp eelerv all winter. Larire lioxes were ohtaiiieil 
ami a few jnehes thiek of earth plueeil on the holloni 
ami niaile as wet as (Kissitile. The jilants were then 
jmekeil upritrht, side hy side, as elose as they eoiild 
stand, until t lie lM>xe8 "were full. The upper leaves 
were of course exiH>sed, and atteniptin;; to firow a 
little hy the eneouracoMient given to the root hy the 
wet earth, caused growlh enoufjii to K" on to blanch 
the whole. 

There i.s an advantage In this plan, besides that of 
blaneliintr a mass of niattorusually stored away irreen 
and which never after becomes white, and is there- 
fore wasted, aiul that is the crispy freshness which it 
retains. Those who keep celery iiy various devices in 
the open {rrounil, and in similar ways, have no trou- 
ble from this source; but those who keep celery in 
cellars often complain of it either rottini; or witlier- 
ins. In the way described there is just what is 
needed to keep it i'resli and nothing more. 

We give this simi<ly as one plan which may suit 
eomc one iicrson in an emergency, and not as the liist 
plan. What is tiest for one is very often not the best 
for another, and it lu'vcr docs any liarm to kiuiw lots 
of them, and especially one which like this gives us a 
jirinciplc which may be applied to many plans. — Ocr- 
tnantoit'H Ttlvyraph. 



Remedy for the Pear Blight. 

Mr. F. B. Lcighton, President of the Norfolk, Va., 
Horticultural Society, is authority for the statement 
that the remedy for jiear blight, recommended by the 
Commissioner of Agriculture, has proved successful 
in Eastern Virginia. This remedy is made and ap- 
plied as follows: One pound of sulphur added to six 
or eight jKiunds of carbolate of lime, reduced to the 
consistency of thiek whitewash, and applied to the dis- 
eased parts: and where the bark is diseased remove the 
outer portion belorc making the application. Mr. L. 
says he has used this with magical ett'eet on blighted 
ordiseased trees, Ijut writes to the AtneHcan Faf}iier 
that in future he will "use the formula recommended 
by the Hon. William Saunders, of Washington, who 
has charge of the pul)lie grounds, as being more eco- 
nomical than the above, on account of the volatile 
nature of carbolic acid: To half a bushel of lime add 
foiir pounds of sulphur — slack to the consistency of 
whitewash, and when applied, add half an ounce of 
carbolic acid to each gallon of wash, and apply as 
above directed." 



Jacob Cocklin — An " Old Digger." 

The gentleman whose name heads this article, was 
last week in altemlance at the annual meeting of the 
Pennsylvania Fruit (irowcrs' Society, held in York. 
His venerable ajipearance and his interest in matters 
pcrlaiuiug to Horticulture naturally excited remark, 
and created a desire to know more of him. Personally 
we have favorably known him for many years, having 
been one of the earliest subseriljcrs to the Ouzctte. His 
career has been active and useful, and as a citizen 
challenges the emulation of his lellow men. He now 
lives near Shepherdstown, Cumberland county. Pa., 
and has furnished us with a short sketch of his life, 
as follows : 

I commenced planting trees in 1827 and tip to this 
date, 1(S7.5, I planted in orchards over forty thousand 
trees, over i50 acres, comprising INO apple, 1"30 peach, 
SO pear, -tO cherry, apricots, nectarines, almond, 
quince, i)lum, persimmons, chestnuts, mulberry, 
walnut, hickory-nut : also, currants, gooseberries, 
blackt)erries, stra\\ Iierries, tilbcrts, hazlenuts, iVe. 
Also, ornamental and I'orest trees, such as locust, 
willow, maple, ailanthus, pawlonia, eottonwood and 
tulip jioplar; also, evergreen, Norway spruce, hcm- 
hick siiruce, pine of various kinds, cedars, Euroi)i'an 
and American larch and many others too numerous 
to mention. 1 commenced the Nursery business in 
1.S28 and continued it lor upwards of oO years. 
First planted grajic in INiS, the leading kinds to this 
time, comprising about 10 acres. I intend [ilanting .5 
acres in peach trees next Spring. The most I realized 
in one year was in IS4<i, wlien I sold l,.^! busliels of 
peaches for JIIKO and :^.5 barrels of brandy at 7.5 cents 
per gallon. During this time 1 had b\isiness transac- 
tions with more than 1,.'>00 persons; built 7 houses 
and 4 stabli-s ; dug HI wells, .5 of about .'iO feet, the 
others 20 to 2.5 feet deep; cut the timber olf 1-50 acres ; 
made between oOU and 400 perches of stone fence ; 
put up a eider press and distilling apparatus, besides 
many other improvements. I also put up a water 
ram which brings spring water 100 feet in height. I 
planted three miles of willow hedge and made several 
miles of wire fence, and planted 2 bushels of locust 
seed in Iowa. I had some good stock, horses, cows, 
hogs, fowls and sheep; of the latter I had at one time 
600 head. 1 also had some cross dogs. I have trav- 
eled about :i5,t)00 miles on railroad, steamboat, canal, 
stage, wagon and horse. I have been in Philadelphia, 
New York, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago, 
Dubuque, Iowa City, Davenport, Iowa, Kichmond, 
Va., Winchester, Va., Frederick, Md. Baltimore, 



Washington, and intermediate points in Pcnnsylvaida, 
Delaware, New .Icrsiy, .N'ew York, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, ^Visconsin, Iowa, .Missouri, Ken- 
tucky, Marylaml, Virginia and the District of Co- 
lumbia. I never liad a bone broken ; not in bed sick 
2 months ; I did all my own writing, which was i|uite 
a lal'orious task in the Nursery business. 1 also 
bought and read several hundred volumes of books 
and a immbcr of ])criodicals, treating on religion, 
medicine, agriculture, horticulture, Ac. I had been 
school director for many years, assessor, collector, 
constable, clerk, judge, insjicctor at elections, super- 
visor and a juror a number of times. I never had a 
law suit ; I never used tobacco or opium ; never 
gambled ; never was drunk ; I never was in a 
house of ill fame ; was a |KM>r customer to tavertis, 
oyster saloons, doctors, preachers and places of 
amusement, and did more manual lalnir than any 
man I am aciiuainted with. I commenced with a 
capital of nearly $10,000, and now in about 4<i yeai's 
have oidy doubled it, whereas if I had jjut the $10,000 
on interest at (> per cent, it would have been $S0,1I00 
now. But the many laboring peojilc I employed re- 
ceived the benefit of my labor. The country for miles Is 
dotted with trees that passed through my hands. Many 
hundreds of dollars are brought from Harrisburg 
each yi'ar (or fruit, that would not have been realized 
had I not introduced it — fruit raisers and consumers 
are benelited. Every family slioidd have a home of 
its own. I have helped more than .50 families to 
homes by advancing money and giving time from one 
to ten years to pay the money advanced. I am now 
within a fewdaysof 78year8old,iugood health and in 
peace with Cod and all mankind. I Ifvc in an hum- 
ble state and cheerfully earn my living and envy not 
the great. — York Gazette. 

[And Mr. Coeklin's latest and most commendable 
act was subscribing for The Lancasfer Fahmer 
and jiaying in advance. In his letter to the publish- 
ers, enclosing his subscription, he says he "would like 
to liear from some other ' old diggers.' " And so 
would we.] 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



Valuable Domestic Recipes. 

Griddle Cakes : This is the way Nellie, in the 
Germantown Telegraph, tells us how to make them : 
Scald as much Indian meal as you think sutlicicut, 
add salt and stir until smooth, not too stiff to put on 
with a spoon, though molding w ith wet hands makes 
the cakes more shapely. Sjilit, butter and serve hot. 
We sometimes add stewed pumjikin to the batter, and 
enjoy what we call pumpkin cakes. During the cold 
weather it seems hardly worth while to have much 
stale bread or biscuit on hand, as most folks want 
some kinds of hot cakes, especially buckwheat for 
breakfast, and with a little sugar stirred in they 
brown very nicely. 

Managing the Grate : To preserve a fire in the 
grate or furnace over night there is nothing better 
than moistened coal serceuings; they are better than 
ashes and will not cause the tbrmation of clinkers. 
In the morning, or at any time when the tire is low, 
put on a little coal, let on the dral't, and after it has 
burned uj) pretty well, rake gently and add more 
coal. If raked when the tire is low and dead, it will 
either go out or be a great while in getting on a head 
and pi'oil.uciiig the necessary warmth. If clinkers 
form in a grate or stove, throw in a few handfuls of 
clam or oyster shells, and they will soon become so 
loosened as to be removed easily without injury to the 
fire-brick. I have followed this plan of managing a coal 
fire for years with entire success. — Aline, in Ger- 
7HajUvu'ii Tel. 

Hyacinths in Glasses: Mary Jones wants to 

grow hyacinths in glasses and wants to know how to 
do it. The Rural New Yorker tells her: She should 
get dark colored glasses, fill with water so that the 
bulb will but or scarcely touch the water, and set bulb 
and gla.sscB in a dark, cool jilace until the riMits of 
the bulb reach topof the glass. Of course they must 
be kept from the I'rost and the water changed 
once in seven or ten days. Soft water should be 
used, and when changed it should lie about the tein- 
perature of the atmosphere in w liich the bulbs iu 
glasses arc kept. When the glass is well tilled with 
roots it may be exposed to the light, and they will 
speedily bloom. 

PnEPARiNii Minoe-Meat TO Keep: Mrs. Good- 
hue, of Vershire, Vt., furnishes her mode of [ircpar- 
ing niince-meat to keep a year or more, to the (ier- 
mantown Tettt/raph, which is as Ibllows: I boil my 
meat and salt it as lor jiics; chop tine; add suet if 
you wish; after chopiiing take nearly the weight of 
sugar that you have of meat, melt in a iiorcelain ket- 
tle or tin pan; then put the meat in tliesugar and .«tir 
it until thoroughly scalded; then pack in a stone jar, 
press down firmly, and keep iu a dry, cool place. 
When needed for pics add cider, apples, raisins, citron 
and spices to suit the taste. I am now using meat 
prepared in this way one year ago, which is as sweet 
and nice as when put up. 

Mi'su : We sometimes boil mush for supper and 
put away a good crock full for future use. For 



brcaklast put a generous lump of giKKl liutter in a 
jian on the stove ; when well melted and pretty hot 
]iut In some cohl, broken-np mush, heat rapidly, 
slirring I'requently, and when thoroughly hot servo 
on a hot dish and you'll find It exceedingly good. 
Do not make the mush too stilf when boiling it. We 
prefer it to the fried slices. 

AiTLE riDDi.NO : One pint of t)r«Bd crumbs soaked 
well and soft in a quart of milk, with two or three 
well-bcatcn eggs and one or two applesehoppcd fine ; 
stir all together and bake in buttered pans. Wiuo 
dip with It. 

To Sweeten Salt Pork : Cut as many siloes as 
will be required for breakfast the evening previous, 
and soak till morning in sweet milk and water ; then 
rinse till the water Is clear, and fry. The pork will 
be I'ound nearly as g(M)il as fresh iK>rk. 

Afi'LE Butter : The best apple butter is made by 
peeling, coring and slicing selected sweet apples, and 
stewing them in swi'i't cider. Very little of this sort 
of apple butter, however, comes to market. The 
bulk of that sold is made from second rate apples, 
peeled, sliced, stewed and sweetened with brown 
sugar. A large quantity of such butter is made and 
sold for ship stores for use by sailors. 

CocoANiT Pie : One half a cup of butter, one cup 
of powdered white sugar, four well beaten eggs; 
beat whites and yelks together ; one cup of grated 
cocoanut, one quart of sweet milk; mix butter and 
sugar together, then add the eggs and cocoanut, and 
lastly the milk. Hake in a lower crust. Eat when 
cold. This quantity makes two pies. 

To PREVENT lamp chimneys from cracking, put 
them into a kettle of cold water and gradually heat 
until it boils, and then let it as gradually cool ; the 
chimney will not be brokni by the ordinary lluctua- 
tion of the tlame of the lamp. 

To REMOVE starch or rust from flat-irons, have a 
pici-e of yellow beeswax tied in a coarse cloth, when 
the iron is almost hot enough to use, but not quite, 
rub it quickly w ith the beeswax, aud then with a 
clean, coarse cloth. 



Roasting a Sirloin of Beef. 

An old Housekeeper, in the Germantown Telegraph, 
thus criticises one of the miHles for roasting sirloin of 
beef recommended by the Ohio Fanner. Sh<' says it "is 
not the way that I or any experienctnl housekec]KT 
would undertake to cook it. It first recouimends a 
"joint weighing from fourteen to fifteen iK)unds from 
a younfi and fat beef." Now everyhiHly knowing 
anything about good beef would say " olil and fat 
beef." Young beef is neither so tender, juicy or rich 
as old beef, as the fat and the other Uesh on the latter 
is newly put on. The writer goes on, " haviug laidit 
in the ilrippinii-pau, tender-loin downward, wedredge 
it slightly with Hour." Doesn't this « riter know that 
all "doctoring" of beef helps to deteriorate its qual- 
ity ? To go ou, the meat is then put down in the pan, 
in which a little water is jioured, and then put iu the 
oven, not to roast, as it Is claimed, but to uleir. The 
writer then adds, " as soon as the surface of the 
meat is so browned that the juices will not readily 
escape, allow the oven to eool to a tuotUrate ilei/ree of 
heat." This is remarkaldc. "When the beef Is 
done, sprinkle ii-ith fait and pepper. Empty the pan 
of all the drippings, ixmr in some boiling water, 
slightly salted, stir it atiout and strain orer the no:at.'* 
This is one way, truly, and it may suit some iK'oiile 
who have never eaten really good roast lieef; but it 
w ill not do for me or my family. Why, beef, to roast 
it in the best manner, should not be tampered with in 
any way— not oven touched with water before put- 
ting in the oven. Instead of laying it broadside in the 
water of the pan, it should be elevated on a "meat 
stand" placed in the pan. A quarter of an hour to a 
pound of liecf is thecorrect period toioast. Noilredg- 
iiig, peppering, salting, or pouring ovorof gravy, iVc; 
they destroy tlic sweetness, delieiousncss and rclish- 
ment of the beef. 



Roasting Turkey and Carving. 

Rinse the turkey out in several waters, and in the 
next to the last mix a teas|Kionful of soila. Fill the 
body with this water, shake well, empty out and 
rinse with clean walcr. singe off the hairsand prepare 
a dressing of bread crumbs, add thyme and majorum, 
or sage it jireferred. Wot with hot water or milk. 
The liver, heart, A:c., should be boiled and chop|ied 
fine and mixed with the ih-ossing. The water in 
whieii they wore Imiled should bo put In the dripping 
pan with whieli to baste the turkey. Dredge it with 
ilour and salt before roasting, and basteoflen. With 
a brisk fire and young turkey, allow ten minutes to a 
pfiund for roasting. Tie a string lightly about the 
neck when the craw is filled, and sow the l^ody with 
a strong thread. Hemovethis wheuthe I'owl isdished. 
When the turkey is lifted from the pan, add a siHKin- 
ful of Ilour wot w ith cold w ator to prevent its lumping. 
Boil up once and {X)ur into the gravy boat.. Jharlh 
and Uoine says : "In carving a turkey, cut otf the 
wing nearest you first, then the leg aud second joint ; 
tbea slice the breast until a rounded, ivory shaped 



32 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



piece appears ; insert the knife between that and the 
bone, and separate them ; then turn over the 
bird a little, and just below the breast you will find 
the "oyster," which you separate as you did the inner 
breast. Proceed the same way with the other side. 
The fork need not be removed during the whole pro- 
cess. A sharp knife is indispensalile. The platter 
should be drawn i»ar enough to the carver for him to 
reach each part of the bird with perfect ease." 



Soup Making. 

In the first place, observe always to lay your meat 
in the bottom of the pan or pot, cutting the meat up, 
or, if a bone, cracking it well. A lump of butter adds 
richness, but it is not necessary. Select such herbs 
and vegetables as you prefer; cut them up very small 
and lay over the meat, with a very little water, and a 
cautiously small piece of salt. Cover the vessel with 
a close fitting lid and set it by a slow fire. This will 
draw out all the herbs and roots, giving the soup a 
difl'erent flavor from what is imparted by putting the 
full quantity of water in at first. Turn the meat fre- 
quently. When the gravy produced is almost dried 
up, fill your pot with a sufficient quantity of water to 
make soup enough for your family. To a large shank 
bone of beef three quarts, or even one gallon is not too 
much to allow. When your soup is done take it olT 
the fire to cool, and skim thoroughly. Put it on again, 
and be sure not to dish it up unless boiling hot. Be 
careful to add salt and other high flavored condi- 
ments sparingly; every table is provided with salt- 
cellar and casters, so that a deflciency in these re- 
spects may be easily rectified; not .^io an over quantity. 
If other thickening "than the vegetables used is deemed 
advisable use browned flour for all soups save chicken, 
veal and oyster soup." 



Charcoal for Poultry. 

Fowls of all kinds are very fond of charcoal, and 
will eat it with great relish if properly prepared. 
Pounded charcoal is not in the shape in which fowls 
usually find their food, and consequently is not very 
enticing to them. To please their palate, the char- 
coal should be in pieces of about the size of grains of 
corn, and if these are strewed around their quarters 
they will readily eat thereof. Corn burnt on the cotj, 
and the refuse (which consists almost entirely of the 
grains reduced to charcoal, and still retaining their 
perfect shape,) placed before them, makes a marked 
improvement in their health, as is shown by the 
brighter color of their combs, and their sooner pro- 
ducing a greater average of eggs to the flock than 
before. 

^ 

The Curative Potato. 

Dr. Streeter, of Santa Barbara, tells the A!ta that 
the worst case of gravel may be cured, the deposit 
dissolved and passed away, by using the water in 
which potatoes have been boiled to pieces ; strain the 
water, sweeten to taste, and drink for two or three 
weeks. This is a painless cure. The same authority 
states that furring or coating deposited on the inside 
of steam boilers may be easily removed, making the 
surface appear like new iron, by placing a quantity 
of raw potatoes in the boiler and letting them boil to 
pieces. After two or three days o])cn the manholes 
and a sandy deposit will be found; brush it out and 
the boiler will be as good as new. 



Glycerine for Preserving Fruit. 

We learn through a German journal, says the 
Journal of Applied Chemistry, that in order to pre- 
serve fresh fruits it is necessary to only heat them, if 
not perfectly ripe, in water almost to boiling, drain 
nearly dry, and cover with warm concentrated glyce- 
rine. If the fruit is perfectly ripe, heating in water is un- 
neccssai-y. It is also ad\ised to pour oft' the glycerine 
after standing for some time and add Iresh concen- 
trated glycerine. The glycerine poured off may be 
concentrated on a water bath and used a second time. 
Ordinary glycerine is often inqjure, but only that 
whicli is perfectly pure and colorless, with a clean, 
Bweet taste and a specific gravity of 125 should be 
employed, 

^ 

A Happy Home. 

In a happy home there will be no fault-finding, 
overbearing spirit; there'will be no peevishness or 
fretfulness. Unkindness will not dwell in the heart 
or be found in the tongue. Oh, the tears, the sighs, 
the wasting of life and health and strength, and of 
all that ie most to be desired in a happy home, occa- 
sioned merely by unkind words. A celebrated writer 
remarks to this effect, namely, that fretting and 
scolding seem like tearing the flesh from the bones ; 
tliat we have no more right to be guilty of this sin 
than we have to curse and swear and steal. In a per- 
fectly happy home all selfishness will be removed. Its 
members will always seek first to please each other. 
Cheerfulness is another ingredient in a happy home. 
How much does a sweet smile, emanating from a 



heart fraught with love and kindness, contribute to 
make a happy home ? At evening how soothing is that 
sweet cheerfulness that is borne on the countenance 
of a wife and mother! How do parent and child, 
brother and sister, the mistress and servant, dwell 
with delight upon those confiding smiles that beam 
from the eye and burst from the inmost soul of those 
who are dear and near. How it hastens the return 
of the father, lightens the cares of the mother, renders 
it more easy for youth to resist temptation, and, drawn 
by the chords of aftection, how it induces them, with 
lowly hearts, to return to the paternal roof. Seek 
then to make home happy. 



Unaired Rooms. 



A writer in the Country Gentleman says: "I pass 
some houses in every town whose windows might as 
well be sealed in with the walls, as for any purpose 
they have but to let in the light. They are never 
opened, summer or winter. In winter it is cold ; in 
the summer the flies stray in, or, if they are netted, 
the dust sifts through the nets. Now, I can tell a 
person who inhabits such chambers when I pass him 
in the street — there is such a smell about his clothing 
I always wish for a sniff of cologne or hartshorn, or 
burnt feathers, or something of the sort, ' to take the 
taste out.' A house that is never aired has every 
nook and corner filled with stale odors of cooked 
meats, boiled vegetables, especially cabbage and 
onions, which, as the weeks go by, literally reek in 
their hiding places. The very garments of the child- 
ren tell the same story of uncleanliness. It is bad to 
have unwashed 'clothes, but there may be an excuse 
for it. But what excuse can there be for unaired 
ones, when air is so cheap and free ? There is death 
in such unaired chambers. Better a swarm of flies 
or a cloud of dust ; butter frost and snow in a room 
than these intolerable smells. The first thing in the 
morning, when you are reatTy to go down stairs, 
throw open your windows, take apart the clothing of 
your beds and let the air blow through it as hard as 
it will. There is health in such a policy." 



Keep the Birthdays. 

Keep the birthdays religiously. They belong ex- 
clusively to, and are treasured among the sweetest 
memories of home. Do not let anything prevent some 
token, be it ever so slight, to show that it is remem- 
bered. Birthdays are great events to children. For 
one day they feel they are heroes. The special pud- 
dings are made expressly for them ; a new jacket, 
trowsers with pockets, or the first pair of boots, are 
donned, and big brothers and sisters sink into insig- 
nificance beside " little Charley," who is " six to-day,'' 
and is soon " going to be a man." Fathers who have 
half a dozen little ones to care for are apt to forget 
birthdays — they come too often. Sometimes they 
are too busy and sometimes they are bothered, 
but if they only knew how much such souvenirs are 
cherished by their children, years afterward, when, 
away from the hearthstone, they have none to remind 
them that they have added one more year to the per- 
haps weary round of life, or to wish them, in the 
good old-fashioned phrase, "many happy returns of 
their birthday," they would never permit any cause 
to step in between them and a parent's privilege. 



A Fruit-Can Opener. 

This is sometliing that has been long needed in the 
domestic circle. "The Sprague Can OPENEft"is 
is a little instrument that can be very conveniently 
carried in the pocket — a small lever with a steel blade 
at theend,workingona pivoted fulcrum and through 
a slat in a small piece of iron, which forms the plane 
of purchase or leverage, and constitutes a sort of 
shears ; used for cutting off the lids of soldered tin 
fruit cans, sardine cases, oyster cans, or any other 
vessel made of tin, copper, zinc, brass or iron, of the 
same thickness as common tin. It is a small aflair, 
costing from .50 cents to $1 each, according to style 
and finish. We have tried this little instrument, and 
find it admirably a<lapted to the use intended — far 
more essential in a household using fruit, vegetables, 
and other viands put in tin cans, than many other 
domestic implements that have come into general 
use. 



To Prevent Rusting. 



Boiled linseed oil will keep polished tools from rust- 
ing, if it is allowed to dry on them. It is very dilli- 
cult to get oflT and should never be put near a joint, 
as it candies. Turpentine or soft soap will destroy it 
when |it is necessary to brighten the surface oiled. 
Common sperm oil will prevent from rusting a short 
period. A coat of copal is frequently applied to 
polished tools exposed to the weather. Woolen 
materials are the best for wrappers for metals. Iron 
and steel goods of all descrijitions are kept free from 
the rust by the following : Dissolve one-half ounce of 
camphor in one pound of hog's lard, take off the scum 
and mix as much black lead as will give the mixture 
an iron color. Iron and steel, and machinery of all 
kinds, rubbed over with this mixture and left with it 
on for twenty-four hours, and then rubbed with a 
linen cloth, will keep clean for months. 



LITERARY AND PERSONAL. 

The Grape Culturist: This is the title of a 
treatise on the cultivation of the native grape by 
Andrew S. Fuller, the eminent practical horticulturist, 
of Ridgewood, New Jersey, a new and enlarged edi- 
tion of which is published by Orange Judd & Company, 
the enterprising publishers of the American Agricul- 
turist. In our article on the Culture of the Grape, in 
this issue of The Farmer, we have followed Mr. 
Fuller's system as the best, in our judgment, of the 
many plans of trellising and pruning which have been 
discussed pro and con, and we cannot too strongly 
recommend his excellent manual to all who desire to 
be thoroughly posted in all the details of the subject. 
Mr. Fuller's treatise is comprehensive and exhaustive 
of everything worth knowing in relation to grape grow- 
ing, and his illustrations are so full and clear that the 
most inexperienced amateur can have no difficulty in 
understanding all directions given, so as to follow 
them in practice. It contains 3^6 pages, and will be" 
sent by mail on receipt of the price, $1..50. 

"The American Farmer vs Colorado Potato- 
Beetle" — "The Pest and Its Remedy." This is a 
14 page octavo pamphlet, issued by C. T. Raynold's 
& Co., 108 and 108 Fulton street, New York, and 
secured by a copyright. 

Although this pamphlet contains nothing new to 
«s, yet it is a condensed history of the above named 
insect, and the only reliable artificial remedy — Paris 
Green — in which the publishers are dealers; its uses 
and its dangers; the mode of judging it and applying 
it; and the antidote in cases of poisoning from it. In 
its essential points it is adapted to any locality where 
this insect exists, and is written in language plain 
enough for any one to understand. We presume it is 
published for gratuitous circulation; but, in any event, 
every farmer ought to possess a copy; and but for the 
congressional restriction we believe we should have 
transferred the entire treatise to our columns at the 
proper season, although the task would be a trifle to 
write one of our own. 

R. H. Allen's "Annual Descriptive Catalogue of 
Garden, Flower and Field seeds and Grains," and 
Field and Garden implements, for 187.5, has been re- 
ceived, and is by far the best yet published by that 
house, giving not only the common local English 
names of the different vegetable productions, but also 
the foreign and the scientific names. Agricultural 
warehouse 189 and 191 Water street. New York. 

Attention is directed to the advertisement of 
Ellwanger & Bakry, Nurserymen, Rochester, N. 
Y. As is well known, they are the largest and most 
successful growers of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 
Shrubs and Plants in the United States. Parties 
wanting anything in their line will do well to send 
for their Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue. 

Coleman's Rural World, published weekly at 
St. Louis, Mo., is one of the oldest and best Agricul- 
tural weeklies we have seen. The eminent Prof. C. 
V. Riley is the entomological editor. It is a large 
quarto, and is conducted with ability and taste by 
N. J. Coleman and his associates. Terms S3 a year. 

The " Gallinocclture Institute" is an enter- 
prising establishment at Hicksville, New York, em- 
bracing the "latest discovery" in artificial chicken 
production, by " Corbett's Ilatching Apparatus," 
operated without fire, steam, lampsor hens, the neces- 
sary heat being generated by beds of horse manure. 

The American Farmer — an octavo magazine of 
40 pages — for February, 187.5, is on our table. This 
ie a beautiful and compact journal, published by 
Sands & Son, Baltimore, at $1.50 a year, embracing 
all sorts of subjects on rural and domestic affairs. 

The Massachusetts Plouuhman, a large folio, 
has been received. The Pknighman. is largely devoted 
to Agriculture, Horticulture, the Garden and the 
Farm, as well as general literature. Published by 
Geo. Noyes, Boston, Mass., at S2..5U a year, weekly. 

Our Readers, who maybe" prospecting" fortheir 
supply of Spring Plants and Flowers, should by all 
means visit Schroter's Floral Headquarters, where 
they will find a great variety of good stock to select 
from. 

Seeds of all kinds are advertised by William D. 
Sprecher, of the old established and extensive Agri- 
culture Implement and Seed Wareliouse of this city. 
Attention is invited to his specialties. 

The TuoROUGiinRED Stock, advertised for sale at 
the "Clifton Farms," Kennett Square, Chester-co., 
is worthy the attention of purchasers. The proprie- 
tors guarantee it to be as represented. 

Spooneh's Descriptive Price Catalogue, published 
by W. H. Spooner, Boston, has been received. It 
contains over 150 illustrations, and is mailed free to 
applicants. 

Miscellaneous: The "Printers Circular" — "State 
Hospital for the insane, Danville, Pa., 1874" — 
"Forty-second Annual Report of the Managers of the 
Pennsylvania Institute for the instruction of the 
blind'"' — "New York city council for Political Re- 
form " — American Journalist " — " Newspaper Re- 
porter " — " Pennsylvania School Journal " — " The 
Proof Sheet " — all duly received, all useful within 
their several spheres, and all creditable to their pub- 
lishers. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



III. 



JOHN M. COWELL, 

Conveyancer ani Real Estate Apt. 



OyriCB IN LAW IIUILDINO, 



N. W. COR, DUKE AND GRANT STS., 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Heal Eatate of all description bought, Bold and ex< 
ch&Dged on commlRHion. 

l.oan9 Nrgotiatrd. Mortgages l>onght and sold. 

Vropertiea token In charge, and rents, interest, etc., 
collected. 

Bartirulnr attention given to matters appertaining to 
Heal E«t;ite Law, and CouveyHiicing. 

J>retlSf Mortgagem, Jirirfs, WUU and all other legal 
Instruments correctly drawn and handsomely and neatly 
engrossed. 

Map* of Properties, Ix>ts, Farms, &c. .and Draughting in 
general accurately and handsomely executed. 

EDGERLEY & CO., 

Carriage Maiifactussfs, 

MARKET STREET, 
In rear of Market House, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Persons wanting a good Carriage or Buggy, will do well by 
giving us a call. 

ALL WORK WARRANTED, 

and for the same quality the cheapest in the market. 

We have the best assortment of second hand work on 
hand ever offered for sale in the county. 



REPAIRIHG PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO. 

FINE GROCERIES, 

SAKINB MOL&SSES, 

PURE SPICES, 

Canned Vegetables and Fruits, 

AT HENRY FISHER'S, 

104 East King St. 

DILLER & GORFF, 

AGENTS FOR 

m mm %mi m tm. 

The best in the market. Guaranteed to 
give satisfaction. 

No pay asked until the conditions of tlie guarantee areful- 
flUed. Call and see it with the late improvenieDta.^ 

ALSO A 

FULL LINE OF HARDWARE, 

BUILDING MATERIALS, 
STOVES, 

And everything usually kept in a first class Hardware 

Store, at 

NO. 7 EAST KING STREET, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



MONEY 



eaeilv made by «eUmg TEAS at IM- 
PORTERS' PRICES, or getting up 
clubs in towns and countrj- for the Old- 
est Tea Company in America. Greatest inducements. Send 
for circular. CANTON TEA COMPANY, 

148 Chambers St.. N. Y. 

BLOOMINOTON NURSERY, Bloomingtou, lU.— F. K. 
Ph(£}4IX. spring listsfree, or the set of four catalogues 
pQst free for twenty cents, jtu '75-^u 



Farmepg, Attention ! 

H. C. EICHHOLTZ, 

NO. 58 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

Will sell you a Good Article of Cutlery of any kind. 

Will also repair any cutting instrument you may have, In 
the best manner. 

Will make you a stencil plate for marking your bags, 
your linen or anything else. Anything In the atamp line 
made to order. 



(Q 



HATS, 

AND 

FTTSS, 

GENTS' GLOVES, 

AND 

WALKING CANES, 

AU at the lowest prices, at the 

CENTRAL HAT STORE, 

39 West King Street, 

Next to Cooper's Hotel, 

LA-NCASTKB, PKNNA.. 

AMEB Ic EESLET. 



0) 



<hC * ^Oft P^r I*3,y at home. Terms free. Address 



. Stinbon & Co., Portland, Maine. 



OPENING OF THE NEW HOTEL. 

THE STEVENS HOUSE, 

COR. WEST KING & PRINCE STS., 

LANCASTER CITY, PA., 

IS NO IV OPEN TO RECEIVE GUESTS. 

M. H. WILSOIST & SOK 

PATBONAGE OF FARiHERS SOI.ICITED. 

«S.COMMODIOUS STABLING FURNISHED ON 
REASONABLE TERMS. 



DEALEBS IN ALL KINDS OF 

FAMIEY and EIDIE-Bl'RXINO COAE! 

Orders received at 

Office, No. 15 East King street, and at tbe 
Yar4 No. 813 NORTH PMNOE HTREET. 



AGRICULTURAL STORE, 

No* 320 North Qneen Street, Lancaster, 

(Near New Market House). 

Be&pers & Mswers, &rdn Drills, 

The Improved Rockawoy Grain Fan, Pratfs Patent Hay 

Hake and Corn Shelters for Horse and Hand Power, 

Cutting Boxes, Corn Planters, and Improved 

Cider Mills 

of different kinds and sizes ; also, all kinds of Coaoh- 
makers' Stuff. 

Farmers, look to your Interest before buying elsewhere. 
I can Still at small profits. The 8hoi> is two squares 
northwest of V. R. R. Depot, and two squares south of 
Reading Dejtot. Hickory Lumber and Spoke Wood t&ken 
in exchange for Machines. 

of all kinds at Hhort notice ; and Castings kept on hand for 
repairing Farm Machinery. Also, Agrictiltural imple- 
ments of every description on hand. Wire and Sieves 
made to order for farmers. 

SAMUEL KEELEB. 

Mayll '1«-ly Lancabtkr, P*. 



NE^^^ GOODS 

OPENED DAILY AT 

MILLINERY AND TRIMMING STORE. 



LADica, we have Just opened a Urge assortinent of 

Hamburg Edgings and Insertings, 
At 6ct8. pek Yabd up to S1.26. 

Also all the Utest itylM of Dr«ss Trimmings, such u 

GIM]PS, FRIISraES, 

X.A.CES A.3SriD BTJTTOISrS 

OF BVBBT DBSOBIFTION. 

Also, everything else kept in a 

FIRST-CLASS 
MnUNEEY and TBIMMING STORE, 

And will always guarantee our prices to be the Very I«ow. 
est and quality the Best. 
Oive us a call ut 

GUNDAKER'S, 

142 and 144 North Queen Street, 

liA-lTCA-STEie.. FA- 



IR YOU WANT A 
SZ'WZITG MACSZXrZ, 

DOH't but cite BEroBE TOU BXAHIMB TUB 

REMINGTON, 

—AT— 

H. A.SCHROYER'8 GENTS' FURNISHING STORE, 

No. 3 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

NEXT DOOB TO ZAHM's COBNEB, 
WHO 18 AOENT FOR LANCASTER COUNTY. 
ty Send for Circulars. 



House Fupnishing Goods 

AT 

JOHN D. SKILES, 

No. 26 EAST KINO STBEET. 

Just received full lines of 

BLEACHED AND UNBLEACHED 

suiting MWii & Pillow-Case MisliBS. 

TICKINOS, CHECKS, 

TABLE UNEN8, TOWELS, 
NAPKINS, QUILTS, 

COUNTERPANES and COMPOBTS. 
PRINTS— Newest Styles. 

PRINTS— Shirting Styles. 

CARPETS, OIL CLOTHS, 

WINDOW SHADES, *C. 

ALL AT LOWEST FBI0E8. 

Great Reduction in WINTER DREK8 GOODS, SHAWLS, 
SKIRTS, kc. to make room for Spring stock. Also, closing 
out our Winter Stock of 

READY-MADE CLOTHEtfG, 

At Prices Regardless of Cost 

COATINGS, CASSIMERES and VESTINOS, made to or- 
der or sold by the yard at greatly reduced prices. 

Call and be eoDvinced. JOUM D> SKILEB. 



IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



HELD, GARDEN AND FLOWER, 

CANARY, BAPE, HEMP, 

Alsike 8c White Clover, 

LAWN GRASS, GREEN GRASS, 

CLOVER & TIMOTBTT'. 

AT W. D. Spreclier's, 

31 E. KING ST., LANCASTER, PA. 



O 
> 

< 

w 

CO 




i 



laUftst Paid @a B@p@glig. 

MONET TO LOAN AT ALL TIMES. 

A GENEKAL BANKING BUSINESS 

TRANSACTED IN ALL ITS 

BRANCHES. 



GEORGE D. SPRECHER, 

DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

OFFICE : 

Ko. 15 EAST KING STHEET, 

j»n 75-ly LANCASTER, PA. 



TREES, Etc. 

■Weofferfor SPRING,'75i an unoEuaUy 
large Btock of well-grown, thrifty 

8t*Bdard nnd Dwnrf Fruit Trees. 
Ctrape VlnpN, Small Fruits. 
Ornaniontal TrpOH, Shrubs, Roses. 
New and Rare Friill and Ornamental Trees. 
Evergreens and Bnlbens Roots. 
New and Rare Green and Hot-House Plants. 
Small parcels forwarded by viail when desired. 

TBOMrx ATTEirTIOir GIVEN TO ALI. EXgUIRIEB. 

Veteriptive and Illwstraied Priced CatalogruM sent prepaid, 
on receipt ft/ stamps, as /allows: 
Ko. 1— rnilte, lOe. No. i — Omameatal Tree<. lOc. 
No. 3 — Greenhouse, lOc. No. 4— Wholesale, Free. 

E^t^'dim. ELL W ANGER & BARRY, 

Mount Hope Suraeries, ROCHESTER, N. T. 

TEOEOnGHBBED STOCK 

FOB SALE CHEAP. 



PURB AYSHIRE CATTLE and CALVES, 

PURE JERSEY CATTLE and CALVES, 

of all a^es, all very eboiee and nicely marked, from the 
choiceet blood and milking families. Also, 

"PRIZE CHESTER WHITE PIGS," 

of all a^es. *' Unsurpassed." These Pure-Bred Pigs have 
DO superior on this continent. Bred from our prize and pre- 
mium stock. Also, extra improved BERKSHIRE and 
ESSEX PIQS. Order soon. Address, 

CLIFTON FABMS, 

KENNET SQUARE, 

OHBSTEB OODXTY, FA. 



FLOWER 

SEEDS, 

VEGETABLE 

SEEDS. 

Jan '7fi-3inoB 



Spoener's Prize Flower Seeds. 

Spier's Bostii llirbt 
VEGETABLE SEEE 

Descriptive Priced Catalo^e, with 
OTer 150 illustratiouB, mailed free to 

applicant. 

W. H. SPOOIER, Boston, Mass. 




My annual catalogue of Vegetable ^nd Flower Seed for 
1875, will be ready -by Jan. Ist ftv all who apply. Custom- 
era of last eeasou need not write for it. In it will b« found 
several valuable varieties of new vegetables Introduced for 
tfa« first time this season, having .made new vegetables a 
specialty for many years, GroiiTing over a hundred and 
j(ft]/ varieties ■on my several farms, I would particularly in- 
vite the patronage of market gardeners and all others who 
are especially desirous to have their seed pure and fresh, and 
of the very best strain. All seeds sent out from my establish- 
ment are covered by three warrants as given in my cata- 
logue. JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 

CENTRE HALL 

Has now ready the Largest Stock of 



For MEN, YOUTH and BOYS, HADE UP OF EVERY 
VARIETY OP GOODS and COLORS. 

FBICES TO SUIT EVEBYBOnT. 



CENTRE H^LL 

Has an Immense Stock of ........^.^„ 

PIECE GOODS. 

AU the Latest Styles in the market to znalLe up to ord«r, at 
low prices, and at shortest notice. 

To save money, buy your Clothing at GEHTRE HAIX, a 
Live House, where they keep up with the times. 

MYERS & RATHVON, 

CENTRE HALL, 12 East King Street, 

my '74-ly LANCASTER, PA. 




FLORAL 

HEADQUARTERS 

AT 

SCHROYER'S, 

On Harrisburg Avenue, in the Ninth 
Ward, North of the College, 

CSSTTIAL fWML BIFOT, 

IN raONT OF 

H.A. SCHROYER'S GENTS' FURNISHING STORE, 

No. 3 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

Next door to Zahm's Comer, Centre Square, 

Every day during the season, if the weather permita, 

where I will be pleased to accomodate those who cannot 

come to Headquarters. 

tyThe earliest, the best, and the newest TOMATO 
PLANTS, in Pots and Boxes; also EARLY CABBAQE 
PLANTS, PEPPER PLANTS, &o. 

GEO. W. SCHROYER. 

Axnsdezi June Peach.. 

Large as Hale's. Fcllt three weeks earlier. Very fra- 
grant, fine flavored, finely colored red, free-stone, firm. 
Excellent Keeper. Foliage not affected by the "curi." 
Fruited on 50 trees. Productive. Original tree 6 years old, 
STILL viQOBOus. CircuUr fbee, endorsed by the Jasper 
County Grange P. of H., and Co. Hort. Society. 

Medium Tree, top cat off, SAFELY by mail, free, $1. Sec* 
ond class, by mail, 60 cts. Mcb. $7.50 per doz. Dormant 
buds, 4 for $1. First-class, $9 per doz. $50 per 100 by Ex- 
press. Safe arrival Guaranteed any distance by Mail or 
Express. Deposit the money with Ex. Co. and send receipt 
with order G. O. D. Send Grange Address. 

Im C. AMSDEN, Carthage, Mo. 



THE BEST 




LANCASTER, PA. 

JOHN BEST, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

Horizontal, Vertical and Portable, from IX 'o 100 Horse-Pr. 

STEAM BOrLEKS~AI)APTED TO ALL 
PURPOSES. 



Castings of all descriptions. Heavy and Light, Made to Order. 



Illustrated Catalogues 
^os 1875 °^ 

EVERYTHINa 



FOR THE 



GARDEN! 

( Seeds! Plants! ) 

Xlmplements, Fertilizers, etc/ 

Numbering 175 pages and containing five 
bearillful colored plates, mailed on receipt 
of 60 cents. 

Catalogue, without plates, free to all. 

S5 Cortlandt St., 

NEW YORK. 



SECONI) AiraUAL CATALOGUE 

OP 

SUSQUEHANNA GREENHOUSES 

AND 

PLANT NlTBaERIES 

NOW BEABT. 

D. L. RESH, Columbia, Pa. 

p. O. BOX 330. 





Published Quarterly. January Number jnsl ^ 

issued, and contains over 100 Pages, 500 Engravings, 
descriptions of more than 500 of our best Flowers 
and Vegetables, with Directions for Culture, Colorib 

Plate, etc, The most useful and elegant work of 

the kind in the world. Only 1$ cents for the year. 

Published in English and German. 

A l.trcss. JAMES VICK. Rochester. N. Y 

33. DEI. ikc^z^.a^xsr, 

MANUFACTURBB OF 

WitliatHsport attfl Lock Haven, 

Bill Mills— ROUND ISLAND fc POBTAOE, PA. 

Retail Lumber and Coal Yard, 

NORTH WATER STREET, ABOVE P. 8. R., LAJCASKE, PA, 




THE FARMERS' HOME ORGAN. 




A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY, 
AND MISCELLANY. 

Published under the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 

Edited by Prof. S. S. EATHVON. 



With the January issue (1875) The Farmer entered upon 
its seventh year, under a cUauge of projaietors, the jiublicii- 
tlon having been trunBferred to the uudpisigueJ, who pi-o- 
poae to make it in all ronpects a first-class local organ of the 
important interests to which it is especially devoted. 

With this view The Farmer has been enlarged and its 
form changed to the Imperial Magazine style, each number 
containing twenty-four pages Imp. Hvo., measuring 9% by 13 
inches, at least sixteen of which will be exclusively devoted 
to reading matter, the advertisements and "standing matter" 
, being limited to the remaining pages. This increase of sizp 
and change of form, together with the use of a more compact 
type, enables us to give twice as much reading matter as 
was contained in the old form. 

If this effort to give ihc agricultural community of Lan- 
cihster county \ publication worthy of their honorable calling 
la liberally seconded, we prO] oee to add other improve- 
ments from time to time, iucluJiug illustrations of impor- 
tant topics of general interest, and papers from aiteciul con- 
tribiUors on the more important local industries and re- 
sources of the county — a wide field, which has been very 
little cultivated by our local i»resH. 

The contributions of our nl)le editor, Prof. Rathvon, on 
BubjectB connected with the science of farming, and partic- 
ularly that specialty of which he is bo thoroughly a master — 
eutomologiciil Bcience--some knowledge of which has become 
a nect'ssity to the succt^saful farmer, arc alone worth much 
more than the price of this magazine. 

The Farmer will be publiHhed on the 15th of every 
month, printed ou good paj^ier with clear type, in con- 
venient form lor reading and binding, and mailed to BUb- 
Bcribers on the following 

TEKMS: 

To Bubscribers residing within the county^ 
One copy, one year, .... - $i.oo 
Six copies, one year, - - - - . . 5.00 

Ten Copies, one year, ------ 7,50 

To subscribers outside of Lancaster county, including 
postage pre-paid by the pnblisherfl: 

One copy, one year, ----- $1.25 

Five copies, one year, . - - . . . j.cx) 

AH Bubscrii'tions will commence with the January num- 
ber unless otherwise ordered. 

All communications intended for publication should be 
addressed to the Editor, and, to secure insertion, should be 
iu his hauds by the first of the month of publication. 
• All business letters, containing suhRcriptions and adver- 
tiaementB, should be addressed to the publliihcrR, 



PEARSOL & GEIST, 



Express Buildings, 22, South Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA 



RATES OF ADVERTISIKd.— Ten Cents n 
line for eacb lunertiou. Twelve Unee to the lucb. 



CONTENTS OrmiS NUMBER. 

EDITORIAL ARTICLES: pace. 

" Farmers, write for your paper," - - 3.S 
Sparrows — Finches, - . - - 33 

Entomoloijical, 33 

Tbe Cabbage Butterfly Colomdo Beetle. 
Utilizing Potato-Beetles and Grasshoppers, 34 

Pear Slugs, ^5 

Paris Green, ..--.- 35 
1 18 poisouous qualities, mode of application, 
&c.. dincuBscd. 
Our National Centennial, ... 37 

Horticultural Hall (Illustrated)— what the 
PenuBylvania Railroad Company is doing, 
A Frigid' Reeord — cold winters, - - 38 

Read Twice— Potash in Plant-ashes, - 88 

This number of The Farmer, - - 88 

Our Illustrations, ----- 38 

The Grangers— position of The Farmer, 38 
To Correspondents, . - - - 38 

The Cabbage— its History, Cultivation and 

VarieliCH'(illustrated), . - . 39 

Cooking Food by Fermentation, - - 39 

Farmers' Sons and The Fahmer, - 39 

Wheat and Cheat, - - . - - 41 
Correeti(m — the Fronclin Apple, - - 44 

The Potato-Beetle to be illustrated, - - 44 
The Potato, J. Staukfer, (illustrated,) - 40 

Shall we Raise Osage-Orange Hedges, 

J. C. LiNViLLE, Gap, . - - - 40 

The Paw-Paw, Levi S. Reist, Warwick, - 40 
Olir Local Organizations, J. M. W. G. 41 — 44 
Proceedings of the LauoaBter Counly Agri- 
cull ural and Horticulturul Society— essay 
ou "Our Orchards" by Caaior Hiller— 
DiBcuBsion on Frnit Euiang- The Potato 
Beetle— The Fabmkk, etc.— The Patrons 
of Uusbandry, AddieBs by M. B.EBhleman 
— Granges in Lancaster county- Growth 
of tbe Order, &c. 
Letters, Queries and Answers. - 44 — 4C 

An Echo from Tenne-ssei — Information 
Wanted about Lantaatcr County B.irns, 
Manuring, Cropl-iug, Lime Burning.- 
Atwut Farmers' Wives and .\i!ricultur(il 
Newspapers.— Something about Black- 
berries.— Tbe Horse's Foot and Shoeing 
— 'The Chinese Persimmon. — Clover and 
Cut-Worms.— riums and IheCurculio.— 
Tbe ScupperTiong Grape. — Words of 
Cheer from a Veteran.- The Centennial 
and Exhibitors.— Practical Farmers. 

Farm and Garden Items, - - - 4« 

Do Plants Need Water?— The Milk Ques- 
tion.— .\ Potato that Kesists the Colorado 
Bug.— Sales of Chester County Slock.— 
Charcoal for Sick .Animals.- Selection of 
BreedB of Cattle.— Destroy Earth Worms. 
Domestic Economy, . - - - 47 
Valuable Household Recipes- Coneslog* 
Pun's— Fiencb Kolls— Lemon, or Orange 
Custard— The Queen of Puddings -Plum 
Pudding- Preserving Hams — c'abbage a 
la Cauliflower— Cooking Celery— White 
Gems— White Custards— Baked Sweel .\p- 
ples— Every-Dav Pudding— Fauov Dish 
—Coffee Cake— kice CUBlards- Tbe .\ut 
Pest- Diphtheria.- Cure for Tootliache.— 
How to Clean Oil Cloths. 
The Cotemporary Press, ... 48 

Catalogues of Seeds, Plants, &c., - 48 

Lancaster County to the Front, - . 48 

The Progress of Invention, - - - 48 

New Patents relating to tbe Farlll,Dalry,&c. 
Our Fence Corners, ----- iii, vi, vii 

Fact, Fancy, Wit and Humor. 

Business Announcements, . - . - ii — viii 



^ 

TES Lill^aaSTSR SIPEESS, 

(DAILT AND "WEEKLY,) 

11)6 Leading Local Family and Business Newspaper, and Iht 
oijly Indepcndeijl Republican Journal iij the Counly. 



THE 
WE E KLY, 


FOTJNDED 

UV TllK 


THE 
DAILY 


1843. 


} PRESENT PROPRIETORS. 


1856. 



The Weekly ExPBEsa baa been before tbe cltiKena of 
Lancaster county for u jeriod of thirty-two years, aud The 
Daily Exphehk for over eighteeu yenrs. During tbia long 
I>eriod, Bud without chungt? uf luaiiHgeiment, The KxpnESS 
h&B fuii'ly eurued a liir^c fih^ii'C of patronage and firmly 
establisbt'd itBr>lf in the public coiifldeuce, ua an upright and 
iude^eiideut journal, never heaitatiug to defend the right 
and deuouuce the wrong, no matter where found to exist. 
It has always been a journal of jn'OgresR, and the oiilsj^ukea 
friend of education, tenu rrance, sound moials audrcUgioa. 
As ia the past, so it will coYitiuuo iu the future, 

TERMS OF THE EXPRESS. 

The Weekly Express, one year, ... $a.oo 

The Daily Express, one year, .... 5.00 

The Express and The Farmer: To any person realding 
within the limiis uf I.^incasLer county we will mail — 
The Weekly and the Lancaster Farmer, one year, $2.50 
The Daily and the Farmer, one year, - • 5.00 

REAL ESTATE ADVERTISING. 

The extended circuhitiou of The KxraESH makes It the 
best medium for advertising Uenl Katato ami Personal 
Proi erty in the county, a fuct which can be attested by the 
many furmera and others who have availed themselves of 
the use of its columns, and to which we iuvUo the att«utiOD 
of all having property to dispose of. 

PRINTING SALE BILLS. 

The Express printing office ia one of the b^^st fumlsbod 
eatablisbmeuts for turning out all kinds of printing to be 
found in tlie interior of the Slate. We are prei>ared to 
print any job from the small visiting card to the largeat aale 
or horse bill, i oater, or broadside, j-lain or iu colors, aa 
quickly 11s it can bo dune at any other establishment, and on 
i<8 rcaaonable terms. Wc make tbe jiluting of Sale-bitU 
/or Fanners a specialty, and guarantee satisfaction to our 
customers. 

OUR STEAM POWER PRESSES 

include the various patterns adajited to prluting books, 
pamphlets, posters, satf-bills, hand-bills, millera' receipts, 
catalogues of live stock, and any kind of work done in a 
flrst-cluBs printing oftice; in short au>'thing that may be 
called for by the farmer, nrerchaut, banker, mechanic, or 
buftiness man, and we puarantet' to do the work as satlsfao- 
tory as it can be done iu Philadel])hia or clsewbore. 

\Vith one uf the most conii>lote Job Offices iti the State, 
and unsurpusMMl couveuieucea for expeditiously turning out 
work by tbe beHi workmen, under tbe [>erMooal su]>ervision 
uf the proprietors, who are both practical printers, all per- 
sona in need of Printing will find it to tbeir intercat to giv« 
us a trial. 

PEARSOL & GEIST, 

BOOK, NEWSPAPER AND JOB PRINTERS, 

Express Buildings, 32. South Queen-st, 
LANCASTHH, FA. 



Oar Prcfis Rooms are open to Vialtora, and they are 
alwaya welcome to look at our machinery In operation. 



II. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



PF.NKSYI>VAJfIA HAILROAD. 
Trains leave the Pennsylvauia Depot in tniB city 
as follows ; 





Leave 


An-ive 


WESTWARD. 


Lancaster. 


Harrisburg. 


Pacific ExpresB' 


2:45 a. m. 


4:10 a. m. 


York Accommodation . . 


7:50 a. m. 




Mail Train via Mt. Joy.. 


11:20 a. m. 




MaU Train No. 2 via 








11:20 a. m. 
3:25 p. m. 
6.10 p. m. 


1:20 p. m. 




4:60 p. m. 


Harrisburg Accom 


8:10 p. m. 


Lancaster Train 


7:35 p. m. 


Col. and York. 


Pittsburg Express 


8:55 p. m. 


10:10 p. m. 


Ciucinuati Express' 


10:45 p. m. 


12:01 a. m. 


EASTWARD. 


Lancaster. 


PhilodelphU. 


Atlantic Express* 


12:40 a. m. 


3:10 a. m. 


Philad'a Eipresst 


3:55 a. m. 


6:.50 a. m. 


Harrisburg Express 


7:20 a. m. 


10:00 a. m. 


Lancaster Train 


9:28 a. m. 




Pacific Express' 


1.45 p. m. 


4.15 p. m. 


Elmira Express 


3.15 p. m. 


5:55 p. m. 


Harrisburg Accom 


6-20 p. m. 


9:30 p. m. 



The Columbia Accommodation Train will leave Columbia 
at 1:00 p. m., and arrive at Lancasleuat 1:35 p. m. Return- 
ing, leave Lancaster at 3:40 p. m., and arrive at Columbia at 
4:15 p. m. 

York Accommodation leaving Lancaster at 7:50 a. m. and 
Columbia at 8:20 a. m., vrtll connect at York with Baltimore 
Accommodation, south, at 9:13, arriving at Baltimore at 
12:05 p. m. 

The York Accommodation, leaving York at 5:50 a. m., con- 
nects at Columbia, at 6:35. with the train leaving Marietta at 
6:22 a. m., and at Ijiucaster, at 7:20 a. m., with the Harris- 
burg Express. 

The Pacific Express east, on Sunday, will make the fol- 
lowing stops, when flagged, viz.: Middletown, Elizabeth- 
town, Mount Joy, Bird-in-Hand, Learaan Place, Gap, Chris- 
tiana, Parkesburg, Coatesville, Gleu Lock, and Bryn Mawr. 

•The only trains which run daily. Mail train west on 
Sunday will run via Columbia. 

tRuns daily, except Monday. 



PENNSYLVAITIA RAILROAD. 

FLORIDA EXCURSION ROUTES. 

SEASON OF 1874-5. 

TicketB to Jacksonville, Fla., and Return, for sale Decem- 
ber iBt to April l8t, good to return uutil May 31st, and have 

all the privileges of First Class Tickets. 

EouTB No. 510.— Via Washington, Bichmond, Wilmington, 
Charleston, and Savannah. 

KouTK No. 611.— Via Washington, Richijiond, Charlotte, 
Augusta, and Savannah. 

Route No. 512.— Via Washington, Richmond, Wilmington, 
Augusta, and Savannah. 

KouTK No. 513.— Via Washington, Richmond, Charlotte, 
•Atlanta, Mucou, and Jesup. 

RouTK No. 514.— Via Washington, Lynchburg, Charlotte, 
Augusta, and Savannah, 

RoutkNo. 515.— Via Washington, Lynchburg, Bristol, At- 
lanta. Macon, and Jesup. 

EouTB No. 548.— Via Washington, Richmond, Augusta, 
Yemassee, and Savannah. 

Route No. 549.— Via Washington, Bichmond, Wilmington, 
Augusta, Yemassee, and Savannah. 

Route No. 546. — Via Baltimore, Norfolk, Wilmington, Au- 
gusta, and Savannah. 

Route No. 547.— Via Baltimore, Norfolk, Wilmington. 
Charleston, and Savannah. 
All of the above-described tickets return by same route, 

and are sold at followiug THROUfiH Rates. 

Now York, . , $5'j 00 I Trenton, . . $47 75 
' " ■ ■ 45 50 

49 50 

50 75 
52 75 

Except Routes' No. 54C and No. 547, which are not sold at 
Harrisburg, Williamaport, Altoona, and Pittsburg. 

Variable Route Tickets are sold at New York, Jersey City, 
Harrisburg, WilUumsport, Altoona, and Pittsburg, as fol- 
lows : 
Excursion No. 616.— Going by Route 510, returning by 

Route 512, $10 additional. 
Excursion No. 517.— Going by Route 612, returning by 

Route 610, $10 additional. 
Excursion No. 518.— Going by Route 510, returning by 

Route 511, $10 additional. 
Excursion No, 519.— Going by Route 511, returning by 

Route 510, $10 additional. 
Excursion No. 522. — Going by Route 510, retux'ning by 

Boute 514, $10 additional. 
ExcuRBiON No. 523.— Going by Route 514, returning by 

Route 610, $10 additional. 
Excursion No. 526.— Going by Route 511, returning by 

Boute 512, $10 additional. 
Excursion No. 627.— Gomg by Boute 512, returning by 

Boute 511, $10 additional. 
Excursion No. 530.— Going by Boute 511, returning by 

Route 514, $10 additional. 
Excursion No. 631.— Going by Route 514, returning by 

Routes 1, $10 additional. 
Excursion No. S36.— Going by Route 612, returning by 

Route 514, $10 additional. 
Excursion No. 537,— Going by" Route 614, returning by 

Boute 512, $10 additional. 
ExcuBsiON No. 542. — Going by Boute 613, returning by 

Boute 515, $10 additional. 
Excursion No. 543.— Going by Boute 515, returning by 

Route 513. $10 additional. 

Excursion Tickets and information of Boutes can be ob- 
tained at the following Ticket Offices : 
Boston— Nos. 77 and 79 Washington Street. 
New YoSK— No. 1 Aator House, No. 526 Broadway, No. 944 

Broadway, and at Depots, foot of Desbrosses and foot of 

CoHrtlaudt Streets. 
Jersey City — Depot. Newark — 182 Market St., and at 

Depot. Elizabeth — Depot. Bahway — Depot. New 

Brunswick- Depot. Trenton— Depot. 
Harrisburg- Depot. Williamsport— 8, W. comer Mar- 
ket Square and at Depot, Altoona— Depot. Pittsburg 
— 78 Filth Avenue, and at Union Depot. 
FRANK THOMSON, D. M. BOYD, JR., 

General Matia^er, Gen'l Passenger Agent. 

7-3-lm 



Jersey City, 


50 00 


Harrisburg, 


Newark. 


50 00 


W illiamsport 


Elizabeth. 


d9 75 


Altoona, 


Rahway, 


49 50 


Pittsburg, 


New Brunewick, 


49 00 





2,000 Copies of The Farmer 

Have been printed each month since 
the publication passed into the hands 
of the present proprietors. Of this 
number the copies not wanted for regu- 
lar subscribers have been sent to leading 
farmers in the various districts of the 
county, for their examination, in the 
hope that they would be pleased with it 
and become subscribers. We are proud 
to be able to state that The Farmer has 
made a very favorable impression where- 
ever it has been read, and we have every 
reason to believe that its subscription 
list will be doubled before the year is 
out. Lancaster being one of the most 
populous and wealthy agricultural coun- 
ties in the nation, this journal is a very 
desirable medium for those who wish to 
reach a thrifty class of farmers. 



Hcm^Palnt 



A New Work by a Practical Painter, design 
ed for the use of Tradesmen, Meclianics, 
nercliants. Fanners, and as a Guide to Pro- 
fessional Painters. Containini; a Plain Com 
mon-SoDBe Statement of the Methods employed by 
Painters to produce satisfactory results in Plain 
andFancr Painting of every description, includ 
Ing Formulas for mixing Paint in Oil oi 
] Water, Tools required, etc. This is just the Book 
needed by any person having anything to paint, and 
makes 

"Every Man His Own Painter." 

Full Directions for Using White l,ead-l.amp- 
Black— Green — Yellow — Brown— Wlilt- 
Ing — Glue — Pumice Stone — Spirits ol 
Turpentine — Oils — Varnishes — Furni- 
ture Varnish — Milk Paint — Preparing 
Kalsomlne, etc. 

Paint for Outbuildings 

— Whitewash— Paste for Paper-Hanglng- 
Hanging Paper-Graluing In Oak, IMaple, 
Rosewood, Black Walnut— Staining— 
Decalcomaula— Making Bustle Pictures 
— Painting Flower-Stands — Rosewood 
3 Polish — Varnishing Furniture — Wax- 
■rt Ing furniture— Cleaning Paint— 

s Paint for Farming Tools 

3 -for Machinery-Household Fixtures, etc. 



To Paint a Farm Wagon 

-to Re-Varnlsh a Carriage— to make Plas- 
ter Casts. The work Is neatly printed, with illus- 
trations wherever they can serve to make the subject 
plainer, and it will save many times Its cost 
yearly. Every family should possess a copy. Prico 
by mall, post-paid, $1. Address 

THE FARMER, 

,_3_i2m Liancaster, Pa. 



A. K. SPURRIER, 

At Mayor's OfB.ce, Lancaster, Pa. 

Criminal bueiness promptly attended to at all hours. 

SPECIAL ATTENTION paid to Civil Bueiness. GoUec 
tioue carefully attended to, and returns promptly made, on 
reasonable terms. 

DEEDS. JUDGMENTS and MORTGAGES 

executed on short notice, and satisfaction guaranteed. 



1875. PRE-CENTENNNIAL. 1875. 

Rattivon fc Pistier, 

PRACTICAL 




Cor N. aUEEN and ORANGE STS., 

LANCASTER, PENN'A. 



ENGLISH WORSTED, TRICOT, 

GRANITE, CASTORS AND 

CASSIMERE COATINGS 

AND VESTINGS. 

All the Fine and Common Grades of 

EnElish & American PantalooninEs and Vestings 

SILK, VELVET, MERINO, CHALLEE, 

AND VALENTIA VESTINGS. 

Plain and Figured. 

Ready-made Olothlng of home mantilacture for Men 
and Boys. Hosiery, a full line of SMrts, Collars, Shams, 
and Neck Fixings, etc. 

Clothing- made to order promptly, and warranted to 
give satisfaction. Agents for the sale of Scott's Fashions. 

Our stock consists of all the novelties In the market, 
for MEN and BOYS, and will be replenished as the sea- 
son advances. For quality, variety, style and price, we 
feel II cannot be excelled elsewhere. 

Thankful for past patronage, we would call the atten- 
tion of buyers to our slock of Piece Goods and Ready- 
Made Clothing tor the Sprtno; of iSTo. 

Fashions received monthly, and Clothing made 
promptly to order, on the most satisfactory terms. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

7-l-12m Practical Tailors. 

The Only Place in Town for Cheap Soap. 
HERMAN MILLER'S 

STEAM SOAP AND CANDLE WORKS, 

42 EAST EINC! ST. Factory-SOUIH WATEE SI. 

Keeps constantly on hand a good assortment of 

SOAPS OF ALL KINDS. 

Tallow and Fat taken In exchange at the filghest mar- 
7-2] ket prices. Patent Wheel Grease tor sale. |6m 

fHl ilST EAi C4EPETS 

ARE MADE BY 

THOS. W. BROWN, 

(SUCCESSOR TO E». BtlCKESfDEKFER,) 

COVERLET AND CARPET WEAVER. 

STOBE, 542 EAST KING ST. 

FACTORY, 541 & 543 E. MirFLIlSr ST., 

LANCASTER, PA. 

7-1] CUSTOMER WORK A SPECIALTY. [3m 

UTAH NATIVE PLANTS. 



Our climate is 80 mild we Beldom have snow in the valleys 
—but iu midsummer may find enow and ice in a day's ride. 
The plants from the regions of the extremes of heat and 
cold meet here and hybridize ; thus the many new plants- 
some very beautiful iu bloom, and attractive as ornamenta. 
Several new SPECIES have been discovered, and many more 
new varieties. 

1 will send plants or seeds, each in the proper season, for 
orders accompanied by the "ready," and in some instances 
will exchange for the rare and beautiful, for garden and 
conservatory. J. E, JOHXSOBT. 

7-3_tf St. George, ITtah. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



III. 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

_ Z AHMS CORNER, 

^orth Queen Street Ss Centre Square, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN WATCHES, 
CLOCKS, JEWELRY, SILVER- 
WARE, AND 

SILVER-PLATED WARE. 

SOLE AGENT IN LANCASTER COONTY FOR THE SALE OF 

The Aruadel Tmted Spectacles. 

These SpectncIeB have been l>efore the public now for 
some years, uiid have given entire satiefaetiou. They are 
unquestionably the best in the market. 

WATCH REPAIRING 

and GENERAL JOB WORK in all its brauchea promptly 
done. The well-earned reputation of 

for flrst-clasB work will be fully maintaiced. 

EDVS^.J. ZAHM, 

ZA£CMS COKITSR, 
North Queen St. and Centre Square, 
7-3.3m ItANCASTEB, PA. 

FITS CURED FR££. 



OUR FENCE CORNERS. 

THE LANCASTER FARMER ABROAD. 

The Lancastku Farmku is not only rapiilly work- 
ing its way into favor at home, but it la winning 
golden opinions from leading agrieultuniliBts and 
men of srienee abroad, wlio are attraeted to it by the 
wfll written anil praetieally iisefnl artieles of its able 
editor, I'rof. Katlivon. Indications already received 
by the publlsliers in the way of compliments, suliseri- 
bcrs and advertisements for The Fartiter, indicate that 
it could be sustained by patronage outside the county, 
even if our own I'armers fail to appreciate it, of which 
the publisliers liavc, liowevcr, no fears, as subscrip- 
tions from the county are steadily coming in. Tlic 
following, culled from the many compliments of the 
agricultural ])ress received, is from tlie Minne Fanner 
published at Augusta, of which S. L. Boardman is 
the agricultural editor. It is one of the leading and 
oldest agricultural newspapers in the country, being 
now in its forty-third year : 

Among our excliangee, we have few that are more 
welcome or more closely conned than TUe Laiicnnlcr 
Fnriiier, published monthly at Lancaster, Pa., at 
SI. 00 per year. While it is intended to Ije a local 
journal merely, it is at the same time so ably edited, 
so well tilled with judicious and sensible matter, and 
so neatly printed and made up, as to be deserving of 
a wider circulation than it can possibly have in the 
county where published. Prof. S. S. liathvon — a 
well-known writer on entomology, is editor. 

The agricultural editor of the New York Tribune, 
who is not given to paying idle compliments, and 
from whom a word of commendation has great weight 
with farmers and fruit-growers, says : 

"The Lancaster Farmek, a monthly journal 
published at Lancaster, Pa., and edited by Prof. S. S. 
Kathvou, starts on its seventh year in an enlarged and 
improved condition. It strives to develop local agri- 
cultural interests, and should be well sustained." 



Any person suffering from the above disease is requested 
to address T>r. Price, and a trial bottle of medicine will be 
forwarded by Express, 

FREE I 

The only cost toeing the Express charges, which, owing to 
xny large business, are small. 

Dr Price has made tlie treatment of 

FITS OB EPILEPSY 
a study for years, and he will warrant a cure by the use of 
his remedy. 

Do not fail to send to him for a trial bottle; it costs 
sothing, and he 

WILL CURB YOU, 
no matter of how long standing your case may be, or how 
many other remedies may have failed. 
Circulars and testimonial.s sent with 

FKEE TRIAL BOTTLE. 
B« particular to give your Express, as well as your Post 
Office direction, aud address 

Dr. CHAS. T. PRICE, 

7-3-12m 67 William St.. New York. 

^. :iB. ]vi-A.nTriisr, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

n'itttniUJtpnrt anft I^ofh Ilnvettt 

BiU Mills— ROUND ISLAND k PORTAGE, PA. 
7-1] Retail Lumber and Coal Yard, [3m 

NORTH WATER STREET, ABOVE P. R. R., LANCASTER, PA. 

IF YOU WANT A 
SB'WZITG MACHZITB, 

don't but one before tou examine the 

REMINGTON, 

— AT — 

H. A.SCHROYER'S GENTS' FURNISHING STORE, 

No 3 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

NEXT DOOB TO ZAHU'6 COBKEB, 
WHO IS AGENT FOR LANCASTER COUNTY. 

ty Send for Circulars. [1-2-^ni 



Heading off a Congregation. 

Old Dr. Strong, of Hartford, was not often out- 
witted by his i)eople. On one occasion he had invited 
a young minister to preach for liim who proved 
rather a dull speaker, and whose sermon was unusu- 
ally long. The people became wearied, and as Dr. 
Strong lived near the bridge, about the time of 
the commencement of the afternoon service he saw 
his people flocking across the river to the other 
church. He readily understood that they feared they 
should hear the same young man in the afternoon. 
Gathering up his wits he said to the young minister : 
"My l)rothcr across the river is very feeble, and I 
know he will take it kindly to have you preach to his 
people, and if you will do so I will give you a note to 
him, and will be as much obliged to you as I would 
to have you preach for me, and I want you to preach 
the same sermon you preached to my people this 
morning." The young minister supposing this to be 
a commendation of his sermon, started otf in good 
spirits, delivered his note and was invited to preach 
most cordially. He saw before him one-half of Dr. 
Strong's people, and they had to listen one hour and 
a half to the s,ame dull, humdrum sermon they heard 
in the morning. They understood the joke, however, 
and said they would never undertake to run away 
from Dr. Strong again. 



The Lancaster Farmer has abandoned its octavo 
form and comes to us in quarto style — something like 
the PRACTirAi. Farmer. It is published by Pear- 
sol & (iEisT, 23 S. Queen street, Lancaster, Pa., and 
is edited by that well-known Entomologist and tal- 
ented writer, 8. S. P.atiivon. It is published under 
the auspices of the Lancaster County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society. We should much rejoice in 
the prosperity of our valued cotemjwrary. It is ably 
edited and always abounds in valuable practical mat- 
ter. It ought to have 3,000 subscribers in Lancaster 
county alone. — The Practical Farmer aiirf Journal of 

the Farm. 

^ 

A lisping genius, having Imught some pigs, said to 
his neighbor : " I have juth been purtlialhing thome 
thwine^wo thouth and pigth. I want to put them 
in your pen till I can tind aplath forthem." "Why," 
exclaimed the neighbor, " my pen will hardly hold a 
dozen I" " I don't thay two'thouglithand pigthi" ex- 
claimed the lisper. " I hear you, two thousand pips; 
why, you must be crazy!" Again, exclaimed the 
man, angrily, "I mean not two thoughthand pigth, 
but two thouth and two pigth !" "Oh, eh? Well, 
the pen is at your service." 



E. J. sb.ism:.ajct. 

The Shirt Maker, 

AND DEALER IN 

FINE SHIRTS, SLEEVE BUTTONS, COL- 
LARS. CUFFS, DRAWERS. NECK- 
TIES, UMBRELLAS, GLOVES. 
SUSPENDERS, EMBROI- 
DERED SHIRT FRONTS. 
SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER, 

■WARRANTED TO FIT. 
118 IsrOieTH Q,TJEEIsr ST-, 

(Next door lo Horting A Schlott's Hotel), 

LANCASTER, PA. 17 1 3m 

1760. ESTABLISHED 1760. 



GEO. M. STEINMAN & CO., 

26 and 28 W. KING ST., 

HARDWARE. 



BUILDING HARDWARE, GLASS, 
PAINTS. OILS, PUMPS, 

TERRACOTTA. IRON anft LEAD PIPE, 

LEATHER BELTING, 

SEEDS, PHOSPHATES, AND 
FAEM IMPLEMENTS. 

AGENTS FOR THE 
"OHIO" REAPER AND MOWER, 
WHANN'S PHOSPHATE, 
FAIRBANK'S SCALES, 
DUPONT'S POWDER, 
HARRISBURG NAILS, &c., &C. 

We have the largest stocli of general Hardware in the 
State, and our prices are as low and terms as liljcral as can 
be found elsewhere. 7-3-3m 

LANCASTER, PA., 

With whom may be found, at Wliolesale and Retail, a large 
assortment of 

^RUGS, ^EDICINES&^HEMICALS 

Fancy and Toilet Articles, 

SPONGES, BRUSHES, PEKFCMEBY, ic, *c. 



easily made by selling TEAS at IM- 
PORTERS' PRICES, or getting up 
clubs in towns and country for the Old- 
est Tea Company in America. Grciteat iuducements. Send 
for circular. CANTON TEA COMPANY, 

148 Chambers St., N. Y. 



MONEY 



" My dear fellow," said an old member of Congress 
to a new one, " j-ou work too liard on your speeches. 
I often prepare one in half an hour, and think noth- 
ing of it." "And that's just what everytrody else 
thinks of it," was the reply. 



Physicians' Preacripllons carefully compounded, and order* 
answered with care and dis| atch. The Public will 
find our stock of Medicines complete, war- 
ranted genuine, and of the beat quality. [7-l-3m 



MARSHALLS' 

BOOT Aro SHOE STORE, 

Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 

For French Kip Boots, For French Calf Boots, For Calf and 
Kip Boots, for heavy Boota and Shoes, 

GO TO MARSHALLS". 

BOYS' AND YOUTHS KIP BOOTS, 

RUBBERS OF EVERY STYLE. 

Ladies', Misses and Children's flue Button Work. Also, 
particular attention paid to customers leaving their meaa- 
urc. We use nothing but the best of material, and employ 
none but the best of workmen. 

B^Bepalring promptly attended to. . n-l.An 



IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



A A i 




A reliable time-piece should te In tlie possession of 
every farmer, and nowhere can a better, more correct 
and reliable Wutch, either American or Swiss, be ob- 
tained, warranted In every respect as represented, than 

°H. L. ZAHM&CO. 

NO. 22 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

NEXT DOOB TO MARBLE FRONT. 

SILVEB and SILVER PLATED WABE, 
KNIVES, FORKS AND SPOONS. 

A LARGE STOCK. 

Farmers, 'tis a pleasure to have a good time-piece; 'tis 
also a pleasure to enjoy the beautiful In agriculture and 
horticulture, and to see the latest Improvements In 
these, and all things nature has blessed us with. There- 
fore, GOOD EtK SIGHT Is necessary for the enjoyment of 
these pleasures. The eye Is often strained and weak- 
ened from different causes and should be helped In 
time. Call on H. L. ZAHM & CO.. where H. L. Zahm, the 
oldest and most experienced optician, with A PRACTICE 
OF THIRTY YEARS, will flt you with glasses warrant- 
ed to strengthen and renew the sight without a doubt. 

DO NOT FORGET THE PLACE. 

NO. 22 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

OPPOSITE BAER'S BOOK STORE. 

SPECIALTY : Spectacles, Jewelry and Watches. 
Repairing— Warranted First-class. 



p-l-2m 



BOOKS I 



DAVID BAIK. R. W. SHENK, 

BANKING HOUSE 

—OF— 

BAIR & SHENK, 

LANCASTER, PENN'A. 

BUSINESS PAPER Discounted. 
LOANS made on Collateral Securities. 
Gold, Silver, Coupon*, Government and other 8eonritie» 
bought and sold. 
Interest paid on Deposits. 

i)^ per cent. 3 months, I 5}^ per cent. 12 months. 
6 per cent. 6 months, | 7-3-3m 

J F. FRUEAUFF, 

Attemey-at-Iiaw. 

O£fice-ao4 Locust-st. House-27 S. Second-st. 



Notes, Bonds, 

Mortgages, Wills, 

Deeds, Leases, 

Building Contracts, 

And all manner of AGREEMENTS neatly and expeditiouBly 
drawn. Cases carefully and thoroughly tried before 

JUSTICES OF THE PEACE, 

ARBITRATORS, ROAD-VIEWLRS. AUDITORS. 

Or in any Courts of Lancaster County 
COUNSEL GIVEN TO 

EXECUTORS, ADMINISTRATORS & ASSIGNEES, 

Or Trustees of any kind. 

Collections, large or small, made upon a uniform table of 
rates, in all parts of the United States. 

Special facilities for Collections of Estates or Debts in 
Xurope. 

Consultations and Correspondence conducted in either the 
French, German or English languages. 

J. F. FRUEAUFF, 

Columbia, Pemu. 



JOHN BAER'S SONS 

No, 15 North ftueen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA., 

luTite the attention of the public to their large and well se- 
lected stock of 

Miscellaneous ani School Boob, 

English and German Publications, 
BLANK BOOKS, 

Comprising Ledgers, Day Books, Cash Books, Journals, 
Pass Books, &c., Foreign and 

Domestic Writing Papers, 

AND STATIONERY. 

Having many years' experience in the business, ample 
capital and a spacious store, we 

HAVE THE BEST FACILITIES 

for conducting our business, and offer special inducements to 
all who may faror us with their patronage. 
B^~ Agents for 

Excelsior School Furniture. 

1-1-12] 



•t-l-ltml 






no.w.BRDwn 

FDRHITDRE f AEEROOMS, 

No. 13 EAST KING STREET, 



Over Llpp'a Tin Store, next door to First 
National Bank. 



AND 

KITCHEN FURNITURE. 

UPHOLSTERING DONE IN 
ALL ITS BRANCHES. 

HAIR, HUSK & COMMON MATTRESSES. 

CANE AND WOOD-SEAT 

o:e3: ^ I n. s. 

All kinds of Fnmitare made to Order. 
tyRepalrlne ol all kinds promptly attended to. 



7-l-3in] 



GEO. W. RROWN. 



d 

H 

d 





Established 1770! Established 1770! 

H.C DEMUTH, 



MANUFACTURER OF 



AND 



JOBBER IN CHEWING & FINE-CUT TOBACCOS. 

All the best tobacco in the market at the lowest re- 



tail prices. 



[7-l-3m] 



114 E. King St., Lancaster, Pa. 



Farmers, Attention! 

H. C. EICHHOLTZ, 

OXJTIjiESH., 

NO. 58 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

will sell you a Good Article of Cutlery of any kind. 

Will also repair any cutting instrument you may have, in 
the best manner. 

Will make you a stencil plate for marking your bags, 
your linen or anything else. Anything in the stamp line 
made to order. [T-l-3in 

OPENING OF THE NEW HOTEL. 

THE STEVENS HOUSE, 

COR. WEST KING & PRINCE SIS., 

LANCASTER CITY, PA., 

IS NOW OPEN TO RECEIVE GUESTS. 

M. H. WILSON *fe SON. 

PATROSTAGE OF FARIHERS SOLICITED. 

«3.COMMODIOUS STABLING FURNISHED ON 
REASONABLE TERMS. [7-l-3m 



NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN THAT 

DR. J. B. MeCASKEY, 

Office over First Natiooal Bank, 

EAST KING STREET, 

Is our ONLY Licensee for the use of Rubber as a base for 
Artificial Denture, in Lancaster, Pa. 

All persons are hereby cautioned against purchasing Rub- 
ber Dental Plates of parties NOT LICENSED by this Com- 
pany, as by BO doing they render themselves equally liable to 
prosecution for infringement. A reward will be paid for 
information that will lead to the conviction of any parties 
for the unlawful use of our patents. 

JOSIA^r SA.COZT, 

Trea^> Goodyear Dental Vulcanite Co, 
Boston, February 13, 1875. 7-3-lm" 

J. B. KEYINSKI, 

Sole Agent for Lancaster City and Connty lor 

STEINWAY& SON'S 

WORLD RENOWNED PIANOS, 

AND 

MASON «Sc HAMLIN'S 
OELEBEATED OEGANS. 

So. 8 North Prince St. 

7-2-3m 



GEORGE D. SPRECHER, 

DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

ROOFIJSra SLi^TE. 

OFFICE : 

No. 15 EAST KING STREET, 

7-l-12in LANCASTER, PA. 

FINE GROCERIES, 

BAKING MOLASSES, 

PURE SPICES, 

Canned Vegetables and Fruits, 



AT 

7-2-3m 



HENRY FISHER'S, 

104 East King St. 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. MARCH. 1875. 



Vol. VII. Ho. 3. 



"FARMERS, WRITE FOR YOUR PAPER." 

We luivo V>efore iis a large doiibli' folio on 
af;i"icultuie, called the Farmers'' Vnitm, puli- 
lishert at Afiiiiicaiiolis, Minnesota, whieli lia.s 
the al)ove caption as its chief motto. It i.s not 
only a motto, Imt also an ailmonition, and to 
show how far it is re;;arded l)y its jiatrons, we 
have only to say that tliis number (Febrnary 
loth) contains jij'tii-Jivc orif^inal contributions 
from the same number of writers. Twelve at 
least of these writers are ladies, and about half 
a dozen are youths. Their contributions num- 
ber from ten lines to a whole cohnnn or more, 
and they an^ on all sorts of subjects connected 
with agricultural, horticultural, domestic, sta- 
tistical and social affairs, with a slight sprink- 
ling of religious, scientilic and political. In- 
deed, nearly the whole eight i>ages are taken up 
with original matter, and the small remainder 
with literary and miscellaneous selections and 
advertisements. 

Minneapolis and its surroundings, in com- 
parison with Lancaster city and county, is a 
new settlement, far rinioved from the great 
centres of eastern wealth and intelligence, and 
yet no jom-nal has come under our obser- 
vation that is patronized l)y .so many contii- 
Ijutors. It is true, that many of these contri- 
butions are of a common place or local char- 
acter, and a few of them are pnrely di.scus- 
sional, but the greater number are i)ractical, 
and would be suitable to any locality in the 
same degree of latitude. We have said that at 
least twelve of these writers were ladies, but 
from the fact that many of them only signed 
their initials, or the initialsof their tirst name, 
we could not alw.ays determine the sex of the 
writers by the names alone, nor could it be 
always determined l)y the context. 

This leads us to make a remark here that we 
think we have made elsewhere, namely, that 
lady writers should adoi)t a signature or [vseu- 
donym by which we might liww their sex from 
the name alone. How can we tell whether J. 
E. Jones means .Tane Elizabeth Jones, or Jede- 
diali Eliphalet Jones V 

Now, there nuist V>e some reason for the lib- 
eral literary support which these Minnesotians 
extend to their local journal. And it is not 
this journal alone, but all that are published in 
the western states have a more liberal support 
in this respect than tho.seof the east, andcs]rc- 
ciallj" those in Pennsylvania. Without intend- 
ing to prejudice the ca.se one w.ay or the other, 
we would merely suggest that "the "Patrons 
of Ilusb.andry" are numerous in that locality, 
and, although it is not consiiicuou.sly apparent 
that this paper is the authorized organ of that 
as.sociation, still, all through its columns it 
smacks strongly of the Grange. People, how- 
ever, who write liberally for news))apers and 
magazines are most Jikely readers of and sub- 
scribers to tho.se iiublications, and if the Granges 
are capable of producing such an effect upon 
the Social and intellectual condition of the peo- 
ple, they ought to be "looked into," for it 
would seem that they are not only "Patrons 
of Husbandry," but also patrons of literature. 

We know not whether the Grange imi)oses 
obligations, or impresses instruction, involving 
moral and intellectual culture, or whether it 
is to the contrary, Ijut if it does, it is only in 
harmony with those ideas of "compulsory edu- 
cation" which now are engaging the attention 
of local legislation in many [lartsof our country. 
If there is no such obligation within the order, 
it cannot be denied that such a one impliedly 
exists cndsick of it. When the Creator iilaced 
man in the Garden of Eden he was solemnly 
admonished to "drf.ss U and keep it,''' and this 
involved both mental and physical labor. Had 
he heeded this admonition, and subordinated 
his sensual toliis spiritual principle, there would 
not now be any need of such an organization 
as a Grange. The "one talent" which was 



committed to the slothful servant was taken 
from him— because he had "hidden it in a naji- 
kin " — and given tojiini that had "ten." If 
these cxaniiiles do not involve nioial and men- 
tal culture, (hen it would be dillicult to impress 
such a precept by any demonstraliou less em- 
phatic than^he terrilic " thundering of .siuai." 

If, however, the facts above narrated are a 
merely ordinary manifestation of the iieople's 
love for literary exerci.ses, then it exhibits a 
degree of social and intellectual culture that, is 
a credit to any connuunily where such a state 
of thingsexists,and cannot be too soon adopted 
by older settlements. 

We can conceive no greater aid to llu- moral 
and intellectual progress of our farming popu- 
lation than the devotion of a small portion <if 
their time to the cultivation of their minds. 
This ought to be done, without leaving their 
physical labors undone. Of what account are 
hou.ses, and barns, and lands alone, in tliat hour 
when — "This night thy .soul shall be recpiired 
of thee — " is sounded in delimiuent ears V 
^^ Farmers, write for your paper.''' 



SPARROWS— FINCHES. 

There are about one hundred species of 
birds belonging to the family FrinyiUidiv, or 
Finches, that are natives to the territory of 
the United States, descrii)tions of which have 
been imblished in books and ixipcrs on Orni- 
tholtigij. The reader will note that we have 
said one hundred species. Scattered over our 
broad land, each of these species may be 
counted by thousands, if not liy tens of thou- 
sands, and perhaps hundreds of tliou.sands, 
or millions. About forty of tliese species are 
either natives to Lancaster county or make 
short sojourns here on their passage farther 
north — at least that is the nr.mber that have 
been captured or observed within tln^ limits 
of the county. Many of the.se species nest, 
lay their eggs and raise from one to two 
broods of yoimg during the summer season. 
These Ijirds are known under tlu' common 
names of Sparrows, Finches, Buntings, i^c, 
and occupy a very important iiosition in the 
economy of nature. Every female of these 
species rears its broods f)f from four to six 
individuals, on worms and the softer ?nrrip of 
insects— such as grul)S, slugs, maggots, cater- 
pillars, &c., and therefore must exercise an 
inmien.se intluence upon the growing crojis of 
the entire country. No matter what the adult 
birds may feed on, they bring up their little 
families entirely on insect food, and they 
commence gathering early in the spring, long 
before any fruits or seeds have matured. 
Later in the sea.son the adult birds will feed 
njion berries, seeds and grain, but the damage 
they do is incomimral ily small when contrasted 
with the good they do in the early iiart of the 
season. IJuffon longago estimated that a single 
family of sparrows will consume about four 
thousand insect hirrrr ina week,andsub.sefiiii'nt 
writers have made the estimate rather higher 
than lower. The damage that four thou.sand 
htrra' a week inightdoto the vegetation within 
the limit of a singli' family of si)Mrrows, if said j 
insects were permitted to mature and deposit 
their eggs, is almost incidculable. We are 
now alluding to sparrows or finches, exclu- 
sively. There are hundreds of other birds 
that feed entirely on small insects, in.sccts' 
eggs and maggots, throughout the whole 
Season, but their scavenging labors can only 
be illustrated in a seiiarate paper; we are now 
siteaking of the Fringillians asafamilv alone. 
Within the last three years the "English 
Sparrow," {Passer do-ine.^tica) has lieen intro- 
duced into America, and is increasing rapidly. 

It is a bold, impudent and greedy bird, 
and before many years will have completely 
superseded and displaced our most familiar and 



domestic species (Spizella socialis). < Umplaints 
are made in some (piarters that tliese biids are 
aii])roprialiug the "small fruits," but these 
croakers never rellect that if it were not for 
these birds, and others of their family, in the 
early part of the season, they might have no 
fruit to be eaten by birds or any other beings. 

These birds, like our native allied species, 
are always on the verge of domestic civili/Ji- 
tion, and wherever man erects for himself 
a domicile in the wilderness, it will not 1h) 
long before they hnd it. It is .said that this 
peculiaritj- is not so much attributable to tlieir 
love for man (for with all their familiarity 
they are still dislrustful) as it is to their self- 
preservative |)rudenie. Near human society 
they are more protected against their feathered 
and other animal enemies, find a more abun- 
dant supply of food, and have safer nesting 
facilities. Hence, their very boldness is a 
characteristic that enhances their value, and 
stamps them as superior to birds of more 
timid and retired haliits. We want a class of 
feathered friends that will go where the insect.s 
are, and as civilization and domestic culture 
increases the quantity and ([ualilyof food that 
insects most delight to fee<l on, thire also the 
antidote shoulil most abound, and this will 
follow, if we allow nature's economies to pre- 
vail. 

Lancaster county is fast becoming popula- 
ted with these English sjiarrows, and up to 
the first of January 1.^75, we noticed many of 
them in the city — the strei ts were full of them 
and thej' almost approached to the doors of 
Ijouses, in search of those tiny moi-sels that 
only a sjiarrow can .see, and which are of no 
valiie at all to the human family. Since the 
first of January they are not so common, 
and no doubt iiiany of them have retired a 
little farther soiitliward. There is jirecious 
little for them to feed upon when the ground 
is covered with snow. A few seeds and win- 
ter berries is all these little feathered friends 
can find to break their winter fasts, and surely 
we can atlord them these. But when sjiring 
returns these, and the whole local trilx-, will lie 
here again to begin their mission of good. 
Taking them for all in all, we cannot witlihold 
our testimony and our sympathies in behalf 
of the sparrows, either foreign or native, and 
we hope others may be intluenced in like 
manner. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



Late in the Fall of 1S74 (sometime in Nov.) 
we observed on the inside of the door of our 
water-clo.set the naked chrvs;ilid of a I'ierlf 
rapn\ or "White cabbage tJutterfiy." Tlicre 
it has hung all this blessed winter, and up to 
the present writinir (March Idth) througli all 
kinds of weather, from an intense freezi: to a 
gentle thaw, wi bout aiiparent injury. The 
closet is a new one, built of new pine boards, 
and iiainted without and within; a naked, 
hard painted surface, and not a very favorable 
place, aiiparently, for an insect of any kind to 
make its winter (piarters. The cold has been 
protracted and severe, and often the whole of 
the inside of the closet was covered with a 
dense and glittering hoar frost, and wherever 
a nail head or a clinched jioint lay undir the 
coat of paint, the frost projected (mt in a 
chrystalized relief, farther and more densely 
tlian the surrounding surface. Formorethan 
three months we have daily had this little 
chrysalid before our eyes, and have watched 
it with interest, and here is the singular ob- 
servation we have made. N^1 matter how 
intense this cold may have lie^n (on one occar 
sion it was six degrees below zero, once two, 
several times at zero, and at other times more 
or less above) and no matter how dense and 
glittering the frost may have been elsewhere, 



34 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



we never at any time discovered any on the 
chrysalid. This leads us to the conjectural 
conclusion that at no time liad it been frozen 
— that it always jiossessed sufficient latent heat 
to protect it from the ellects of frost. And 
this recalls analogous observations made many 
years ago in collectiu;; chrysalids in AVintor. 
We have often found chrysalids under the 
loose bark of decayinj; loi,'S and trees, under 
boards and Hat stones and in other similar 
places. Some of these we found clean and 
smooth, and others perfectly genuned all over 
with hoar frost, standing in needle-like crys- 
tals. Those covered with frost generally," if 
not invarialjly, i)roved to be dead, whilst from 
the others we" succeeded in evolving the mature 
insects. At first we supposed these casualties 
were the effects of subjecting them subsequently 
to unfavorable conditions, or to souk; inadver- 
tent violence. But we manipulated them 
delicately, and all the conditions were in both 
cases the same. Therefore it would seem that 
hybernating insects possess a latent jtower to 
resist the efl'ects of cold. We have also had 
this in many instances exemplified in the lanrr 
of moths, especially in the hairy caterpillai's 
of the conmion arctians, sometimes called 
"woolly bears. " We have obtained these in 
Winter perfectly rigid, apparently frozen, and 
on several occasions we have cut them out of 
ice in that condition, and on removing them 
to a temperature of about 7U^ they have in 
an hour or two revived and become as active 
as We find them in mid-siunmer. These ex- 
l)eriences seem to manifest that there is a vital 
principle in insects that is not alfected by any 
ordinary degree of frost, and that when they 
are found dead under such circnmstancesthey 
must have sutiered previous violence, or have 
lived out the natural measure of their days. 
We have, however, ol)served that sulijecting 
Zarivc and i)upre to alternations of heat and 
cold has been fatal to the vital principles in 
them. We have also oljserved in many in- 
stances that 'iiioiMure has been more fatal to 
them tlian any degree of dry cold. 

We have on many occasions found large 
numbers of insects in their Winter hyberna- 
tions, some of which were covered with a 
bluish or greenish fumjus or mould, wliilst 
others in tlie same place were entirely free 
from it. Under these circumstances those 
covered with mould were invariably dead, 
whilst those free from it revived when the 
proper degree of heat prevailed. From idl 
this it must be inferred that insects are en- 
dowed with a tenacity which enables them to 
resist unfavorable climatic contingencies, and 
perpetuate their species in another season. 

The i)ractical lesson, however, we desire to 
ini-ulcate in this paper is the necessity of 
attending to the collection and destruction of 
bisect chrysalids during Winter and early 
Sprin,', ami especially in the case of the "Cab- 
bage Buttertly," the parent of the "green 
worm." These may be foimd in many nooks 
and corners of the field, the garden, and the 
outhouses of the farmer and the townsman, 
and ought to be removed before the swelling 
of the buds. The pendent follicles of the 
"Drop worm," too, may now be seen on the 
trees, dangling in the "Winter winds. Tliese 
worms are particularly destructive to the 
arbor-vitie. These should be cut off during 
the month of March, with a sharp knife or a 
pair of pruning shears, instruments that no 
' progressive horticulturist will do without. 
Those out of arm reach may be cut off by 
shears affixed to the end of a pole and mani))- 
ulated with a cord. Tliose girdles of eggs of 
the "Tent Caterpillars" around the branches 
sliould also te removed and destroyed. 
In the crotches of ajjple, i)ear, plum, peach 
and quince trees, groups of eggs— and a little 
later in the season young cateriiillars— of the 
Spring and Sunnner "Webworms," should 
receive the close attention of the fi-uit-grower 
if he wishes to preserve his fruit and save a 
world of labor later in the season. 

We wnUd also call the special attention of 
potato-gi-owers to the early broods of the 
"Colorado beetle." Last year they showed 
themselves during the mild weather of Feb- 



ruary, but March being uniformly cold they 
disappeared, and reappeared, in A)iriL Tliey 
should receive early attention in all (juarters. 
It has been clearly (lemonstraledthat, although 
they are partial "to the potato, in the absence 
of this they will feed on many other kinds of 
Vegetable tbod, so that it will be diliicult to 
"starve them out. " These labors may seem 
a "useless botheration" to the farmer, but a 
time is approaching when more attention to 
these things will be required than is paid to 
them now. It is true that birds, bats, quad- 
rupeds, reiitiles and parasitic insects will ass'st 
them much more than they receive credit for, 
but then these animals only destroy as many as 
they ncril for their own sustenance. ' Their own 
instinctive economy — and without any regard 
to human economy — influences them in the 
amount of aliment they appropriate to their 
own use. They do not destroy wantonly. 



UTILIZING POTATO-BEETLES AND 
GRASSHOPPERS. 

In finding remedies against destructive in- 
sects, a great deal of thought, ingenuity and 
labor, as well as much precious time, are ofteij 
exercised in vain. Now, if we could hit upon 
some plan by which the worst and most numer- 
ous among them could be utilized, so far as to 
yield a profit, or at least a compensation for 
the damage they do, it might transpire that 
tlieir presence in large numbers would be a 
blessing instead of a curse. It is on record 
that in France, when the " white-grubs " be- 
come distructi vely numerous, they a"re gathered 
by poor iieople, and esiiecially by children, who 
are compensated for their labor, and that .said 
grubs (larvaj of Melolontiiid.e) furnish the 
oily ingredient in the manufacture of soap. In 
Mexico, the "Cochineal-insect" (Coccusracti) 
is gathered and exported in large quantities, 
and yields a well known scarlet and crimson 
dye — the cactus on which they feed being 
cultivated (jr fostered for that specilic puri)ose^ 
We. have now before us a beautiful, clear, wine- 
red color, which we have extracted from "Cock- 
roaches," (Blatia orieutidis,) which may also 
be suggestive. If, therefore, the "Colorado 
Potato-Beetles" could be so far utilized as to 
yield as much, pecuniarily, as the potato crops 
which they destroy, the farmer might afford 
to grow and crop the plant for this purpose 
alone, and gather the beetles as they gather 
the cochineal. They proba,bly would yield a 
yellow dye, or at least sufficient oily matter to 
make a soap. If peradventure "the plants 
should also yield tubers, this would be an ad- 
ditional profit. 

We have here in Lancaster county at least 
four other species of potato-beetles, which be- 
long to the family Cantiiauid.k or " Blister- 
ing-Beetles," and it has been demonstrated 
that their vesicatorial or blistering properties 
are nearly or quite as powerful as those we im- 
port from Spam under the name of "Spanish- 
rties. " There are many species of these blis- 
tering-beetles within the territory of the Unit- 
ed States. California, New Mexico, and the 
great western jilains are fidl of them, some of 
which approach the Sjianish species more 
nearly than our local species do. These bee- 
tles seem to be omniverous in their gastro- 
nomical habits, and fi'ed on different kinds of 
succulent vegetation, but they appear to have 
a partiality for the tops of the potato jilant. 
We have noticed them in Lancaster county 
for tliirty jears or more, and by a singular 
coincidence one ofthem has always been known 
as the "Striped Potato-B etle."' The least olj- 
servation, however, is sufficient to distinguish 
it from the Colorado species. Any confound- 
ing of the two could only be the "result of a 
greater degree of ignoraiice than ought to be 
evinced by any one claiming to be an American 
farmer. The Colorado beetle (ilorz/jj/fora ten- 
linefila) is short, eonvexed, tortoised-sha])ed, 
and has ten lines lengthwise on its wing-covers, 
as its specific name implies. It belongs to the 
"lady-bird" family (Chkysomkeir.-t;,) whilst 
the other species alluded to (Lytla. Vitt(da)\\Afi 
only four stripes on its wing-covers, and is 
long, narrow, or cylindrical in form. 



The Vittata is more numerous and more de- 
structive to the potato tops than its congeners, 
one of which is entirely a silky black (Li/tta 
utrata,) another entirely ash-colored [Lytta 
cinerm,) and a third has black wing-covers, 
margined with ash, [Li/Ua nuu-ginata.) 

We often impatiently ask why it is that all 
these noxious insects have been created only as 
pests of t;he human family. Time may demon- 
strate that it is not wise to ask such a ques- 
tion, except as a step towards its solution. 
Ever since the foundation of the American 
government, or perhaps ever since the disco- 
vei7 of the continent, we have been importing 
" Spanish-rties " formedieinal purposes, whilst 
here at our very doors, or at least in some 
smitten localities, a vesicat(H-ial or blistering 
insect may be gathered by bushels. Do not 
these things suggest what may ultimately be 
the remedy for the circumvention or destruc- 
tion of these noxious denizens of the insect 
world y There rimsi he a use in them, and the 
line of our investigations is to find out and 
apply that use. 

A third species of " SiriiKil Potato-Beetle," 
one also belonging to the same family that the 
Colorado species does, (Chi:yso.mei,ida,) but 
not so large and eonvexed as that more notor 
rious species, is the little "Three-Luied Potato- 
Beetle " (LniKi irilhi&ita) which sometimes 
sorely infests the potatoes, especially in the 
border States. Like the Colorado, "both the 
larva', and adult beetles feed on the tops of the 
potato plant, but. unlike the former, the pupal 
transformation takes place on the leaf, instead 
of under ground, and the winter hybernation 
is passed in the beetle state. The larvau)f this 
species have the dirty habit of casting their 
excretions up on their backs, where it is held 
upon two filaments growing out of the hind 
end and thrown forward, forming a sort of 
canopy, supposed to protect them ifrom the hot 
rays of the sun, or from their enemies. It 
W(jukl Ue dilficult to suggest what ».se could be 
made of these insects in human economy. 
They do not seem to possess fatty matter 
enough to make soap, and any other use stiU 
remains undeveloped. 

As to grasshop'pers, mark the distress their 
"ravages have caused in poor, suffering Kansas, 
.and elsewhere. What assurance have we that 
they may not be as destructive there, or else- 
where, next season ? and the question very 
naturally arises, " What are we going to do 
abor.t itV" They make their appearance in 
such innnense numljers that iiothing has yet 
been discovered to arrest, or even check, their 
progress, and the jn'ospects before the infested 
districts is anything but hoi)eful and |iromis- 
ing. It is true, there may be a cessation for a 
year or two, or even longer, but periodically 
they are likely to appear, just as they have 
appeared these many years, in some port ion or 
other of the great west. It is not yet four 
hundred years since the continent of America 
was first discovered by Columbus, and since 
that time we have accustomed ourselves to eat 
turtles, terrapins, frogs, lizards, oysters, clams, 
crabs, lobsters, prawns, shrimps, and other 
hopping, cree]iing and squirming things; and 
who can say that long before we celebrate the 
thousandth anniversary of .said discovery, we 
may not be luxuriating on grasshopjiers. From 
whatever source, either " good, bad or indif- 
ferent," grasshopiiers may have come, they 
must have been, as we said before, permitted 
for some its", and that use it is the Imsiness of 
the human family to discoverand ajiply. There 
is no prospective I'elief in unceasingly regard- 
ing tlieir presence as a calamity, but much 
consolation in endeavoring to convert them 
into a blessing. Think you the Parisians, 
during the siege, near the close of the Franco- 
Prussian war, would have long hesitated what 
to do, had a shower of grasshoppers fallen ujion 
their devoted city, while they were reduced to 
dog-i)ie, cat-stew, monkey-hash, mule-soup, 
and fricaseed rats ? Would they not, like the 
Israelites in the wilderness, have regarded 
such an event as fiiamm falling from heaven 
for their special relief? 

The "Digger Indians" of California have 
been feasting on grasshoppers, perhaps for 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



35 



contiiries, ami feast on tlicni still. A friciul 
of ours who visited their caliii), and not only 
witnessed tlu'ir i)rel)aratioM of these insects, 
but also tasted of them, Ijcais testimony that 
even with their imperfect eulinary skill, the 
dish was not ill-tlavored or nnpalatalile. ])e- 
struetivi'astlie Afrieanand I'^ast Indian locusts 
are {Lonn'tn rniijrdtonn) theirlpresence in many 
jihu'es is considVred more of a lilessinj; than a 
curee, for they freely eat them. The western 
grasshoppers "and the eastern locusts belonj; to 
the same j^reat family {Lncustadix) in the order 
Oiiliiijihra. 

We are not by any means recomniendiuf; 
them as proper food for man, Imt it is more than 
probable that by the time we celebrate the 
lialf decade of centuries since the discovery 
of America, the Colorado f^rasshopiier (Calnp- 
ionta Kjiri'liui) may be as welcome to the talile 
of the epicure, as lobsters, frogs and turtles 
now are. 

Snakes, toads, frogs, turtles, lizards, sala- 
manders and newts, all belinif,' to the great 
cold-blooded cla.ss Hi i-pctdViijii, and human 
g;ustrt)nomy has selected from these some of its 
greatest di'licacies. It is true that there are 
some |)Cople who could no more lie persuaded 
to iiartake of any of these animals as food, 
than they could of the filtliy contents of a 
cesspool, but these are only commiserated by 
the initiated. What is there about a dish of 
grasshoppers that is less inviting than a dish 
of shrimiisV They feed on green and succu- 
lent vegetation, and .so do the domestic ani- 
mals that we freely use as food, and they are 
far more fastidious in their tastes than a 
chicken or a jiig. As civilization extends and 
expands itself, and the ground is brought 
under a state of higher cultivation, grasshop- 
pers and other insects will also extend and 
increase theni.selves, and there seems no better 
remedy than to invent means to cajiture them 
and then to use them for food, or in the arts. 

Grasshopi)er pies could not well be more un- 
wholesome than many of the mince-pies that 
find their way into the human stomach, and 
hashed grasshoppers, properly |)rep;ired, miglit 
be more digestalile than much of the hash now 
made of tough and sinewy beef. }5ut even if 
they shouUl not ultimately be adojited as 
human food, there might be a virtue in thein 
as food for farm stock. Pigs and chickens, 
as well as turkeys, are exceedingly fond of 
them, even in their raw state, and boiled with 
a little salt, and mixed with chopjied feed, they 
might l>e made more tooth.some to animals. 

It is true, that these are merely suggestions, 
but in view of the vast changes going on in 
the ]iliysical world, there is no man who can 
say that these things may never come to pass. 
They are not more remarkable than what is 
• going on daily. Forty years ago the tomato 
was regarded as poisonous. To-day it is the 
leading culinary preparation of the country. 



PEAR SLUGS. 



A blackish, slimy "sing" often occurs on 
the leaves of the pear, the apjile, the quince, 
the ]ihnn, tlu^ cherry and (a greenish one) on 
the rose. The.se are the hirrii' of species of 
"Saw-flies, " belonging to the genus Sdnndrin, 
and may be referred to the species j'.'/cj, ?)(«//, 
cudnni, jjnthi, ciTiisi iivil ro.-:(i' ; and if one is 
found on the peach, it would probably be a 
2xrsica. These fruits and flowers, it will lie 
observed, all belong to some (inhr in the di- 
vision UusAcE.T-;. It is not absolutely known 
that these insects are all distinct sjiecies from 
the mere fact that they infest the different 
trees above named ; indei'd it is more than 
probable that those that infest the ap]ile, the 
pear and the quince are specilieally tlie same. 

Notwithstanding these in.sects all belong to 
one of the " first families " in the onler II v- 
MEN'()rTEl!.\, (membrane-winged insects) they 
are all slimy, disgusting slugs, and all skei- 
etouize the leaves of the trees, leaving them 
as dry and as cri.sji as if they ha(l been 
scorched with firebrands, and wheii the 
pnrcnchinnu or cellular tissui^ of the leaves is 
once destroyed, it is, for that season, almost 
equivalent to the destruction of the lungs of a 



breathing animal. These insi'cts usually pro- 
duce two !)roods in a .season, the last brood 
remaiinng in the ground all Winter in the 
pii2>:i state. The saw-llies issue forth from 
the ground in the warm days of Spring, from 
the beginning of April to the beginning of 
May, earlier or later aeeonling to tlu^ ad- 
vanced or retardi'd slate of the season. They 
are then four-wiuged Hies, of a bitickish color, 
and from ij to ^ of an in<-h in length. The 
wings do not lie flat on the back like those <if 
the eonnnon house-fly, but are bent downward 
along the body, and meet in an obtuse angle 
on top. The head is distinct, the tliorux or 
mid-body moderately large, and the hind-body 
somewhat tapering towards the end. The 
anUnmr are short, and seem to (;ome out from 
the middle of the head in front, divergent, and 
somewhat thickened at the ends. Some of the 
species have an orange-colored collar, but 
those that iid'cst the rose are entirely black, 
the wings in none of them IjeiiiLT as black as 
tlie body, which is a glo.ssy black. The slwjx 
nnght be very easily mistaken for snails, in 
the species that infest the apjile, pear, iilum 
and (luince, liut those infesting the rose are 
green, and less slimy and repulsive than their 
congeners. Anothergroup of sawflies, in their 
hirvcr state, infest the leaves of the elm, the 
beech, the currant, the gooseberry, the straw- 
lierry and other jdants. These are called 
"false caterpillars," and it is not easy to dis- 
tinguish them from the true caterpillars, with- 
out close observation and some practical 
knowledirc of the.se distinctions. Some of the 
dies from these are very pretty, and usually 
are larger, brighter and more variegated than 
the former. All, however, are noxious, and 
if destroyed at all, it must be while they are 
feeding on the leaves of Vegetation, otherwise 
they might nevi'r be recognized or identified 
as enemies. AVhere a (lerson has only a few 
dwarfs or a few ro.se liushes under cultivation, 
by using a little vigilant industry, it would 
not be very diliicult to get rid of these slugs 
and false caterpillars; hut where large trees 
or large enclosures of trees are infested, the 
task might well be regarded as hopelessly 
beyond remedy. But these insects are not as 
tenacious as the Colorado potato-beetles, and 
therefore they will succinnb to applications 
that would not alTect the former. Wt 
never applied anything to our roses, but de- 
pended ujiou handpicking aloue, and we linally 
conquered them. After we ideidified the ;/// 
and made a note of its sea.son, the work was 
mon^ than half accom])lislied. We visited the 
ro.se bushes in tlie cool of mornings and even- 
ings, and destroyed dozens of them at each 
visit. During flie warmest part of the day 
they are usually too active to allow themselves 
to be cajitured unless the weather should 
I'appen to be niuisually cool. I'nt even if we 
have captured and destroyed all the Hies we 
have seen, some will have eluded our vigilance, 
and during the intervals bi'tween our visits 
will have deposited their eggs on the rose 
leaves. The.se they place on the un<ler side, 
near the edges. The young slugs are very 
small, green as the leaf in color, and usually 
are found on the hiwer sides of the leaves, 
but when they grow larger they also attack 
the upjier sides, and soon convert them info 
parched skeletons. Now, a vigorous and con- 
timions ernshing Jiroee.ss must be carried on, 
]!y doubling a leaf together tliis can be done 
with thumb and linger, but a small )>air of 
wooden forceps with flattened nozzles isnmch 
better. In the ab.sence of these manual 
efforts n^course must be had to whale oil or 
cai'bolic soap solutions, tobacco decoctions, 
white jiowdered hellebore, quick-lime, gas- 
lime, unleacbed wood ashes or pulverized to 
bacco. As the insects are similar in their 
habits, these maniimlations and applications 
will be more or less suitable to each. 

Whether the mouldy, scruffy, and cracked 
conditions of apples and pears can be traced 
inunediately to the jiresenee of these "slimy 
slugs" is more than we can pi>sifively allirin. 
It is very certain that the leaves of a tree ]ier- 
form a very inqiortant function in its physio- 
logical economy, their absence stunting it, 



weakening its growth and deteriorating its 
fruit, illustrating that in the vegetalile king- 
dom as Well as in the animal, "when one 
memlier sull'ers the whole body sufi'ers." 

As soon as we feel oinselves jiecuniarily 
justilied in pro<-uring illustration.s, we will 
])ublisli more detailed histories of these insects 
in separate jiapeis. Thisnni<-h we feel called 
upon to |)ublish now, in deference to the in- 
(piiri<s made at the I'eliruaiy meeting of the 
Agrii-uluual and llorlicullural Society. In 
the mean time we would admonish our readers 
to connunnii;ate fo us their personal observa- 
tions and exjieriences, accor<ling to the sug- 
gestions maih' in our .lanuary number, under 
the title " Entomological." 



PARIS GREEN, 

ITS POISONOrS Ql'AI.ITIK.S — IK) TIIKV MAKE THE SOIL 
roISONorS? — AKE TIIKV TAKKN Tl' INTO I'l.ANTS 
SO AS TO MAKK THEM C NW1IOLE.''OME ? — I.MPORT- 
ANCK OK Tlli;SI' QI'E.xTIO.NS. 

I liave for some tiiiie iiiteiiilcil to writ can art Ufr for 
tlic JCrniiiii/ J'vitt ii|K)ii tlie uKc of l*ariM irn'oii (arsc- 
niatc of cnpiu-r) fur tfie liesl ruction of iiiNcrtH ii|«)ii 
potatoes, ami otfier lilve purposcR. 

Tlie rcMcni (Ualli of twn piTsims from tlip arcldcntal 
Bwalfnwinjr of a very niimili* ^lo^e of tills i>oison, and 
also pome invest ligations fif my own, iiave in'luced me 
al tills time to carry out my inlenlion. I am aware 
lliat it lia.-i lieen reported a« eoiriiiii.' fnnii lii!_'li autho- 
rity that there is no ilam^er from such uses of the 
poison: hut in conversation with one ol'tlie lies! chem- 
isls in the country, Prol'. <i. A. Marriiier, of thiseilv, 
I liud that he very much douhts the fact whether any 
pueli extended ohservations as should lie rtHjUirud lie- 
fo|-e eomiiii; to a conclusion U]ioii a sulijeet of sueli 
trrave inqiortani-e have ever heen made hy competent 
persons. He this as it may, I will venture to hope 
that this arliele will hriuf out, tlimui;h the puhlic 
press, the actual state of the ease, so that we may 
know whether we are or are not pretty sure of (ifiis- 
oniiiir the phinis to which the arsenic ^reen is directly 
applied, and of endan^ierin^ from tliis course some, if 
not all, (if the future crops from llie land. 

The so-called Paris irrei'U, which is soM to the far- 
mers, is more or less adidtcrated, accordini; to our 
oliservation, mainly with white arsenic (urseiiious 
acid,) or •' ralsliane," as it is fier|uenily called. This 
ailulteration is, however, not more poisonous than the 
fireen in its pure slate. Arsenic is used in the arts for 
irlaSB-slaiiiiuir, dyeinir, and as the basis of several green 
and yellow paints. It is used liy fjuacks of all kiiid8, 
such as the su-called "cancer doctors" and farriers. 
" AVell-informed vi-terinaries," says Prof. Tiison, 
" however, irenerally discard it from their list of reme- 
dies." " The reason for this," lie continues, "is that 
we cannot control its action, and often a most exten- 
sive and jiaiiitul wound is caused liy it." 

We ourselves have seen a ease where it was applied 
to a small tumor on the upper li]) of a man, by a can- 
cer doctor, in which both lips were destroyed in a very 
few days, and a consideralile |iortiori of both the up|H-r 
and under jaws laid bare, cansiiiL' the most lerrililc 
sutlcrin^', as well as a fearfully horrible wound. We 
have also seen the nose of a poor horse eaten away In 
the same manner with this poison. 

For the olwcrvcd faelsof its ell'eets ujion veectablcs, 
etc., we are mainly indebted to Prof. Tnsoii, ol' Kinij's 
C'olle!;e, London, lie says that arsenic has been eni- 
jiloyed as a steep for seed wheat, to prevent smut, and 
that M. Audouard stales that he has detected traces 
of arsenic in tfie crops raised from seed wheat thus 
treated. If so small an amoinil of tlie [Ktisoii can so 
atlcct tliesoil as to be taken up by the wheat iTop, 
what niu.st be the result w here it is used in many hun- 
dred limes the jjroiHirtion, as where it is scattered over 
liclds of potatoes, and for successive years even. We 
shall do w(dl to remember that arsenic remains arsenic 
Ibrcver. and sull'ers no chani^e or loss of its {Hiisonous 
properties during' the lajise of years, or in whatever 
combinations it may enter. Both Ur. Kdmund Uavy 
and Prof. Tuson join in warninir the public airaifist 
the poison<ius elfecis of arsenic, in so small a (|uaiitity 
as is found in " crude eiiiK'rpliosphati: of lime " used 
as a manure. 

Davy positively states tliat arsenic, as It exists In 
artitieial manures, is taken up by frrowinjj plants. He 
found (afibatiis and turnips giviufr nninistakable evi- 
dence of beins: arseniated. 

" These tacts," says Tuson, " have iniimrl ant liear- 
iiifs ; for tliouirh the quantity of arsenic whieli occurs 
in such manures is not larire when compared with 
their other in!;rcdients, and the pro|)orlion of lliat 
poison adiled to tile .soil must be very small, still 
jilants dnriiiu' their •;rowtli, as in the case of the alka- 
line and earlhy sails, take up a considerable quantity 
of this sulislancc." 

" Further, as arsenic is well known to aeeumulale 
in soils, the effects after a time will jirobably be that 
veiretablcs thus nnuiured will uiiimately be found to 
contain arsenic, and will endanger the lives of men 
aiitl animals." 

" Our experiments," he concludes, " very carefully 



36 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



performed, confirm tlie assertions of AudouarJ and 
Diivy." 

If tlie small amount of arsenic that can be intro- 
duced into the soil in the manner noticed above is 
considered so dangerous' by these eminent observers, 
what must be the eravity of the ease, as we have be- 
fore said, where it is sowed broadcast over the field ? 

The mere dust of Paris green fallini; from the walls 
of papered rooms will destroy health and life : how 
much will it contribute to the health of the farmer 
and his family, and to their domestic animals, to live 
and work in an atmosphere filled with this dust, as it 
must often be when it is set in motion by the wind? 

If animals are not directly killed by it, as is the case 
in some varieties, may not their fiesh, as that of do- 
mestic fowls, be rendered poisonous as an article of 
human food? Individuals within our own knowledge 
have been poisoned by eating the tlesh of the New 
England partridge, which was due to the bird having 
fed upon some poisonous berries. Similar cases, the 
cause of which has never been suspected, may have 
come from the source indicated aJjovc. 

We have now for microscopic examination a portion 
of human flesh, taken from the body of one member 
of a family, the whole of which perished from eating 
poisoned meat. This specimen was received through 
the politeuess of Dr. Murray, of the town of Flint, 
Michigan. A case of arsenic poisoning, involving 
some of the principles described above, was brought 
to our notice yesterday. These causes are almost 
every day occurring, and it would seem as if it had 
become tlie duty of every one who has any knowledge 
upon the subject to give it to the public. — K.U. Pipek, 
64 Centre Avenue, Chicago. 

We publish the above (from the New York 
Evemwj Post) not because we indorse it, but 
because the question involved in it wa.s sug- 
fiested at the February meeting of tlie " Lan- 
caster County Agriculturiil and Horticultural 
Society," and we desire to keep our readers 
thoroughly posted on the subject, both pro 
and con. 

There is no doubt about Paris Green being 
a rank poison — indeed, if it was less than this 
it could have little or no effect upon such an 
injurious insect as the potato-beetle, or per- 
haps any other insect; for, be it known that 
all antidotes against noxious insects must 
necessarily be poisons, at least to them, or we 
could not reasonably expect any benefit from 
their use. But that Paris Green or any other 
mineral poison imparts its virulent qutilities 
to the soil, in sufficient quantities to render Its 
products unfit for edible use by niiiu or animal, 
is not borne out by the experience of those 
who have thoroughly tested it for the past 
seven years in this country, and the opinion is 
fast gaining ground that it is the only reliable 
remedy that has yet been discovered, and that 
when it fails, it is either owing to the inferior 
quality of the poison or to its unskilled appli- 
cation. Facts should always have greater 
weight than mere speculation, especitilly when 
those facts are the result of actual experiment. 
Paris Green has been partially used for one or 
two seasons in Lancaster county, and we believe 
no case has yet occurred in which the potato 
tubers have been poisoned thereby. In support 
of its use we quote from a pamphlet recently 
issued by Raynolds & Co., 106 & 108 Fulton 
street, New York : 

IT CANNOT POISON THE SOIL. 

"Fears have been expre.ssed that the soil 
becoming inijjregnated with Paris Green, po- 
tatoes and other plants will necessarily absorb 
it and partake of its poisonous qualities. If 
this were so, it would be a valid argument 
against its use; liut it is an insoluble salt, and 
therefore it is quit* impossible for plants to 
take it up (or absorb it) by capillary action. 
The fact that many hundred tons of Paris 
Green have been used in the West d ui iiig the 
past four years, and there has been no instance 
of poisoning caused by eating the potatoes, 
should be suflicient to convince the most skep- 
tical and set the matter at rest. We have to 
thank Dr. Stiles Kennedy, of St. Louis Springs, 
Michigan, for his voluntary testimony on this 
point, which we quote from his letter, pub- 
lished in the Ewniwj Post of January 7th, as 
follows : 

" 'In the sectionof country wherel live, it isutterly 
impossible to raise potatoes without the use of Paris 
Green. Everybody uses it, and everybody eats pota- 
toes, but during the four years mentioned I have not 
heard of any case of poisoning from eating the vege- 
table.' " 



WILL NOT INJURE THE PLANT OK POTATO. 

Others, again, while freely admitting that 
Paris Green is perfectly innoxious as far as 
poisoning the plant of the potato is concerned, 
have entertained the oiiinion that it injured or 
in some way retarded the growth of the one, 
and vitiated the quality of the other. Expe- 
rience, however, has abundantly proved the 
opinion to be without foundation. Professor 
CuAS. V. Riley, State Entomologist of Mis- 
souri, in his fourth annual report, referring to 
Paris Green, says: "Properly mixed, I have 
used it without the slightest trace of evil yn 
the leaves or tubers ; and I know hundreds of 
others who have done likewise, so that with 
present experience I should not hesitate to re- 
commend its judicious use." In this connec- 
tion we take occasion to acknowledge our 
indebtedness to Prof. Riley's able reports for 
much valuable information. We iilso refer to 
the testimony of the same high authority to 
Paris Green as "the remedy tor the Colorado 
potato-beetle." 

MODES OF APPLICATION. 

In its application the Western farmers gen- 
erally use Paris Green dry, and as it is a highly 
concentrated poison it is necessary to mix it 
with some other substance, such as flour, 
plaster or ashes, in proportion vaiying Avith 
the strength of the green, and thus reducing 
its cost. We give the preference to tlour as a 
vehicle, as, combining with the dew on tlie 
plant, it forms a paste which adheres with 
greater tenacity than eitlier plaster or ashes. 
Another mode is by mixing with wtiter, say a 
tablespoonful of green to a pail of water. 
This is in some respects a convenient way, 
and has the advantage of being free from dust ; 
it can also be used at any time of day. It has 
some disadvantages, however. 1st. As the 
green is not soluble — though it quickly gives 
a green tint to the water when stirred — it soon 
settles to the bottom, and needs continued 
agitation to keep it in suspension. 2nd. It 
settles in spots on the ?ea"fs, the natural tendency 
of water in finding its level being to carry and 
concentrate in wherever a drop tinds rest, and 
evaporates. 3d. Much of it is wasted on the 
ground in sprinkling. Experience will of 
course demonstrate which is tlie better plan, 
assisted, perhaps, also by local circumstances. 

APPARATUS FOR .\PPLYING. 

When used dry, the best apparatus is either 
a fine sieve or a perforated tin box, which can 
be obtained of any size desired. We prefer 
the l)ox as less litible to allow the escape of 
dust, but whichever is used it should be at- 
tached to a handle or stick from eight to ten 
feet long. Either is used by gently shaking 
over the plants, taking care to walk windward, 
so as to avoid any dust that niiiy arise. It 
should 1)6 applied in the morning, when the 
dew is on the vines. When mixed with water 
it is usually applied by fneans of an ordinary 
watering pot, or spriidiled on the vines with a 
broom, taking care to keep it well stirred. 

In addition to this we would suggest that 
the handle need not be more than about six 
feet in length, and that it be set into the side 
of the box at an angle. Holding it over the 
plant infested and striking on the handle with 
a muffled billet of wood or a small mallet, 
will enable the operator to cause the discharge 
of the quantity from the box that each par- 
ticular ca.se requires. This will be more eco- 
nomical, prevent the loss of dust from shak- 
ing, and discharge the green just at the place 
where it is most needed, the more that falls 
directly on the insects the surer the effect. 

ALL SHOULD KNOW ITS POISONOUS NATURE. 

Appreciating the danger arising from igno- 
rance of the deadly nature of Paris Green, and 
to guiird against carelessness in handling it, 
the firm whose pamphlet we have been con- 
sulting, have all their packages conspicuously 
labeled POISON. And as further protection 
they published the following : 

PRECAUTION IN THE USE OF PARIS GREEN. 

There is great danger in mixing this green 
for the potato-beetle and cotton worm, owing 
to the flue dust which arises in the process, 
which is inhaled, and is rapidly absorbed by 



the pores of the skin, especially if the person 
using it should be in a state of perspiration. 
To guard against this, the hands and face 
(particularly the nostrils) should be protected 
as mtich as possible, and should be carefully 
washed after working in it, or in any of the 
preparations of which it is an ingredient, as 
it penetrtites and j)oisons wood — gets into tlie 
seams and crevices of articles made of metal — 
and even in earthenware that is porous ; there- 
fore, ALL HOUSEHOLD UTENSILS, OR ANY- 
THING IN BARN' OR STABLE (whlcli cattlc and 
liorses could have access to) in which the 
article may have been mixed, or from which 
it has Ijeen used, should be carefully set aside, 

and NEVER USED FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE. 

Malignant sores are not unfrequently caused 
by scratching the skin when itching, or irri- 
tated from handling the green. It should be 
constantly borne in mind that it is a more 
dangerous and deadlj' poison than arsenic ; 
and farmers, planters and others, when pm'- 
chasing, should be duly cautioned to exercise 
the utmost care in using it. 

AS A CURE OF THE POISON 

the free use of milk as a beverage is recom- 
mended, but a simple and harmless remedy 
may be found in Hi/dratcd per-oxide of Iron, 
its tlie best, according to the pamphlet we are 
following. Sores caused by the green should 
be well covered with it, as with an ordinary 
.salve, and a teaspoonful in a wine glass of 
water should lie taken twice a day, internally, 
whilst working with the green. This remedy 
can be obtained from any druggist or chemist. 
In conclusion, it is tilleged tluit color is no sure 
criterion of the strenijth or purity of Paris Green. 
A highly adulteiiited article may be made to 
assume a deep and handsome color by the 
admixture of cheap chrome green. 

The farmer must therefore depend upon the 
integrity of the dealer in buying. The intensity 
of color is said to depend upon the size of the 
crystals and not upon the quality of the poison; 
therefore, the deeper the color the larger the 
crystals, which will not mix as readily and 
intimately with flour, and is consequently 
liable to be washed oft" the plant. The Iwtter 
jilaii for farmers would be to buy the Paris 
Green ready prepared for use, and from a 
responsible dealer. Although the name of 
this poison may never have been heard by 
many of our readers before the advent of the 
])otato-beetle, yet it is by no means a new 
substance. It is a compound of arsenic and 
copper, and under the name of "Scheele's 
green," has been long in use as a pigment in 
printing wall-paper,' calico, &c., and in the 
manufiicture of wax and other artificial flow- 
ers. These facts have long been known, and 
yet i)eo])le still continue to use green wall 
paper ; ladies still wear green calico dresses ; 
manufacture green artificials, and burn green 
wax-candles. Arsenious acid, the most pois- 
onous ingredient in the compound of Paris 
Green, has been eaten in small quantities by 
the inliabittints of some parts of Geniiany, 
and has the etlect of making them plump in 
body and sustains their bretithing powers in 
the act of climbing hills, and other exercises. 

Its use for this purpose is, however, not to 
be recommended, as when the habit is once 
contracted it cannot be discontinued without 
subjecting the victim of it to all the symp- 
toms of arsenical poisoning. It is sometimes 
also given to horses, and produces a sleekness 
of skin not attainable by any other means. 
Tlie English farmers use it e.xtensively as a 
sheep-wash, and as a steep for seed wheat it is 
also often emjiloyed. Indeed, it is used for 
many domestic and medicinal purposes, and, 
like many other substances, is "a good servant 
but a bad master;" and those wlio have not 
the intelligent caiiacity to subordinate it to 
their use, had better let it and Paris Green 
alone and do without potatoes. 

Finally, whatever plants and tubers may 
absorb from the soil in which they grow, and 
thus enter into their composition, there is thus 
far no evidence in support of the notion that 
potatoes are poisoned by the use of Paris Green, 
and as soon as such a case comes under our 
observation we will publish it. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



37 



OUR NATIONAL CENTENNIAL. 



The Horticultural Hall. 
The Ilortii'ullnnil Hall of the pre at_ Cen- 
tennial Intcniational Kxliibilimi of 1870, of 
■whidi our illustration gives a beautiful ]ier- 
spective view of the structure, was designed 



tory, -27 by 77 feet, and between tliis and the 
ouler frame will be the Warm and < 'old Houses 
on either side. At thi' ends, on the rislil and 
left of the entrances, will be dining halls, retir- 
iiij; rooins,oniees,&i'. Neartliis iiriiu-ipal build- 
ing; will he a number of other .structures, such 
as a Victoria Ilegia House, Domestic an(l Tro- 




byMr. H. J. Schwarzmann, and will he omni 
tlie most pleasing and graeefid of the Centen- 
nial buildings. It will be cou.structed of ^lass 
and iron, will be :ilU feet in length by USD feet 
in width, affording an area of about one acre 
and a quarter. The central portion of the build- 
ing will be occupied by the Grand Conscrva- 



pical Orchard Houses, a Grapery, and similar 
horticultural buildings. The surrounding 
grounds will be arranged for ont-door plant- 
ini;. and under the auspices of the National 
llortieidtural Soeieli', organized for the pur- 
poaeof co-oi>erating with the (JentenniaU'om- 
mission, it is expected that an imposing and 



instructive display will be made. It is jiropo.sed 
to plant, among other things, representative 
trees of all jiartsof the Continent, so that side 
by side the visitor may see the fidl variety of 
the forest i)roduets and fruit of the countrv, 
from the firs of the exlrenn^ north, to the 
oranges and bananas of Florida, and the woii- 
drous grapes and oIJut 
fruits of California. In 
this great work it is im- 
portant that the most 
perfect suece.ss shoidd be 
achieved , so that tl le vast- 
ness of territory, variety 
of product, and perfec- 
tion of species, which 
C(m.st It ute the marvel and 
the might of America, 
may be displayed in such 
a way as to Ix- realiz<>d at 
a glance. It is a subject 
upon which even a little 
spread-.agle eiiljiusiasm 
would be more than al- 
Iowal)le,and the horticul- 
turists and agricidturists 
—professional and ama- 
teur— of the nation, will 
he ad'orded an opportu- 
nity of displaying their 
active synipatliv and 
practical assista"nce in 
tlie great celebration. 

THE rKXNSYI.V.VN-IA 

KAlLKOAD.VXDTItE 

CENTENNIAL. 

But one year remains 
ni which to (ioi.sh the ar- 
rangements for the great 
Centennial E.xposition, 
and as the I'ennsvlvania 
llailroad Companv will 
beretpilred to furnish the 
pnucipal transit facili- 
ties for the thousands 
who will visit, the ollicers 
of that companv have 
completed all the plans 
and designs for improve- 
ments c(mnected with 
their 1) ranch of the 
world's union. These 
plans embrace a railroad 
comiectioii nowconiiilet- 
ed, from the main tracks 
to Elm avenue, the .soiit*- 
ern line of Fairmotnit 
Park, at the point where 
it is entered bv Helmont 
avenue. This connection 
is in the form of a circle, 
by whicli all trains from 
the Ea.sl. West, Xorth 
and South, arriving over 
their ro;ul, and carrying 
visitoiti to the exposition, 
are run at once into the 
Centennial depot, in 
Vhich there are four 
tracks. Pa.ssengers can 
be arriving and depart- 
ing at the sanje time 
without confusion, and 
the arrangenient is such 
that a train can be re- 
ceived and desjiatched 
every three minutes, fur- 
nishing tnmsit facilities 
at this depot alone for 
sixteen thousand jieople 
per day. This arrange- 
ment is designed to ac- 
commodate only the 
travel from distant ])oiiits 
and the city snbnrbs.that 
from central points in I'iiiladeliihia having 
many other facilities for reaching the exposi- 
tion. 

The depot at Helmont and Elm avenues 
will be connected with a hotel— the trains ar- 
riving under a covend wav. on one side of 
which will extend the first floor of this hotel, 



38 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



on which floor will be a series of public looms, 
such as billiard, bar, storage and storerooms, 
servants' dinint; rooms, etc. At tlie park end 
of this depot, stairways will ascend to a level 
of the second floor of the hotel, and comnnnii- 
cate with a bridge one hundred ieet wide, cross- 
inj; Elm avenue and termiuatinj; Iwtween the 
macliinery liall and tlie main exliibitiou build- 
ing. This liridiie will be divided into twojias- 
sage ways, eaeli fifty feet wide — the one for per- 
sons entering the park, the other for persons 
leaving it. 

Tlie hotel proper will commence with the 
second floor, which ison a level with this bridge. 
This floor will contain a dining room one hun- 
dred and seventy by two hundred and ten feet, 
capable of seating comfortably twelve hundred 
persons, being the largest room of the kind in 
the world; a restaurant, fifty by two hundred 
and thirty-nine feet; a waiting room one hun- 
dred and seventy by two hundred feet, and all 
the necessary parlors and reception rooms for 
guests; besides kitchens, wasli rooms, etc., and 
a number of sleeping rooms. The hotel build- 
ing is designed to be seven hundred feet long, 
two hundred and tifty-four feet wide, four 
stories high, exclusive of basement, and will 
comfortably accommodate two thousand live 
hundred guests. While it is designed as a tem- 
porary structure, to be removed at the close 
of the" exhibition, it will be .substantially built, 
warmed by steam, lighted witli gas, and sup- 
plied with water tliroughout. 

In the arrangement of trains to and from the 
exjiosition, tlie company will use every exer- 
tion to thoroughly acconnnodate all sections 
of the country, and this they have facilties for 
doing never equaled on a siihilar occasion. By 
their own lines they reach all the principal 
northern and western cities, and many in the 
south, and tlirough trains will be run over all 
these lines, combining all the comforts known 
to American railroading. Between Kew York 
and Philadelphia the. de of travel will, of 
course, be heaviest, and here express trains 
will ha run every few minutes, making the 
distance in less than two hours. The company 
will endeavor to show visitors a model Amer- 
ican railroad, among the other attractions of 
the Centennial. 



A FRIGID RECORD. 

The months of .January and February 187.5 
were perhaps the most intensly and continu- 
ously cold of any that have been experienced 
in Lancaster county for many years, but still 
not so cold as it has been in other places and 
in other years, according to the following ex- 
tracts, which we publish for the future refer- 
ence of our readers. The coldest record in 
Lancaster city during the two months above 
named, was ft- below zero and in the county 
it was 14'^ below. This was not a lower point 
than was reached in 1873 but the cold was 
more continuous. 

A block of ice was brought from the Cones- 
toga and exliiViited in this city, which meas- 
ured four feet in thickness, but this may have 
only been an extraordinary local formation. 
The Susquehanna, in many places, was sup- 
posed to have been frozen to tlie bottom, and 
for a comparatively long period it become a 
highway for the transport of heavy burdens 
of freight. 

According to the iV«p Northwest, there has 
been some remarkalily cold weather in Silver 
Bow, Montana. A correspondent of that 
paper furnishes the following interesting item 
of news : 

"Your favor of the ll>th of .January is at 
hand and inquiries answered herewith. On the 
evening of .January 8, several persons being in 
tlie store, and the spirit thermometer register- 
ing "3.5'^ below," tlie remark was made that 
quicksilver would congeal at :P lower. I reques- 
ted my clerk, Mr. St()lte, to thoroughly cleanse 
abartiimlilerand partially fill it with quicksil- 
ver. We tlien exposed the glass of mercury and 
the spirit thermometer on the roof of the fire- 
proof on the north side of the store, giving 
them as nearly equal exposure as possible. 
An hour after the thermometer marked 33° 



below, but the quicksilver still remained un- 
changed. At i):20 p. m. the thermometer 
stood 4(.P below ; still the quicksilver was live, 
but terribly cold. At 'J:40 p. m. tlie spirit 
indicated 41° below ; the quicksilver was 
hardened on the outside. A few minutes later 
the thermometer stood 42° below. I picked 
i\\> the tumbler of quicksilver, and to my 
astonisliment found it completely .solidified — 
as hard as a rock. I carried it into the store, 
and several persons examined it, it remaining 
in that condition some time before it showed 
life. On Jan. 10 at 11 p. m., the thermome- 
ter stood 35° below. On the evening of .Janu- 
ary 8, the evening above mentioned, at 10:30 
p. m., tlie register was 40° below. This is the 
coldest weather we have had." 

A correspondent recently sent the Philadel- 
phia Lrdijcr a record of the daily markings of 
the thermometer in a small town of Nebraska 
during the month of January. There were 
only eight days in the month when tlie tem- 
perature was above zero, and the highest mark- 
ing was nineteen degrees. The lowest tem- 
perature was twenty-six degrees below zero. 
The average of the lowest markings of the 
tliermometers at eighteen stations in the north- 
westl-ecently, was thirty degrees below zero. 
Since then, a correspondent at Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, has favored us with a meteorolo- 
gic-al talile, showmg the temperature and 
weather of January of this year in that much 
talked of climate. This will enlighten our 
readers who feel an interest in Minnesota. In 
Montana the temperature has been as low as 
fifty-six degrees below zero. Extremely cold 
weather is as disastrous to vegetables as to ani- 
mal life. Our obituary columns show liow fatal 
the comparatively cold weather here has been 
to those in feeble health, and fears are there- 
fore entertained that vegetation m.ay sufl^er 
during the winter. The continuanceof cold 
weather is not so much a source of dan- 
ger as the extreme cold sometimes reached, 
and infinitely less dangerous than the sudden- 
ness of its coming and the circumstances at- 
tending it. When the snows have been melted 
from the ground and the moisture penetrating 
the soil begins to loosen the frost, a sudden snap 
of extremely cold weather kills the budding 
seed, and too often injures or kills the mature 
tree or shrub, lleasoning humanity is really 
more subject to the danger resulting from sud- 
den changes than unconscious vegetation. 
Before a brief warm spell has swept away the 
lirotecting snow and tempted the seeds to put 
forth their tender shoots, impatient people too 
often lay aside their heavy garments and ex- 
jiose tlieniselves to dangers not less real than 
those the soldier meets upon the field of battle. 

In Europe, in the year 401, the Black Sea 
was entirely frozen over. In 703 not only the 
Black Sea, but the Straits of Dardanelles, 
were fi-ozen over; thesnow in some iilacesrose 
fifty feet high. In 82-2 the great riversof Europe, 
the Danulie, the Elbe, &c., were so hard frozen 
as to bear heavy wagons for a month. In 800 
the Adriatic was frozen. In Dill everything 
was frozen, the crops totally failed, and famine 
and pestilence closed the year. In 10(i7 most 
of the travelers in Germany were frozen to 
death on the roads. ^ In 1134 th(; Po was frozen 
from Cremona to the sea; the wine sacks were 
burst, and the trees split by the action of the 
frost, with immense noise. In 1236 the Danube 
was frozen to the bottom, and remained long 
in that state. In 1310 the crops wholly failed 
in Germany; wheat, which some years before 
sold in England at (is. the quarter, rose to £2. 
In 1308 the crojjs failed in Scotland, and such 
a famine ensued that the poor were reduced to 
taed on grass, and many perished miserably in 
the fields. The .successive winters of 1432-3-4 
were uncommonly severe. In 1.308 the wine 
distributed to the soliliers was cut with hatch- 
ets. In 1083 it was excessively cold. Most 
of the hollies were killed. Coaches drove ujion 
the Thames, the ice of which was eleven inches 
thick. In 17U0 occurred the cold winter;' the 
frost penetrated the earth three yards into the 
ground. In 1710 liooths were erected on the 
Thames. In 1744 and 1745 the strongest ale 
in England, exposed to the air, was covered in 



less than fifteen minutes with ice an eighth of 
an inch thick. In 1800, and again in 1812, 
the winters were remarkably cold. In 1814 
there was a fair on the frozen Thames. 



READ TWICE. 

Considering that the ashes of our crops con- 
tain on an average ■ about thirty per cent of 
potash — as shown in the following table — it 
follows that iiota.sh must lie applied to the soil, 
or the crop cannot be a healthy one. 

Table— Showing the amount of potash con- 
tained in a hundred jiarts of the ashes of 
Wheat. In the grain, oO, in the straw, - - - -1.3 
Barley. " " 32, " ' " . - - 14 

Oats. " " n, " " - - - - 1.5 

Kyc. " " 33, " " . - . 17 

Potatoes. " tubers, 37, " leaves, - - - - 20 
Hohl Kabi " " 27, " " - - - 9 

Hops. " Hop 2.5, Leaf 15, Bine 21 
Flax. " - - - 35, Beans 37, Peas 43 
Man^jolds. - - -22 Turnips 22, Cabbage 41 
Sugar Beet. - - 32, Kapeseed 25, Broeoli 47 
Natural and artificial grasses, 20 to 42. 

— W. N. Dunau's Circular, Jan. 1, 1875. 



THIS NUMBER OF THE FARMER. 

We think we have reason to be proud of this 
number of The Lancasteu Farmer. Every 
article it contains is either original or carefully 
selected and condensed from the most reliable 
sources, in which case the proper credit, 
where known to the editor, has been given. 
The table of contents cover a wide range of 
practical subjects, of deep interest and impor- 
tance ; and we do not believe those interested 
in agriculture, horticulture or domestic econo- 
my can anywhere get a better bill of fare for 
the same money. If every farmer in this 
county does not become a subscriber to The 
Faioier before the year is out, he will not be 
alive to his own interests. 



OUR ILLUSTRATIONS. 

In accordance with their promise in the 
January number, the publishers of The 
Faujier have completed arrangements for 
giving illustrations of practical subjects in 
each number. Another handsome engraving 
of one of the great Centennial buildings is 
given, and they will be continued until our 
readers will be familiar with all that pertains 
to this great event. In our next we expect to 
give original illustrations of the Colorado and 
other potato beetles. An article in type, illus- 
trating the construction of board fences, is 
unavoidably crowded over until our next. 



The Grangers: We pubMsh an address 
delivered by Milton B. Eshleman before the 
Strasburg Grange of the Patrons of IIu.sbandry, 
as a matter of local interest. We have, we 
think, sulliciently defined our position on the 
grange question in our February number, and, 
if it were necessary to say anything further on 
the subject, it would be this, that we do not 
hold ourselves personally responsible for any 
of the sentiments expressed in essays, ad- 
dresses, and lectures, either for or against the 
grange. We are quite willing to let the dis- 
cussion of the question have a fair Held in our 
columns within a reasonable limit, so long as 
it is conducted with reference to the merits of 
the question, and without personalities. There 
is one passage in this address which, however, 
is entirely ii«n tons, but which may be familiar 
to "old Anti-Masons," and is as follows: "The 
inventors and early advocates of Anti-Masonry 
were women." We were an "yliifi-anti-Ma- 
son " as early as 1828, but we do not recollect 
that that argument was used against them 
then. Of course, as to the comparative merits 
of the secrcci/ of the grange, we are not compe- 
tent to render an opinion. 



It is hardly necessary to admonish our con- 
tributors and correspondents, that their real 
names should always accompany their com- 
munications, and that if they do not appear 
in our columns it may be owing to their 
ab.sence. Of course, if they do not wish their 
names to ajipear, we will withhold them, but 
under all circumstances wc should know who 
the writers are. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



39 



THE CABBAGE— ITS HISTORY— CUL- 
TIVATION— VARIETIES. 




[HenderHou'fi K;iil\ sniiiiun- (Jubbtige.] 

Altliiiusli tin- l\oiiiaiis doulillcss iiitvoiUiccd 
gMitk'niii^ into Biitiiiii as ciiily as the yi'ar 
100, th(^ cultivation of the ^janleii a^s an art in 
Enj^lii'i'l tlati'S from llu' connncnccnient of the 
llitli century. \'arietirs of ealibage were 
taken to Kntjlaud from Holland about tlie 
year lolO; the lirst plantinj; is ascribed to Sir 
Arthur Ashley, of Dorset. It was introduced 
into Scotland by the soldiers of Cromwell's 
anny. 

(.'ahbaRe is a plant belonging to the order 
CHircii'Kn.Kaiul ijenus lirdssira, theorder ooni- 
prehendini; the scurvy ,u;rass, pepiier grass, 
mustaril, cress, radish and turnip, ancl the 
genus including also the eaulillower, broccoli, 
borecole or sprouts, rape, colza, savoy, and 
kohl-rahi. 

The Brassicn olcrcu-ea, from which all the 
forms of cabbage siiring, is found growing 
wild on the rocky shores and clill's in England, 
with no appearance of a head. The cultiva- 
ted cabbage is considered by some botanists a 
monstrosity, but its varieties are well marked, 
distinct and easily perpetuated, where care is 
taken to secure such conditions as will con- 
tinue their exact habits. The cabbage is a 
biennial ; the seed being sown produces a full 
grown plant the first season, and the next 
season sends out shoots from eighteen inches to 
two feet long, wliich bear small globular seeds 
in a great nnnibei- of pods. The wliole plant 
then perishes. The large solid heads of cab- 
bage, now so familiar, have been produced 
from the wild plant by gradual imiirovement 
in soils, manures and cultivation. To repeat 
them annually it is neceessary to observe two 
points: 1. None ))ut those heiuls presenting 
the best type of the variety should be saved 
for seed ; they must be taken up with the 
roots before the frost sets in, the useless out- 
side leaves removed, and set in a cool dark 
cellar, with the roots endjedded in soil, and 
packed as closely as possible. In sju-ing they 
are set out not less than two feet apiirt, in 
good garden soil, and no seed saved except 
from the most vigorous stalks. 2. They must 
not be allowed to produce seeds near other 
plants seeding at the same time which belong 
to the same tribe, such as eaulillower, turnip, 
broccoli, &c., as they will mix through their 
flowers, the seed producing mongrel varieties. 
Mu.cb disai)pointnient is experienced from 
using seeds carelessly produced for sale by 
unreliable seed growers. 

There are many very valuable varieties of cab- 
bage, some suited oidy to particular localities. 
For early use, Early York is an old favorite, 
but some prefer the early flat Battersea, 
coming next in succession; tiie Winnigstadt is 
excellent, heads comjiact and of ra|iid growth. 
Mr. Henderson, in the latest edition of his 
"Gardening for Profit," gives his preference 
for early varieties in the following order — 
Jersey Wakefield, grown from seeds originally 
received from England under the name of 
Early Wakefield; Early York, eipial to the 
Wakefield in earlincss, but inferior in size ; 
Early Summer; Early Wyman, tlie favorite in 
the Boston market ; the Ox Heart, a valuable 
variety for family culture; the Karlv Wimdng- 
stadt, and the Early Flat Dutch for a succes- 
sion, being two or tliree weeks behind the 
earliest sorts. ^Ir. Henderson i;ives us an 
interesting bit of history concerning the ex- 
perience of himself anil brother gardeners 



around New York, with the Jersey AVake- 
field. Having experimented witli a score of 
varieties he found nothingeipia! to it; but a few 
years after its introduction he found that it 
broke into over a dozen sub-varieties. No mat- 
ter how carefully the heads were selected for 
seed the same dilliculty ociau'red. A few miles 
inland, .somewhere near the (grange Mountain, 
an cild (ierioan was always aliead in having 
(he lirst Wakcfields in the New York market. 
Mild far surpassing any the New York garden- 
ers could produce. All inducements to get 
him to sell seed were disregarded, and year 
after he kept the lead. Several plans were 
laid to circumvent him, such as ordering a 
hundred of his cabliages with roots on ; but 
old Ca.rl was not to be caught so; he tilled the 
order to the letter, making the buyer pay 
rouiuUy for the I'oots, but took the liberty of 
first dipping them in boiling water! 15nt one 
day he invited a friend and countryman to 
see his wonderful cabbaijes as they grew. 
This was a fatal day for old Carl's monopoly, 
for his friend had his eyes about him, and 
observed that several of the stumps from 
which the earliest heads had been cut were 
marked with stakes, as were a few of the 
choicest shape, as yet uncut. The secret was 
out. Carl's success had been gained by ))er- 
sistently year after year selecting the earliest 
and finest heads; taking nj) the stumps froTU 
whicli they werecut, he planted them cai-elully 
and removing the young shoots ])roduced froiii 
the stumps, he treated them exactly as a florist 
treats cuttings of a (lower, that is by planting 
the slip in the soil, and shading it until rooted. 
After these cuttings or shoots of the cabbage 
were planted in the usual cabbage frame, cov- 
ered with glass in winter, set out in springlike 
ajilant from the seed, and the next .Inly ripened 
Seed. This process is too expensive ;ind slow 
in rai.sing cabbage seed in quantity, but it is 
now used by careful growers to produce i)ure 
and improved stock from which to raise seed. 

Of the varieties raised around Lancaster the 
early Winningstadt is perhaps in the highest 
favor. It received the end<u'sement of the 
^Iniirirnn AfiriruU<iriili.'<l a few years ago, and 
truck gardeners with whom we have conversed 
speak Inghly of it, although, as Mr. Hender- 
son suggests, it should be hardly claimed as 
early, as it is quite three weeks later than 
half-a-dozen other varieties, Imt it is an ex- 
cellent sort wdiej'e two crops are not grown, as 
it continues in succession for a long time. 

In the second edition of his book(ls74) Mr. 
Henderson thus simke of "an entirely new 
variety of early eidjl)age, originated by Mr. 
Van Sicklen, of Long Island, that is likely 
to supercede all others for general market 
purposes. He has now gi'own it f(u- the past 
three years, but so far the see<l has not been 
put in the market, Mr. Yixn S. being exceed- 
ingly cautious not to introduce any variety 
before tlau-oughly proving its nu'r'its. The 
last seas(Ui, in comiiany with him. I madi' an 
examination of the crop, and in my o|iinion it 
is, take it altogether, the best early cabbage 
I ever saw. It is i)erlia|is four or five days 
later than the Wak.field, but fully one-third 
heavier, and .as it has small outer leaves, may 
be as closely planted. When fully matured it 
will withstand the hottest weather without 
cracking. All market gardeners know the 
value of this ipmlity, as nuist of us have lost 
heavily from this cause." 

This is the cabbage of which we give an 
illustration, as "Henderson's ICarly Summer," 
and of which the well-known seedsmen, Peter 
Henderson & Co., who introduce the variety 
this season, thus speak : 

"We spiiil out tlii8 new vio-icly of Early Calilm^p, 
fcoliiiir satisdiMl tliat it will rival, if not lo rsomo extent 
supersede tlic WakcflpM. Tlii' merit of tliis variety 
consists in its hoinir tlie earliest of all larpe fahliaffcs, 
coniinjrin Imt a few days after I lie \Val«'nelil. It has 
another valiialilc peculiarity, of rarely or never liurst- 
in;ro|ioii when ripe, so that if a crop I'annot he used 
at once, it will not s|H>il, as is the easi' with most of 
the other early sorts. There is no ilonlit of it heconi' 
in<r a standard variety, either for market or jMivate 
uses." 

As a good and reliable early cabbage is a 
desideratum with market gardeuers, we have 



deemed it projier to call the attention of the 
readirs of TllK Fakmki; to this new viniety, 
tliat those int<>resled in meeting the wants of 
an early market may test it for themselves. 
In market gardening a good eurh/ cabbage, 
which can be depemled upon, will eerlaiidy 
jiay in the viciidty of Lancaster. In this 
article we have conlined ourselves maiidy to 
early varieties, because the later varieties are 
so much mort! easily raised, and at so much 
less ex))eiise. The following, however, from 
the excellent jiaper on this subject in the new 
edition of ihe Amirintn (^'jirhijieiliii, now going 
through the press, may contiiin some general 
information fi) interest some of our readers. 
After premising that aboid New 'i'ork the 
late Bergen, (lat Hutch, anil best varieties of 
drumhead cabbages are ]ireferred for late sorts, 
the writer goes on to say : 

"Three crops are seeured in a season; seeds of 
early and lalc> sorts are sown in a moderate hot-bed 
in .\laiih, ki-pt sliiilitly moisteiird, with plenty of air 
at all tinifs when tlie temperature is not t(M) low. 
The plants a re dusted with dry \vr)oil ashes, pulverised 
lime, or a littU- .Scotch snulf. to keep olf the fly, (a 
small black in.scct which is a !,'reat pi'sl), thiuni-d lo 
an inch apart, anil kept free from wicds. When the 
beds oiilsidc arc dry and warm cnoiiirh,tlie plants arc 
removed diniie,' a cloudy day, or in the aflci-n<ion, 
and the early sorts set with a dibhlc, 14 to IS inches, 
the later ones 20lo2'iinch<'s aparl each way; watered, 
and allowed to lake root, befVu'c disturbini,^ the soil 
about Ihcin. If the weather continues ilry, the plants 
slioulil be watered two or tlireccveniiiL's in succession. 
This plantinir ^ivcsthe earliest i-abbai^cs, and summer 
ealibai^cs, which come between the early and late 
crops. For a late crop, the seeds are sown in an open 
bed, thinly, in drills 11 to !l inches aparl, in -May, and 
transplautcil from .Inuc 1(1 to .July 1, iiistraiiErht rows, 
22 to 27 inches asunder each way. 

"The eabbaire is a rank feeder and an exhaustive 
crop. The soil shoulil be a di'cp, rich loam, not only 
coniainin^: plenty of veiretable matter, but a full siip- 
l>ly of polasli, soda and lime. .Vdressiiii^ of common 
salt, al the rate of ten bushels per acre, will not itiily 
benelit the eabbaire crop, liut kill yrulis and worms, 
which destroy the youiiir piairs rapidly. Ibiirpen 
manure ouirht neverto be a|>i)!ictl tothccabbajrc crojj, 
as it distiirures the roots and destroys the plants, 
('oniposls of muck, woorl ashes, lime, salt and com- 
mon yard inainires, we!! decomposed, may he used in 
larire quantities if well incorporated with the soil, 
tluano, deeply duir under, is ;;ood in all liut very Uplit 
sandy and ;;ravelly soils. A tirst-ratc super-phosphate 
of lime, Willi one-third its wcisjht of truano mixed 
with it, is one of the best inanin*cs for a irardcn soil, 
or one which has al«'ays received i-ommon manures. 
This eoinpoiiud may lie dissolved in w ater, and freely 
used to water feeble plants, or dujr in almut llieni 
with a hoe. As soon as Ihe youiif,' plants have taken 
root ill Ihe new bed they shoulil be hoed, tlie oficncr 
the better, until the leaves shade the soil. In its 
younircr staires Ihe eabbaire must feed larirely on car- 
bonic aeid, tVc, by its roots; but as it increases in 
size it uses Ihe leaves more extensively; hence the 
necessity of early and frciiuent hocinirs," 

We would urge upon our farmers, and 'Cs- 
)ieci;illy those wlm raise vegetiibles tiir market, 
to pay more attention to the seleetinu of the 
liest vtirietiesiiuil the best mode of <-ultivation, 
A really good cabbage is a good dish, and the 
liest articK' always leads the market in cabbage 
as well ;is in other vegetables. It costs no 
more to raise a good artiide than an inferior 
one, but in our markets the iid'erior too often 
predomintite, and the i>idducer goes home dis- 
stitished because he did not get good prices. 
We ri'iieat, that in raising cabliage, as in doing 
anything else, it always jiays U'st to do the 
best that can be done under the circumstances. 



M, L.VFoitTK, of France, as related by the 
Paris correspondent of the Btiltimore Ainrri- 
rn» FtirriiiT, cooks his food for cattle by fer- 
mentation ; on a layer of cut straw he places 
one of ptiliicd potatoes, tind so on aer'ording to 
the sup]ily required, ti thicki-r layer of pota- 
toes: and left for sixty hours it become,s ad- 
mirably cooked for pigs and poultry. 

F.MOiKus' SONS, and other young men of 
energy, having a little leisure time on their 
hands, ctin do a good business by (canvassing 
for The Lan<;astf,u Faioieh. " To such we 
will offer .special inducements, which can be 
learned by addressing the ]iublisher,s. We 
want to secure a canvasser in every township 
in the county. 



40 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



THE POTATO. 

The potato is emjjhatically one of the neces- 
saries of life, and is found equally welcome on 
the tables of the rich and poor. Notwith- 
standing that its flesh-forming material is not 
so abundant as in wheat, yet it ranks high 
and is worthy of all consideration, it being 
rich in starch; one pound of fresh potatoes 
contains 12 oz. of water, 2 oz. and 219 grains 
of starch, and only 100 grs. flesh-formers, with 
smaller portions of sugar, gum, fat, woody 
fibre and CI grains mineral ashes. In 61 va- 
rieties of potatoes it was found that the amount 
of starch varied from 9 to 20 per cent. 

There is a nitrogenous substance which they 
term hinMase, anil which is found in germin- 
ating seed near the embryo, as also in certain 
fungi. This, it is asserted, is capable of one 
part to transform 2,000 parts of starch, first 
into dextrine and finally into sugar. There is 
a complication, however, it is known, that 
any albuminoid may produce the same eSect, 
that is, the bodies thus altered become fer- 
vients; moistur(^ and an elevated temperature 
hasten the process. It is generally taught 
that oxygen acting on the albuminoids in 
presence of water and within a certain range 
of temperature induces decomposition. I will, 
by way of comparison, state that 1 lb of wheat 
contains 2 oz. and 100 grs. of water, 2 oz. 21 
gi-s. of gluten, 120 grs. alliumen, 9 oz. and 242 
grs. of starch and 385 grains of sugar, equiva- 
lent to gum, fat, woody fibre, ashes and 7 oz. 
of carbon. These constituents can readily be 
varied by foreign admixture, or conditions of 
soil, weather and moisture. We have thus 
consideied the components of a good potato. 
The thin skin that envelopes it is of a corky 
nature, through which water can scarcely 
pass, and hence aids in preserving the tuber 
during winter. We all know what a good 
potato is, and it requires no savant to tell us 
when it is bad or waxy. What can they tell 
us of the causes and remedies to prevent the 
evil? The well-known "curl," they tell us, 
may arise from using over-ripe seed stock, or 
such that has been improperly kept during the 
winterand exposed to the lightand air, instead 
of having been covered with earth, sand, or 
straw, so as to preserve their juices. Again, 
it may also arise from want of lime or mag- 
nesia in the soil, an excess of strong manures, 
and successively planting'in the same ground. 
But the potato rot of Europe and this country 
has been carefully examined. Those kinds 
that mature early are least liable to the rot. 
The disease is rarely if ever known so early as 
May, and foimd most prevalent in August, 
especially during moist, warm weather. If 
possible, they should be taken up before Sep- 
tember,unless during dry weather. Wood ashes 
are reconmiended as a good manure. Lime, 
plaster and salt are advantageous, while strong 
nitrogenous inamu'es are considered detrimen- 
tal to the potato. The rot is ascribed by some 
to a deficiency of lime and magnesia in the 
soil, for upon testing the ashy residue of good 
or sound tubers witli those that were diseased, 
it was found that the sound ones yielded 5 per 
cent of lime, but the ash of diseased ones only 
1.77 per cent. Hence there may be an Im- 
portant fact presented by Dr. Grace Calvert, 
who has demonstrated that lime is one of the 
feio knoiim subsUiwts tliat are capable of 
altof/ether prerentlny the dcrdapmcnt of fimiji^ 
and thinks that caustic magnesia would have 
a similar effect. This presents a valuable 
hint, and may throw light upon the statement 
of J. W. Boys, who affirms that he has escaped 
from this foul disease attacking his potatoes 
for eight successive years by his mode of keeping 
them, wliich is to sprinkle tlie floor with fine 
unslaked lime, on which he places a layer of 
potatoes from 4 to 5 inclies deep, and then 
another layer of lime, and so on, using about 
one-fortieth jiart of lime by measure, to the 
potatoes. lie also states that waxy and watery 
potatoes are improved by this process. 

Here are concurrent circumstances that seem 
to teach a lesson worthy the attention of your 
readers. It is worthy of notice that the eye 
of the potato is the last part affected by the 
rot. The eye is actually a- bud and has the 




same relation to the tuber as the germ has to 
the farinaceous matter of the albumen of a 
seed in which it is enveloped. In developing 
a young plant the Amyhim (that istlie starch) 
aiid the nitrogenous and mineral constituents 
of the sap of the tuber are employed to form 
the young branches and leaves. Wehave now 
glanced at some of the causes and cures of 
disease ; I shall briefly consider the fungus 
concerned in i)roducing the visible effects 
called "blight " and "rot," so ably set forth 
in the Jan. No. page 11 and Feb. No page 17, 
vol. VII of The Fakmer. I have before 
me the article referred to. The fungus by 
Berkley named Botrytis in/estans is novi' named 
and figured as the Feronotipora infestans. 

This genus belongs to a 
class of fungi wliich do not 
foster on decaying plants, 
as is the case with the 
majority. There are now 
known and figured other 
species of Pcronospora sev- 
erally infesting parsnips, 
peas, cabbages, onions and 
spinach, differing from those 
found on the potato in structure. However 
interesting, I cannot stop to describe the 
various kinds in this article. For the benefit 
of those who have no microscope I append a 
copy of the potato fungus, above named. Tlie 
external signs are soon apparent; the leaves 
are usually first attacked; they turn yellowish, 
the stem gets blotched with brown and the 
fine threads (mycelium) extend to the tubers 
and soon wholly or partially destroys them by 
inducing a gangrenous ferment and producing 
a putrid mass. Young plants are arrested in 
their growth ; in older plants we find the 
tubers discolored with reddisli spots, first under 
the cuticle. When taken up and exposed to a 
warm damp situation in the air, the parasite 
appears on the surface, and will be found to 
penetrate to the interior, deconii)osing the 
tissues by a kind of ferment induced; this mass 
forms a nidus for other kinds of fungi foimd 
on decaying matter, and care must be taken 
not to confound the two, as has happened. 

Here, again, we see how necessary it is to 
have a knowledge of eflects from change of 
condition ; patient observation under diverse 
circumstances may give us a clue to see from 
which quarter the wind blows. The exjie- 
rience and obsei-vations of others may assist us 
in our own; therefore it is well to present them 
to the public, that those who read and digest 
may have some data from which to compare 
notes. Some one says when the vines are de- 
tected to be affected with the fungus, cut 
them down and burn them. Although this 
might supply some ashes as a manure, it is a 
doubtful remedy, especially if the mycelium 
has already reached the tuber. 

As starch is so prominent an ingredient of 
the potato, it may interest some to test various 
kinds. Iodine is peculiar in its action on 
starch when dissolved in water or alcohol, and, 
brought in contact with starch, gives it a 
beautiful purple or blue color. This test may- 
be used even in microscopic observations with 
the utmost facility. There are other tests. 
Cut a thin slice of a potato; if reddish spots 
appear, it is a bad sign for the health of the 
potato. Witli a soft brush pass diluted tinc- 
ture (alcoholic) of iodine liglitly but so as to 
touch all the parts. This will "eftectually re- 
veal the starcli cells, and often exhibit various 
tancolored markings in concentric zones or 
scattered-like letters of German text, as in one 
case I lately witnessed. Cooking or steaming 
potatoes, when done, all the part not tainted 
by the red matter will break easily between 
the fingers, wliile thataflected or marbled will 
resist tlie jiressure and remain comparatively 
solid. If you will take the time, a slice of 
potato put in water for 12 or 15 days, the 
soundest part will be the first to decay, whilst 
that which is affected will remain un- 
changed. But the point I wish to make is, 
after all, to call attention to the im))ortanx;e 
of lime as a preventive, and should any 
good come of it, my object is attained. Jacbo 
bTAUFFEK, Lancaster, Pa. 



SHALL WE RAISE OSAGE-ORANGE 
HEDGES? 

Eighteen years experience convinces me that 
osage-orange is not the thing for inside 
faiTn fences. The objection arises not from 
any imperfection in the hedge — for a well 
grown osage hedge wiU turn any animal larger 
than a rabliit — but because of the ground it 
occupies. This plant is a gross feeder, and 
impoverishes the ground for at least a rod on 
each side of it. In a wet season the injury 
done is not so great, but in a dry summer, like 
the past, the row of corn next the hedge is a 
total failure, the second one reduced one-half, 
and even the third row is somewhat damaged. 
Other crops are injured also, but to a less 
extent than corn. It is not only the pecuniary 
loss that is here complained of ; the farmer of 
good taste dislikes to have half-staiTed crops 
around the margin of his fields. 

Those who are determined to raise osage 
hedges had better plant them along the road- 
side and let them draw half their nourislmient 
from the public road. 

The chief objection, then, tp the osage- 
orange hedge is its exj)mse. I was led to make 
this statement by a remark made by 11. M. 
Engle, at the last annual meeting of the 
Fruit Growers' Society, that osage-orange 
hedge could be grown for twenty-five cents 
per rod. I think that a hedge four years old 
cannot be grown properly for less than one 
dollar per rod. The young hedge, for two or 
three years, should have the same attention 
that a row of com or potatoes has. If the 
mice are permitted »o gnaw the bark off the 
roots and make gaps in the hedge it is difficidt 
or well nigh impossible to get them filled up 
again, after the hedge is grown it costs from 
six to ten cents per rod annually to keep it 
trimmed. 

The osage-orange, in good hands, makes a 
neat and tasteful, as well as an enduring 
fence. The careless farmer should never at- 
tempt to raise one. On the great prairies of 
the West where land is cheap and the enclos- 
ures are large, hedges may be used to advan- 
tage; but in eastern Pennsylvania, where land 
is high in price, we should endeavor to bring 
every rod under culture. Fencing is a heavy 
item of expense and the subject is one which 
deserves the earnest attention of fanners ; but 
I am convinced that we will not find relief in 
hedging. In conclusion, I would advise those 
who intend to plant a hedge, as Douglas Jer- 
rold advised those about to get married — 
'■'■don't do it." — J. C. L. Gap, Lane, co.. Pa. 



THE PAW-PAW. 



This subject of the vegetable kingdom be- 
longs to the " Custard apple " family. Paw- 
paw of the United States — a Creole name. It 
grjiws west, middle and south, but is not known 
in New York or Canada. It is more indige- 
nous to the south than to the west. Found 
abundant on the banks of the Susquehanna, 
from below Harrisburg to the Chesapeake Bay. 
It is oftentimes only seen as a shrub or a small 
tree, or under the boughs of the majestic forest 
trees. They are very numerous between St. 
-Toseph and Kansas City, on the banks of the 
Missouri, where they grow under the mam- 
moth "Cotton-Poplar," and are generally 
looked u))on as "underbrush." Tliey are in- 
veterate si)routers from the root, and come up 
almost as thick as hemp in a wild state, and 
that accounts for the fact that they never ap- 
pear very large. They are so nimierous on the 
banks of the Missotn-i that the vineyardmen 
use the tender herb to tie up the grape vines 
in their vineyards. When one is kept clear 
of other trees, it will get from six to ten inches 
thick in the trunk, and on the southern river 
bottoms they have lieen known to grow from 
fifteen inches to two feet thick. The Paw-paw 
is about Ijeing introduced as a common fruit, 
and no doubt will be sold by nurserymeu 
everywhere. 

These trees, when brought imder cultivation 
in yards, will form beautiful heads, foliage and 
appearance resembling the Magnolia family. 
Flowers precede the leaves in early spring, and 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



41 



look much like the common "shrub "of our 
gardens. There arc several varieties of thi^m. 
The best variety ripens in the middle of Sep- 
tember. It then bcfiins to dro)) off, yellow 
and .soft, very delicious to those who like tliem. 
There are other varieties rii)eniuR in Octolier, 
or about the first frosts. Tlieyjare^uot as larjie, 
nor of as pood a cpialily as the former kind, 
and for a loiiK time remain (jieen and hard, or 
turn blackish and become internally afl'eclcd 
with apparent disease. The flavor of these is 
inferior, but no doubt they might be improved 
bj- cultivation. 

The Paw-iiaw, or "Papaw," belongs to the 
genus yl.sioinui, and to the or(?er Anonack.k. 
Tout sjiccies are found within the limits of 
the United States, but there are others within 
the tropics. — L. S. K., Warwick, Mar. 1, 1!S75. 

^ 

WHEAT AND CHEAT. 

As an Item of interest in tlie furniini; line, we give 
the foUowinp: of what luislKiiipened tons as a fanner ; 
Tliree years aj^o we \vm\ t went y aeres in wlieat t liat 
we seedeil to elover, trettinj; a fair stand of the latter. 
Last year and tlie year previous we pastured the 
elover. Unfortiin-ately, last season we were obliged 
to use our pasture too late, and the eonsequenee was 
our elover drew out and froze out in the winter, and 
this spring the erop was entirely gone. We deter- 
mined, having more ground for plowing than we 
eould use, to let it lie, grow up to weeds, and what 
clover might eome, tm-n it under early and re-seed it 
to wheat and elover, thus losing one year's use of the 
ground. Instead, however, of growing up to weeds, 
there eame up as full a erop of cheat as if it had 
been regularly sown to cheat, and we have just flu- 
shed mowing and stacking it, and now have in stack 
over twenty tons of almost entirely pure cheat. We 
cut it green, and it consequently itiil not shatter out, 
and made the heaviest hay we have handled for many 
a year. There is a small quantity of elover with it, 
hut no weeds, and our ground is as well seeded to 
clover as we could desire. And now about the cheat. 
We can readily understand how the seed eould lie in 
the grouud and germinate under favorable cireum- 
stauces, but the quantity that thus lay there for three 
years, and then grew, surprises us. Be it as it may, 
we have got the eroj), have not lost the year's use of 
the grovuid and the field is nicely seeded to clover — 
better, in fact, thiin it was at first. — Pittsfield (III.) 
Democrat. 

At the hazard of reopening the discussion 
on this subject, we publish the above, which 
is going the rounds of the agricultural press 
again. A simihir case came under our notice 
about ten years ago. Mr. Thomas Coleman, 
who then resided on East Orange street, oppo- 
site "Kramph's Arcade," on one occasion 
called our attention to a small bed in his back 
yard which he had sewed in white clover. When 
we saw it there was little or no white clover 
visible, but instead thereof a rank crop of 
cheat. 

From the most relial)le information we have 
on the subject, we feel pretty confident that 
neither the wheat nor the white or red clover 
in the above instances were transformed into 
clieat, Init rather that their seeds were not 
clean, and contained a portion of cheat in 
them. 
Wheat (2V{(!CT())i), cheat {ISromu.t), and clover 
(3ViJo/i«)))),arc generieally distinct, too dis- 
tinct, in our opiition, for any one of them to 
develop the other. But tliey all have the 
habit, underfavorable circumstances, of tlirow- 
ing out a number of stalks from a single seed, 
and .some interesting experiments have been 
made in that liiu' within the last year. But 
we would i>articularly refer the reader to page 
24, Feb. No. of Tiiic F.vi!MKR^"Stow's E,x- 
periment " — where 114 plants, producing .r20 
ears of wheat, were produced, by root division, 
from a single grain. "We are willing, however, 
to receive further light upon the subject. 

To PREVENT horses' feet from scaling or 
cracking in .summer, and enabling the slioes 
to be carried a longer time witliout injury, 
the French practice is to coat the hoofs once 
a week with an ointment composed in equal 
proportions of soft fat, yellow wax, linseed oil, 
venous turpentine and Norway tar ; the wax 
is melted separately before mixing. 



The pe.vches in Frederick county, Md., are said 
to have sutl'ered some by the severe frosts. Mr. 
Jackson informs tlie Baltimore Furiiur that of about 
one hundred buds he examined, thirty were killed. 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society. 

The stated meeting of this as.sociat ion was 
held in the Orphans' Court lloom, on Monday, 
the 1st inst. In the abscnec of th(^ President, 
Ileiny M. Engle was called to the cliair, an<l 
L)r. P. W. Iliestand (Treasurer) wasappointe<l 
Secretar)' pro tan. ()wing to the inclemency of 
the weather, the attendance was not as large 
as usual. The reading of the minutes being 
dispensed with, the es.sayi.st aiipointed at last 
meeting, Casper Ililler, of Conestoga, pro- 
ceeded to read an essay as follows, on tlie sub- 
ject of 

OUK ORCHARDS. 

It is a pertinent question to ask. What is the matter 
with our orchards^ Our aitjiles fail of late years 
much more in quality than iiKpiantity. Last year if 
our apples had been fair, we would have had an 
abundance for honu' consumption, tiut to-day you 
find hut few of them in market, while their plaee has 
been filled oy thousands of bushels of line New York 
8tate apples. 

We have for years past been attributing our fail- 
ures to climatic changes, brought about by the cut- 
ting away of the forests; but when we compare 
weather statistics we cannot jiut our finger on the 
changes. Another thing that knocks our climatic 
change theory somewhat wrong, is that we oceasion- 
ally find an orchard that bears regularly, and brings 
forth fair fruit. 

The standing rule for planting an orchard is, select 
a piece or ground that would produce a good crop of 
corn, and you may hope for success. Then it was 
expected that the orchard should be cultivated with 
hoed crops for a series of years — as long as anything 
would grow. When the ground becomes too much 
shaded to produce crops, turn to grass, ami, as was 
too often the case, "let her rip." But, this latter 
remark I do not desire to enter seriously into the 
question. Many orchards, cultivated as before said, 
have regularly received liberal dressings of stable 
manure and thorough cultivation, and yet they, too, 
have signally failed. I have mentioned that occasion- 
ally we find orchards that do well. If such had re- 
ceived any special treatment we might learn a lesson, 
and prepare ours in like manner. But we generally 
find such to have been treated precisel}' like others 
that have been noted for failures. A very good orchard 
that I know, is planted on a northeastern exposure, 
on ground so wet in the spring of the year that it 
might almost be called a swamp. It never was cul- 
tivated nor nuinured. Should we therefore plant in a 
swamp and not cultivate nor manure at all, we 
would be likely to make sorry looking orchards. 
These special eases of success are undoubtedly caused 
by an abundance of natural plant-food in the soil. 
And might not the question arise, whether by our 
ordinary course of manuring and erojiping, we do not 
leave the soil more deficient in the wood and fruit 
forming elements, than it was at the time of jilantiug ? 

Chemistry has satisfactorily demonstrated, that the 
alkaline earths found in the ashes of plants and their 
fruits, must abound in t!iesoil,orgood trees and good 
fruit cannot be expected. Potash, lime and phosphate 
of lime, enter largely into the ajiple, pear, jjcaeh and 
grape, and all virgin soils naturally contain these in a 
greater or less ttegrec. It is estinuitcd that l^Opouniis 
of these alkaline earths are taken out of eaeh aere, 
annually, by a crop of tobacco. Wheat, eorn, pota- 
toes, trees and fruits all take up a large amimnt of 
this food, and we need, therefore, not be surpriseil 
that our apple trees are short lived, and our fruit im- 
perfect. Stable nuouire, as our own ex))erienee has 
shown, will not supply in suHicient quantity the alka- 
line salts of which we robbeil our orehards by injudi- 
cious erojiping. We ean see eviilenee of this i'rnmthe 
fact that no orehard ean he sueeessfully raised on tlie 
site of an olil fine. These losses ean probably be nuide 
u]> by judicious use of linu' or phosphate of linu', asbes 
or iiotash, ehareoal, »te. N(\general ride ean be given 
for the ajtplieation of these sin-eial manures, ^leeause 
we do not yet know enough about it to lay down a 
regidar formula. Hut, we might say, as did the dot-- 
tor, (but. I'll say it in English.) "quantity sultieient." 
Some soils may want mm-h, others little, and some 
one kind ami some another. Those who fi-el interested 
in the quesli<m, should have no diflieulty in solving 
the proi)lem. 

Our Horticultural periodicals give numerous cases 
of trees that were made produetive. I will give only 
a few examples. T\\o pear trei's that hail for years 
brojight nri good fruit, were made to yield fine fruit, 
by digging a treneh a few feet from the trees, and 
filling il with suds mixed with twolmshelsof ehar- 
cfia! and two |K)unds of potash. A sueeessful grower 
of the peaeh scrapes the soil from the base of the 
tree and pounds half a jieck or more of fresh lime 
around them, old peaeh trees have been renovated 
by pouring a few quarts of liol lye anmnd them. 

When this im]Kirtant question of nuoiuring is once 
properly understood, culture f>r no culture beeomes 
a secondary tpu'stion. 

Then, if a man is situated near a market, he may 



use his orehanl for a garden ; grow vegetables, pota- 
toes, corn, hiall/nj irooil and fr^iil. Or he may lay 
down his orehard to grass, as is reeommanded by 
Thomas .Median, the able editor of the tiiinlnuis' 
.lloiilhlj/. Kivi' or six years ago he planted an experi- 
mental orehard of II ft eeii hundred tress — a|ipleR, pears, 
jieaches, ilierhes and grapes — and from the start put 
it into grass, and has siiH'C annually taken off over 
two tons of hay per aere. Those who have seen it 
pnmouiiee it a niiulel of [lerfeetion. Hut he tells UB 
lie gives it a lihcral top tlreifiiittff of inamtrf! (umnntly^ 
anil besides gives his trees a light mulehing of earth 
taken from dilehes, fenee corners, elc. If trees and 
plants would generally lloiirish under such a course 
of Irealmi'iit, we couid adopt it wish profit. Our 
hillside orchards would no longer \>r subject to have 
the loose cultivated soil washed away by every heavy 
shower of rain, and Ihesavingin labor — hoeing, weed- 
ing, etc., in our grape patches, would be sulliclcni to 
pay for all needed fertilizers. To 1 lie general farmer, 
too, the hay crop would he as profilahle as corn or 
potatoes. When the I rees become tiKi large, the grass 
could at times he used for pasture, but in general 
would be more iirolltable to mow and spread over the 
ground for manure. 

The yellows lu the peach, the blight in the pear, 
and much of the premature rolling of fruit, are now 
admitted to be caused by foigi— parasitic plants, in 
their first stages so small llial they are invisible to 
the naked eye. Our grand old sniokc-liousc appc of 
late years rots badly. It is said by those who ought to 
know, that with a glass sullieienlly jKiwerful, you 
might noliee a bright colored fungoid plant on tlie 
skin of the fruit, which in a short time spreads and 
causes rot. These parasitic plants a|))>ear not to at- 
tack all varieties of fruit alike. Some are of so robust 
a constitution as to be able to resist their attacks. 
But while some varieties are sound in one orchard, 
they are badly aficcted in another. And this brings 
the "plant Ibod " question up again. If trees were 
neither half-starved nor forced into too succulent 
growth, in short if they were perfectly healthy, would 
tlu^y not in a great measure be able to resist these 
enemies ? 

We do not soon find yellows in a wcU-taken-carc-of 
peaeh orchard, until the trees become exhausted by 
an excessive erop of fruit. Then these fungoid plants 
run riot, and in a year or two the orchard will be 
numbered among the things that are past. This 
holds the same in the human family. A healthy 
man man will be apt to live through epidemic and 
malarious inlluenecs, while the ill-fed, iutem|)erato 
and weakly will give way. It might be objected to 
this theory of jilant food, that occasionally in jcars 
(1873 for instance,) the fruit is unusuallj- fair. But 
we must bear in mind that fungoid and insect life are 
sometimes much infiuenced liy certain conditions of 
the weather. The peculiar dry season of 1872 may 
have had much to do in preventing the depredatiou 
of these pests. 

In regard to planting it might be said that in a 
sandy soil trees eould be planted rather deeper than 
they stood in the nursery, but in a heavy soil they 
should be phinled shallow. We have examples of 
successful orchards in heavy soil, where the trees 
were planted almost on the surface, the earth being 
banked uji around them. It must be evident that 
such an orcliaid would not answer for a market 
garden; the roots being near the surface, would 
become fatally injured by deep plowing. Hut, in the 
sandy soil the roots naturally run deeper, and plowing, 
at least for a number of years, ean be done without 
serious injury to the trees. 

In conclusion, I do not flatter myself that I have 
produced anything new; but if anylhing has been 
said that will stimulate inquiry, then this rambling 
essay may not have been written in vain. When we 
have faithfully done our part of the work, we can 
console ourselves with the promise that cold and heat 
summer and winter, seed time and harvest, shall 
never wholly fail. 

DISCUSSION ON THE OUCII.VRI) QUE.STIOX. 

S. P. EliY, es<i., remarked that the subject 
of plant-food was certainly an iinportant ele- 
ment in the growing of (irchard fruits. But 
from what he had read on the suhjeet there 
appeared to be agre;it difference of opinion as 
to whether lime should be put on orchards, 
and if .so in what manner and ipiantity. It is 
said by some writers that orchards do not 
bear because too much lime is used, or that the 
fruit is not so good as when lime is not used. 
A friend of his planlcd a peach orchard on 
entirely new ground, ;ind wasiiuite successful. 
In the main the hooks agreed with the es.s.ayist. 
In regard totrenchiiiK some distance from and 
arouiul the tree, ;uid putting the lime or other 
fertilizer in, he woiilil suggest that this might 
hiive an elVeet similar to sliorlening the roots, 
a plan advocated by some horliculturalists, 
wliieh, it is claimed, results in furcing out the 
fruit bud.s and retarding rank growth in the 
wood and foliage. When we have once dis- 
covered what plant food is necessary we will 



42 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



have gained a great disidoratum. To have 
good fruit tlie tree must be healthy. With 
healthy trees he contended that, as a rule, we 
would have good crops and fruit of a better 
quality, though there miglit be failures in ex- 
ceptional years, owing to other causes. He 
commended the essay for its many excells;nt 
practical suggestions. 

William McCoMSEY commended the essay 
as desei-ving the thanks of the Society. lie 
agreed with the essayist in regard to the advim- 
tage of manuring. He had tried it twice with 
great satisfaction. In the year 1836 or 1837, 
he planted an orchard with the best varieties 
of trees that were then known. Twenty 
years afterward he became the owner of that 
orchard and was surprised at the scrubby and 
mean condition of the trees, and the small 
quantity and poor quality^ of the fruit they 
bore; especially as he knew from personal 
knowledge that the trees were of good varieties 
and had borne fruit of a good quality. The 
first year the orchard came into his possession 
he ploughed it, limed it heavily, and gave it 
besides a good coat of stable manure. That 
year the apple crop failed everywhere, owing 
to protracted rainy weather during the season 
of bloom; but a change in the healthy growth 
of the trees was apparent. They threw out 
new branches and looked healthy. At the 
first pruning he cut away half the wood— made 
the pruning thorough. The next year he was 
rewarded witli an abundant crop of excellent 
fruit, and the orchard never failed under his 
observation, even in years when his neighbors 
had none. This experience convinced him 
that manuring orchards is necessary to secure 
good crops. A few years later he had a similar 
experience with a single tree in a lot in this 
city. It had been neglected and the fruit 
deteriorated from year to year. Having some 
hog manure for which he had no other use, he 
spread it over the lot. You would have been 
surprised at the change produced in the tree. 
It threw out new and healthy wood and bore 
finer and larger fruit than it had for years 
before. The change was so marked in every 
pespect, that it was the suliject of general 
remark. He was, therefore, decidedly of 
opinion that it was chiefly owing to the want 
of cultivation and manuring tliat our crop of 
apples fail. [To Mr. El )y . ] Did not continue 
cultivating the orchard ; kept it in grass for 
six or seven years, and it never foiled to bear. 
Ei'iiRAra'HoovEu said his experience was 
about the same as the last si>eaker. Manuring 
cannot fail, whether it is applied by topdressiiig 
or plouglied down. His experience was that 
when he manured well his apple crop increased. 
He manured his orchard live times in a iieriod 
of thirteen years, and it not only improved his 
soil, but increased his crop of fruit. He attri- 
buted the best results t() manuring. He also 
thought many farmers made a mistake in bar- 
ring swine and other small stock out of their 
orchards for fear they would eat some of the 
fruit which first falls. He believed that swine 
in eating the first fruit which falls prevented 
the increase of insects injurious to the fruit. 
An old former once said to him that lie believed 
the swine were barred out too much; that the 
first fruit which fell dropped becauseit was in- 
jured by the insects which drop with it. If it 
is not eaten, the insects get into the earth to 
breed the following year to injure the fruit. 
But if the hogs were let in they destroyed them 
and thus saved the crop. After this suggestion 
from the old farmer, he made it a rule to let 
the swine have free access to his orchards until 
about September; and the result was that the 
more he kept them in the better fruit he 
had, and more of it. It is better to lose the 
few apples that fall early, and have the insects 
destroyed, than to risk the whole crop. 

.ToHN B. Eiin thought that this practice of 
manuring would apply to trees in bearing, but 
objected to it in the case of young trees, as 
tending to force tliem into too rapid growth. 
The object should be to grow them hardy and 
solid, which might be better done on groiuid 
not t(io rich ; young trees thus grown would 
stand the wiiUer better. When fully come 
into bearing he would cultivate and manure. 



Prof. Rathvon said the lecturer remarked 
incidentally that severe drought prevented the 
production of insects injurious to the fruit. 
This brought up an important fact, which may 
not be generally known. Two conditions of 
the weather are destructive to these insects in 
their larva- and pupa state. In raising insects, 
in which he had considerable experience, he 
had been frequently defeated by either too 
much moisture or too much drought. In the 
one case they will rot, and in the other dry 
out. In breeding moths from caterpillars, a 
process which, in many instances, requires 
parts of two seasons, he had often failed, by 
not securing the proper conditions of moisture. 
In seasons of extreme drought very few insects 
mature. One reason is that in their unde- 
veloped state they are partial to succulent 
vegetation, and when that is dried up they 
don't get well fed. Tough as are the Curculio, 
they will die in dry earth, as he had discovered 
l>y experiment. Moderate moisture is neces- 
sary to the breeding of insects ; and that is 
why some, and especially the striped apple 
tree borers, deposit their eggs aljout the roots 
of trees, away from the sun, except some spe- 
cies which cover their eggs with a protective 
glue to screen them from the sun ; others are 
affected by excessive moisture. Millions of the 
" chinch bugs " perish in the west from tliis 
cause. 

As liearing somewhat on the subject under 
discussion, Prof. Rathvon said he would read 
a short article written by Prof. C. V. Riley, 
of St. Louis, for the New York Trihuue. He 
had prepared a paper covering a different 
ground on the same topic for the March num- 
ber of The Faioiek. He read as follows: 



IS THE COLORADO BEETLE POISONOUS? 

This question, which waR very fully (liseussed, pro 
.iiid con, between the ye.ars 18fi.5 anil 1870, and settled 
in the affirmative, has been revived asrain by Prof. T. 
J. Burrill, of the Illinois Industrial University, who 
published an item which went the rounds of the 
acrieultural press, to the effect that the insect is not 
l)oisonous ; a statement he supported by the fact that 
he had rubbed the juice of the mashed insect into a 
flesh cut, and had some accidentally squirted into his 
eye without any injurious effects resulting:. Now, I 
would not CO to the extent of a certain sarcastic 
Chicago professor, who affirms that he could fix up a 
decoction from the dead beetles that would cause a 
vacancy in the chair of Vcaretable Physiology and 
Horticulture in the Illinois industrial University if 
Prof. Burrill inhaled it. and susfrcsts that there are 
certain animals that poison v/ill not affect, and that 
Prof. B. may be one of them ; nor to the extreme of 
a Philadelphia physician, who asserts that the tinc- 
ture from this beetle is the most virulent of insect 
poisons, that "nothing can be compared with it ex- 
cept tlie Areas of Midna in Persia, and the Coya in 
the Valley Neyba, in Popavan, South America," ac- 
eordinc t^ " Ulloa'e Travels," vol. 1, page US. 

Yet there arc so many well authenticated cases of 
poisonin''- Iiy the fumes' from the scalded insects, that 
it is surprising that Prof. Burrill should have so 
stoutly assumed the negative of the question without 
further research and exiierinient. It is as if I, who 
am not affected by poison-ivy or bee-sting, should 
insist on the harmlessncss of either in the face of 
their well-known poisonous qualities and theirdanger 
to many persons. I know of physicians who persist 
in disbelieving that death was ever eaiised by colu- 
brine poison, because they have never known a fatal 
case of snake-bite in their own experience ; but skep- 
ticism of that which is outside one's own experience 
usually dwells luost where that experience is limited. 
Since rny experience with the Colorado potato beetle, 
three ^ases of its poisonous influence have been re- 
ported to me by persons in whose judgment and 
veracity I have the utmost confldence; and, without 
for a monient doubting the facts Prof. Burrill has 
recorded, which are valuable as far as they go, I 
woidd simply say that they do not go far enough, 
and he has liot solved the whole truth of the matter. 
That the juices of the mashed insects on the human 
skin are as a rule harmless, is proved by the.hosts of 
farmers who have crushed them liy hand, and I can 
testify to the fact from my own experience; indeed, 
scarcely any one whohashad experience believes the 
wild stories" of the poisonous nature of these juices. 
Yet the rule is not without exceptions, and I do not 
doubt that with blood in certain bad conditions per- 
sons have been poisoned by gettinig said juices into 
wounds or cuts.- But to the cases of undoubted poiscm- 
ing from this insect— cases that have in some in- 
stances been serious, and even proved fatal— and 
not from the juices of the body, but from inhalation 
of the fuuK'S arising from tlie bruising or crushing <>f 
large masses, and esi)ecially by burning or scalding 
large quantities at a time. Tlie poison seems to be 



of a very volatile nature, and to produce swelling, 
pain and nausea, very much as other animal poisons 
do, and Dr. R. C." Kuden, of Joliet, 111., who, as 
quoted liy Dr. Hale (Trans. N. Y. Med. Soc, 18T4), 
experimented on himself by taking the saturated 
tincture internally— increasing the dose daily from 
two to twenty drops— experienced great disturbance 
of the bowels, swelling of the extremeties, bloated 
face, protruding eyes, "fever, great thirst, and desire 
for something acid. 

From the present state of the case, therefore, while 
there can be little danger in the cautious killing of 
the insect in the field, I would not advise recklessness 
in handling it in large quantities; and we should 
especially guard against collecting and destroying it 
by scalding or burning, in such quantities. There is 
no longer any occasion for thus collecting and de- 
stroying the insects ; and since the custom of tackling 
the enemy with the Paris Creen mixture came into 
vogue, we have heard much less of "potato-bug" 
poisoning. I shall be glad to receive, individually, or 
through the widely circulated columns of the Tribune, 
any experience on this subject, and especially well 
authenticated reports of poisoning. Let the facts be 
stated as briefly as possible, with the name and ad- 
dress of the writer in full. 

Prof. R. pronounced this one of the best 
articles on the subject he had seen. He also 
related an instance of a neighbor, who, with 
his wife and children, undertook to tight the 
potato bug by crushing them in thousands 
witli their hands, no bad effects resulting from 
it, except that one of the children got a little 
sick. Finding that slaughtering was a failure 
he resorted to Paris green and got poisoned, 
though that was owing to the injudicious 
handling of it, as he considered its application 
entirely harmless if properly applied. He said 
however, that some persons were more consti- 
tutionally i>redisposed to poisoning than others. 
lie had never been poisoned in his life, while 
others could not come within its intluence 
with impunity. 

UNCLAIJIED PREMIUMS. 

As he had to leave. Prof. Rathvon stiid he 
-■--'- ,een 

mimit- 



had in his possession SflO.2."), which had 
put in his hands as chairman of the Com 
tee on Awards at last exhiliition, which had 
not been called for by the parties to whom the 
premiums had been awarded, and' which he 
would now hand to the treasurer. 

THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE. 

Epiiraim Hoover, from the Special Com- 
mittee appointed at the previous meeting to 
investigate the case in Manheim township, 
where five acres of potatoes had been eaten by 
the potiito bug while a half acre separated 
only by a fence had escaped, the condition of 
soil and culture beiug apparently the same, 
reported that the one lot was on the North 
side of the fence and the other on the 
the South side, the rows running at right 
angles with the fence. The lot on the North 
side was planted with Early Rose, Mercer and 
Peerless ; that on the south side, with Early 
Rose, Jackson AVhites and Pink-eyes. The 
crop on the North side was the most injured, 
nearly destroyed, and of the varieties the 
Mercer was iiij tired the least. On the South 
side of the fence there were very few bugs, 
and little injury done, and of the varieties the 
Early Rose was the least aftectcd. This w;is a 
new piece of land ; the other had been long 
under cultivation. He conversed with the 
cultivators of both lots. They say the crops 
were planted and taken up about the same 
time. They could account for the differ- 
ence in the ravages of the bug in no otiier 
way than by the difference in the land, that 
on 'which the crop was so little injured having 
but recently been broken up. 

Wm. McComsey stated that he had corre- 
sponded with a number of farmers with a view 
to elicit new facts. The general opinion seemed 
to prevail that in order to lietid off the ravages 
of the Colorado pottito beetle, potatoes should 
be pUmted as early in the season as they can 
be got in. The sentiment Is— plant early; and 
the prevailing opinion also seems to be that the 
Early Rose variety was the least aft'ected. 

.Jno. AV. Erb said his experience was that 
the bugs liked the Early Rose just as well when 
they could get no other to eat; and he seriously 
doiiljfed whether thev would be alile to get 
ahead of the bugs by any such devices ;is early 
planting, or changing varieties. When the 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



43 



f;ronnii gets warm the bugs will bo cerfaiu to 
be on hand. 

('AscKi; Hil.LKl! thonglit the only effective 
remedy lay in jioinoning them, and there was 
no dithcnltv in doing it. Last year, witli two 
jioinids of I'aris (ireen, lie had effeetually poi- 
soned the pest on the (Toii of a lialf aere. It 
re(iiiired bnt a single applieation during the 
sea.son. He took an ordinary ean, perforated 
it, placed it on a liandle, aiul dnsted tlie mix- 
ture—one part of I'aris (ireen to twenty parts 
of line? lime — carefully on each row. 

EniitAiM 1I()()\'KK relateil his experience 
with varictie.s. He planted Early Host; and 
then sent f<ir a new variety from anotlier local- 
ity. They wi'replaided seventy-five or one hun- 
dred yards apart. The hugs nearly stripped tlie 
first lot (Karly Rose) ; got at his neighbor's 
next, but atlaclvcd his second lot at last witli 
lis great voracity as tliey did tlie lirst. 

.Jntu. AV. Eiii! said tliat last year on ground 
wliere potatoes had been planted the year be- 
fore the bugs lirst m.ide tlieir appearance, cat 
them up, (they were Early Rose,) and then 
went at the Peerless and strijiped them. 

Hknky M. E.vfiLE said lie tliought tliey 
would all come, finally, to the coiichision whieli 
he reached with liis first experience with tlie 
beetle. This pest made its lirst aiijiearance in 
L.aneastercounty at ISIarietta. He also, at first, 
thought they juvferred certain varieties ; but 
found that the following year they preferred 
another variety. They are no doulit attracted 
to old potato ground liecause their larva; were 
there. They love company. He don't tliiiik 
varieties have anything to do with it ; tliey 
■will attack the entire SdUinum family. Their 
disposition to concentrate on patches is not 
singular. The cucumber lieetle, or "lady- 
bug," do the same thing. They generally con- 
centrate, and clear out tlie liills as they go — 
th.at has been his experience for twent3' or 
thirty years. If not checked they will go on 
until the entire crop is destroyed. He infers 
tliat it is the same with the potato beetle, 
without regard to .season, variety or planting. 

In reply to some interrogations bj' Mr. 
Pownall and others, Mr. Eiigle said there was 
not much use in applying Palis Green to the 
mature lieetle ; but the young larvie arc easily 
killed by it. As they grow older the mucous 
matter in which they are enveloped leaves 
them and tlie poison has then very little effect. 
Some old fellows jiut into a vessel over night 
ill which they were enveloped in Paris Green, 
were " lively " in the morning. When applied 
at the proper time it does not take much— one 
aiiplicatioii of one ]iart Parii^Green to twenty 
parts of Hour or lime, if the conditions of the 
weatlier are favorable, may do. It depends on 
■ whether it is washed olf by rains how often it 
must be repeated. He a))proved of early plant- 
ing as favorable to securiiiga crop. This seems 
to be the prevailing sentiment among the far- 
mers, and it is iva.sonable. 

THE LANCASTKK FAiniEI! COMMENDED. 

Wm. McCoMSEYsaid he had a desire to spiNak 
awordforTiiELANCASTEH Fah.mek. Ilehad 
been a subscriber since it has been in existence; 
but th(; last two numbers he had read with spe- 
cial interest from first to last, and he wasfiee 
to say that both the original and .selected arti- 
cles possessed the deepest interest and liigliest 
merit. Although he was not much of a fanner, 
evi'ry article was of very great interest to him, 
aiidhethoughtanyoneof them worth his year's 
subscription. CiTtainly any one of the inniibers 
issued in the new form was worth a year's sub- 
scription to any farmer. lie was sorry, to see 
the editor's statement — knowing that gentle- 
man as lie did — that he had given six years of 
labor to it without reward. This was a poor 
recognition of his sendees to the fanners, for 
informatioji imparted which it re([iiir(d years 
of study and observation to qualify himself to 
impart. He really thought the farmersof Lan- 
caster county owed him a more sulistantial re- 
cognition than they had given. In what way 
can tliey do it better than to at once i)lacetlie 
journal in which he takes such a deep interest 
on a jiayiug basis V And why not do it? It 
should iiave a larger circulation than any other 
local journal, for it is especially devoted to the 



interests of the largest element of our pojjnla- 
tion. The better it is sustained the more will 
each subscriber get for his money; foihe knows 
that the enterprising publishei-s will make it 
still better, in proiiortion to the |iati'onage re- 
ceived, until it shall be sought after abroad as 
one of the best farm journals of the day. 

Hkn'uy M. E.\(ii,E said the gentleman who 
had just spoken had fully expressed his views. 
He had been urging the circulation of Tht 
l'\(,iiiii r among his friends and believed that it 
would now be a success under its new nian- 
agenient. It might be slow work. Our farm- 
ers are in some things regarded as a little 
slow ; and he feared from what he learned 
from the publishers, that our farmers may let 
outsiders "steal a march on them ;" but he was 
confident they will come out right in the end. 

ErilKAiM iloovKli said he would ad<l, that 
so far as his experience and observation went, 
he never knew any business to succeed as well 
as that in which those who were engaged 
availed themselves of the best sources of infor- 
mation. The lawyer must be familiar with 
the literature of his profession; the doctor 
with his ; and so witli every profession and 
occupation— all deem it necessary to read tlie 
organ of their calling, and they who thus keep 
themselves best posted in the current literature 
of their profession are, other things being 
eipial, the most successful. When lie was a 
teacher he would not have thought of doing 
without reading Thv SclidolJow-fiai — and what 
progressive teacher would ? And if there is 
any one profession or occupation more impor- 
tant than another, in its relations to the 
material interests of the human family, it is 
agriculture ; for, as Webster has tersely put 
it, "the farmer is the founder of civilization." 
A great many farmers who may not read, may 
be good farmers ; but they must in some way 
come in contact with the thought and expe- 
rience of others who have read up, in order 
to keep jiosted ; and these are receiving val- 
uable information at the exjiense of otlier.s. 
How much belter to get their information at 
first hands — from some good, reliable organ of 
their own calling — and he knew of none better 
than our own — The Laiiamtn- Fanner Every 
farmer should read his own local journal first 
— then as many others as he could aftiird to 
take or find time to read. It often happens 
that a single article may be worth a whole 
year's subscription in the information cf>n- 
veyed on a particular point. For his own 
part he regarded the Household Recipes in 
The Fanner as well worth all he paid for it, 
and he believed the day would come when the 
farmers of Ijancaster county would be proud 
of their organ. 

MISCELLANEOUS BUSINESS. 

S. p. EiiY, esq., presented sjiecimens of 
apples bought in our local market, which he 
claimed to be the (Jolden I'ipiiin ; but 
Mr. Ililler said the question of identity of 
this apple was raised at the Fruit (irowers' 
Meeting at York, where the Eastern men 
claimed that it was the Rhode Island Green- 
ing, perhaps somewhat modified by cultivation 
in our soil. 

J. M. W. Geist presented specimens of 
aiiples from H. B. Reist, of Spring (Jarden, 
claimed to be Smith's Cider, noted for ]ir<ililic 
bearing. Some doubt was expressed as to 
whether they were really of this variety, Imt 
Mr. Ililler lielieved they were. 

1). L. Resu, llorist, of {'oliinibia, exhibited 
very fine specimens of cut (lowers, including 
varieties of roses, hyacinths, tulips, joii<|uils, 
narcissus, azalias, geraniinns and carnations. 
Among the roses were. Empress Eugenie, 
Anne de Driesbach, Aggrippina, C'els, Iler- 
mosa, Lauretta, and .several other varieties. 

IlENiiY M. Engle also exhibted a choice 
c<ille(-tioii of llowers handsomely grown. 

A vote of thanks was tendered to C'asiier 
Ililler for his valuable essay on "Our Orch- 
ards." 

BUSINESS FOR NEXT MEETING. 

The following questions were proposed for 
discussion at next meeting: 

What is the best method of increasing the 
fertility and productiveness of the soil V ■ 



AVliat .system of farming is best adapted to 
Lancaster county V 

The following questions proposed at the 
February meeting lie over: 

What is the best method of wintering cattle? 

AVliat tries are most profitable to grow for 
fencing and fuel ? 

AVhat is the best food for milch cows? 

AVliat variety of corn produces the most 
bu.shels per acre ? 

The next meeting will be lield on Monday, 
the fifth day of April, at two o'clock p. in., iu 
the Orphans' Court Room. 



Progress of the Patrons of Husbandry in 
Lancaster County.* 

Buotheus and SisTiclis: In union there 
is strength; in a multitude of counsellors 
there is wisdom; iu prosperity there is \»)\y- 
ularity. So goes the world. \Vhen any new 
idea is advanced, it is almost uiiiviT.sally 
sneered at and ridiculed ; but as soon as 
enough persons announce themselves favorable 
to it to make it fashionable, every one will 
accept it. There was a time when it was very 
uniiopularto be a member of church ; .so much 
Vo that the adherents had to keeii it very , 
dark. It was then, to all intents and pur- 
po.ses, a, nerret Kockt;/ ; Ixit now it -is the very 
first mode of one desiring to be known as a 
fashionable, intelligent jierson. There was a 
time when it was very unpoimlar to wear a 
moustache ; now you can scarcely find a real 
"gentleman" without one ; nuicn more likely 
to find young men so anxious to have them 
that they strain the roots in their endeavors 
to push them before the time. So it is with 
the Patrons of Husbandry in this county. 
The brave pioneers who undertook to present 
to our people the blessings and iK'uefits slum- 
bering in its sacred keeping had an up-hill 
business, and for a long time did a thankless 
work, subject to the jeers and jests of nearly 
all who knew them, and to the open denunci- 
ation of those who in their ignorance iinagined 
that the (Jrder would work them injury. Rut 
how is it now? Granges are being started in 
every section of the county. Where one jier- 
son joined then, ten join now, and soon it will 
be twenty. The more who join, the more will 
want to join, partly because the objects are 
better understood, but princii>ally Ijecause it 
is becoming fashionable ; because it is becom- 
ing jiopiilar; because there are .so many iier- 
sons in this world, like a false horse, always 
ready to lend a hand when the thing is going, 
but very careful not to help as long as it has 
not got a good start ; so that if it should tail 
to go, they might have the exijuisite plea.sure 
of saying, " I told you so." Did you ever see 
the boys ninning with an old-time fire engine ? 
It was hard work for a few zealous firemen to 
start it, and get up the speed ; bnt once 
started, the others fell in, and the faster it 
went, the more were anxious to take hold; 
the less work there was to do, the more would 
oiler to help do it, until then? were so m.auy 
that they were in each others' way. From 
this I wish you to take the hint that there is 
.such a thing as too much help crowding in 
when it is not wanted; and you always find 
that they are most likely to be the persons 
who are not wanteil. So, as faithful, true 
members, we must man oiir port-holes and 
guard well our gates, and not let any one get 
hold of our rope who will lie in our way, and 
wliDiii wi' will soon wish away ; for it is ex- 
tremely easy to admit a lierson to a brother or 
sisterhood, but to sever the bands is acconi- 
lianieil Willi some unpleasantness. There are 
a great many jiersons in this county whohas'e 
in their veins some? of the old anti-.\Iasonic 
blood, and liave had the hatred of secret 
.societies drilleil into them from their youth 
— yes, verily, ingrafted into them on their 
mothers' brea.sts I I know that .some before 
me this day are amongst that ninnber, and 
I acknowledge mysidf as one. Rut any per- 
son of a reasonable turn of mind can see that 

*.\u jicidrfHS deliverfd l»'foio the Klranlmrp flntnge. by 
the GmuKe lec'urcr, M B. Khhlemak, ou Saturday after- 
noon, Feb. 13, 1875. 



44 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



there is so much difference between our order 
and the old-time secret societies, that tliere 
is no similarity at all, except in name, and it 
is very easy for a stern opponent of the latter 
to become a Patron of Husbandry. The invent- 
ors and early advocates of anti-Masonry were 
women, who, chagrined because not eligible to 
membership, and knowing that it is not good 
for man to be alone, felt it to be their sacred 
duty to oppose any doctrine which involved a 
division of the sexes. Concerning our order, 
there is no room for jealousy on the part of our 
wives and sisters; and I feel certain that if the 
old orders had admitted the wife and the grown 
up children, there never would have been any 
auti-Masom"y, and we would have been saved 
the trouble of out-gi'owing our early impres- 
sions, and of out-reasoning our strong preju- 
dices. Again, I insist that the principal argu- 
ments of those who advocated anti-Masonry, 
and the churcli laws which denounced secret 
societies, would not stand against our Order, 
because they were not made with reference to 
it. It is a new arrangement, gotten up for a 
different object, with different principles, and 
conducted in such a diti'erent manner that the 
old arguments fall flat before it. I need scarcely 
tell you, brothers and sisters, tliat the founders 
of the Patrons of Husbandry were men of th^ 
very first class; that the gentleman who wrote 
out the ritual was Rev. A. B. Grosh, a native 
of this county, a high-toned and very excellent 
clergyman of Washington, D. C, and that the 
members to-day are of the most advanced far- 
mers. Wherever they are found, they are men 
of progress, men of i)rinciple, men of honor, 
men of religion, men who would disdain to do 
a mean act, or to advocate an unjust cause, 
and, as you well know, can have no possible 
object in asking friends to Ijecome Patrons ex- 
cept for their good. When I became a mem- 
ber, I obtained all the benefits to be derived 
from the order ; that is, a full right to the ad- 
vantages that will accrue while I remain a 
member; and have nothing whatever to gain 
by introducingothers,except their thanks wlien 
they come to realize the favor I have conferred 
on them; and I assure you, I have received 
many thanks that I believe to be from the heart. 
I will not weary you with any remarks about 
the money we have saved by our special ar- 
rangements with wholesale merchants, for that 
you know as well as I do; butat the end of the 
year I will prepare a consolidated report, and 
I feel assured that we will all be astonished at 
the amount of it. But under the head of social 
features, I desire to impress on your memories, 
that to obtain the full benefit from any Asso- 
ciation, whether it be church, school, lyceiun, 
board of trade, beneficiary society or grange, 
it is necessary to be an active member, to attend 
as much as possible all the meetings, to know 
all that is going on, to take part in the debates 
and try to do one's full share of bringing in in- 
teresting subjects for discussion and informa- 
tion for the benefit of the other members; for 
the most ignorant person living knows some 
things that no one else knows. Ami if every 
person in the world witldield his knowledge, 
would there be any advancement ? Certainly 
not; the world would go backward every day. 
Selfishness is the greatest evil in the world; it 
is the root of all evil, of all folly and crime, all 
sin; it has no jjlacc amongst us. In its stead, 
we must cultivate charity, meekness, liberal 
views, the golden rule, the principles of true 
piety and religion. Tlien and only then will 
we fulfill the objects and intentions, and .sym- 
bolize the three emblems of our order — "Faith, 
Hope, and Charity." 

Our discussions on Agricultural and House- 
keeping siilijects are calculated to do us all 
good, and the only reason that we have not 
had more timetod'evole totliem, is on account 
of the time required to give instruction to the 
new members at every meeting; Ijut we can 
look for Ijctter times liefore long, because all 
who are eligible will be within our fold, and 
then we will have more time, and can make 
more rapid strides in tlie scientific investiga- 
tion of advanced Inisljandry, horticulture and 
pomology, in household economy, and ways 
and means whereby we can make our money 



procure for us the greatest amount of comfort, 
and how we shall obtain the most enjoyment 
and benefit from our social meetings, and con- 
trive ways that we may have time from our 
work to enjoy more of them. Human beings 
were never created to be slaves, and those 
who, actuated by avarice, or enveloped in the 
clouds of ignorance, make slaves of themselves, 
disgrace the divine form they wear, and offer 
an insult to the All-wise Creator. Brothers 
and sisters, farmers and farmers' wives, we 
will rise from the ranks of slavery ; we will be 
free men and free women ; we will honor the 
divine form given to us, and in our contact 
with each other and the world ever be guided 
by our sacred emblems. In conclusion, I will 
quote a stanza from the farmer's poet, Geo. F. 
Root, of Chicago : 

" Brothers of the plough ! 

The power is with you ; 

The world in expectation waits 

For action prompt and true. 

Oppression stalks abroad, 

Moiioplies abound — 

Their giant hands already clutch 

The tillers of the ground. 

Awake ! then, awake ! 

The great world must be fed, 

And heaven gives the power 

To the hand that holds the bread." 



The Number of Granges. 

There are 490 Granges of the Patrons of 
Husbandry in this State, of which there are 
eiglit in Lanca.ster county. The following are 
their nominal and numerical designations, with 
location of Grange, names of Master and Sec- 
retary, and their post-otHce address : 

Ko. 3, Octoraro, Octoraro : Master, Jesse 
Brosius, Octoraro; Rec. Secretary, Harry 
Davis, Octoraro. 

No. 62, Strasburg, Strasburg : Master, J. H. 
Breckbill, Strasburg ; Secretary, E. C, Mussel- 
man, Strasburg. 

No. 6(5, Fulton, Fulton : Master, J. G. Mc- 
Sparran, Green P. O, ; Secretarj', Day Wood, 
Goshen P, O, 

No. 80, Oak Hill, Little Britain ; Master, 
B. S. Patterson, Oak Hill ; Secretary, W. R. 
Wright, Oak Hill. 

No. 87, Union, Colerain: Master, W. N. 
Bunting, Colerain ; Secretary, J. R. Jackson, 
Colerain. 

No. 161, Sadsbury, Christiana : Master, C. 
B. Moore, Christiana ; Secretary, W. P. Brin- 
ton, Christiana. 

No. 224, Donegal, Marietta: Master, Colin 
Cameron, Marietta ; Secretary, John A, Gar- 
ber, Maytown. 

No. 441, Silver Spring, West Hempfield twp: 
Master, Jacoli H. Hershey, Silver Spring ; 
Secretary, WeKster L. Hershey. 

If we liave omitted any in the foregoing list 
we shall be pleased to supply the omission and 
also to give the time of the stated meetings of 
the different Granges. 



The growth of the Order of the Patrons 
of Husbandry throughout the south is remark- 
able. In Alabama there are reported to be 
641 Granges, with 32,000 members ; in Florida 
108 Granges, with r),r)00 members; in Arkan- 
sas, .521 Granges, with 21,000 members ; while 
in other States there are numerous lodges 
with large membership. 



LETTERS, QUERIES AND ANSWERS. 



The Fronclin Apple : In the February 
issue of The Farmer an error occurred in 
Mr. Engle's ])aper on "Lancaster County 
Apples," (page 23) where one of our native 
varieties, not located by Downing, printed 
Franklin, should read Fuonchn. 



An Echo from Tennessee. 

Through the kindness of Mr. C. H. Stoltzfus, for- 
merly of t he old Keystone State, I had the pleasure 
of [jerusing the January No. of " The Farmer," with 
which I am greatly pleased and deeply interested. I 
am requested to ask, through your very valuable and 
ably edited journal, that some one or more of the in- 
telligent larmers of Lancaster county will write a few 
articles for The Farmer, giving a general description 
of the farm barns of said county ; the mode of mak- 
ing, treating and using manure ; mode of burning and 
applying lime, and the general system of rotation of 
crops. 

These are considered practical questions, and vital 
to the ultimate succcess of agriculture in all sections, 
and particularly in the State of Tennessee. If you 
will lay this subject before your readers, you will 
confer a very great favor. — John G. Caulkins, 
Knoxville, Tenn., Feb. 1.5, 1875. 

Herein is an ample opportunity for some of 
our intelligent farmers to imitate the example 
which we endeavored to portray in the leading 
editorial of our present number. The farmers 
of Lancaster county occujiy an elevated posi- 
tion in the esteem of their brother farmers all 
over the Union, where Lancaster coimty is 
known ; and their experiences upon the sub- 
jects enumerated by our correspondent would 
have as much — if not more — weight than com- 
ing from any other district in the country, es- 
pecially among tliose who "were to the manor 
born. " We hope, therefore, that for the benefit 
of those who may need it, both at home 
and abroad, the above suggestions will meet 
with a ready and cheerful response. Our torch 
of intellignnce will not burn less brightly by 
lighting the torch of our neighljor. Every 
man on this earth has a mission to perform. 
Twice happy is he who discovers, even faintly, 
what that mission is liefore his career has 
ended, and thrice happy if he attempt to per- 
form it when the discovery is made, however 
feeble and imperfect the effort may be. We 
are not the special advocatet of " much speak- 
ing" merely for the sake of speaking, but 
we woidd have men tell what they know on 
any and all subjects connected with the health, 
happiness and prosperity of the human family. 
Without the products of the farm, human 
society could not possibly exist. Practically 
the vegetable kingdom is the basis of the 
animal kingdom, and upon which the latter 
subsists. 



The Potato Beetle : The illustrated 
article on this destructive pest, which will 
appear in our next issue will alone be worth 
more to any potato-grower than a year's »ul)- 
scription to The Farmer. Now is the time 
to subscrilie. Form clubs. Ten farmers club- 
bing to etiier can get it a year for only 
seventy-five cents each ! 



About Farmers' Wives. 

I NOTICED in the last numberof your valuable jour- 
nal an article dated from Elizabethtown. That name 
always excites my interest, not because of anything 
remarkable having transpired at that place, but be- 
cause it is my native town ; and, though I have long 
since lost all special interest in the place, I never catch 
sight or sound of the name but what a crowd of pleas- 
ant memories chase themselves through my mind, 
memories of the careless, happy days of my boyhood, 
and I seem to live over again those bright, joyous days. 
And reading over the article merely for this cause, I 
became interested in it for its own sake, or rather for 
the sake of its ** fair author," LcoHne. She withheld 
her consent to have her husband discontinue The 
Lancaster Farmer, and deserves to be warmly 
credited for the firmness and sensibility exhibited in 
that attitude. Her fortunate husband has reason to 
be proud of his wife. I wish we had many such far- 
mers' wives. Would not our agricultural interests 
nourish ? How many more such wide-awake farmei's' 
wives are there in old Lancaster county, who will use 
their intluencc in getting husband, friend or neighbor 
to subscribe for or continue The Farmer, or other 
agriculttiral papers? In many cases, wives have a 
great inlluenee in such matters, and it often becomes 
necessary for them to use that influence. Surely all 
farmers eet back the worth of their money, and more 
than legal interest to boot, in i;ivinga liberal support 
to the agricultural journals of the country, and espe- 
cially the " home journals." I take quite a number 
of these agricultural papers, and find their cost trivial 
compared to the ample remuueration received by their 
careful perusal. I was asked by some one to-day. 
Don't it cost awful to get so many papers ? ,\Iy reply 
was, It costs awful not to get them: they contain too 
much valuable information which would be a loss for 
us not to know. Ihope " Leoline " will give us some 
hints also, in reference to the managing of her house- 
hold all'airs, her vegetable and flower ganlens. I ven- 
ture to predict they will be worth reading. We shall 
look for them. — T. il., Mercersburg, I'a., Feb. lOth, 
187.5. 

We liardly know which to connnend most, 
" Leoline " or " T. M." Both are highly com- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



45 



pliiupntary to us, and both evince a literary 
and (lonii'slicaiiiiri'i-iation nfaninre tlian ordi- 
nary character. We I'cel sincerely tliai\kfid to 
both of tlieni lortlie interest tliey seem loinani- 
fest in our helialf, and hope to hear from them, 
on tojiics familiar to them, "many a time and 
often." 

Our chief ambition is to make our jour- 
nal a reflex of the Illegal sentiment and domes- 
tic experience of the (leople, and especially that 
class anionic the peojile not too proud to "eat 
tlieir bread by the sweat of their brows;" and 
we liail every manifestation of interest in thi' 
labor we are enija^ed in, as so many "sreeii 
spots in the dcstrt of our days." In tliiscoTi- 
nection we desire to make two suggestions. 1. 
No pcr.son can ever learn to write without 
wriiimj. 2. Nomatterhow imperfectly an article 
is written, if it contains a trutli worth know- 
ing it will always be welcome to the drawer of 
the_ editor. If tlie readers of The FAltsiElt 
act on these suggestions, their efforts will be 
" twice blest " without a peradventure. 



Something About Blackberries. 

" WImt kind of blaikberrios should we plant?" 

This question has not been satisfactorily answered 
yet, and 1 ean only answer for my own locality ; for, 
I think much depends on loealily and the natuiv of 
the soil, iV:e. But after a trial of more than half a 
dozen kinds, I would say plant the Lawtons and 
Kittitinys in the same pateh, but not in the same 
row, (unless you only plant one row.) This will make 
the Kitlitiny fruit do mueli better than it sometimes 
does by itself, and 1 don't think there is a tietter berry to 
be found than it is when £;rown to perfection. I don't 
mean to say that these liave no faults. But they have 
also flood qualities. The Lawtou is a jjreat bearer of 
largre jjlump berries, the stalks are strong growers 
and should be innehed off when three or four feet 
hiirh, so as to form trees or bushes that need no "fix- 
ing up," and it also Ibrms more fruit buds. But the 
stalks will sometimes freeze — the wood or buds — in a 
very eold winter. I have not notieed the yellow fun- 
gus on them ; but a few stalks were attacked with a 
roughness in the leaf and blossoms that looked like 
" foxy " tobaeeo stalks, and of course it atfeeted the 
fruit some. But there were some Ijerrieson the same 
stalks (I don't know what the disease is called); the 
blossoms have a very unnatural and bloated appear- 
ance. I should like to know something about it. 

The Kittitinvs are large, long berries, sweet and 
very palatable. The busli is large and a fast grower, 
endures the eold a trille better than the Lawtons; it 
is sometimes a sliy bearer when planted by itself. It 
gets the yellow fungus tionietimes, and all such stalks 
should be destroyed as soon as notieed. They are also 
troubled with the Ijorer at the roots, and tlie bushes 
die out sooner than Lawtons, and need replanting 
ofteucr. And there is something else the mutter with 
about half of my Kittitiny patch that I can't under- 
stand. It goes ahead of my knowledge box. 

The one-half of the rows, that is, the cast end of 
each row, is all that ean be desired for bearing good, 
perfect ripe fruit in abundance ; while the west end 
.of each row hioks as well, or rather better, and blos- 
soms well and sets fruit well, grows well until about 
the time the first tierries commence to turn red, then 
the point or outer end of the berries seems as though 
something sueked the juiee out, and it dries up while 
the hut end mostly ripens a few seeds, or sometimes 
more than half the length of the boi-ries, and some- 
times a few are good enough to pick. Now, I would 
like to kuow what is the causcof the entire loss of the 
fruit on one end of my pateh. They are not quite as 
close to the Lawtons as I would wish to have them, 
but I don't think that causes all the trouble. I have 
watched for insects and seen some, but dcm't think 
they did it, for the green berries showed the shrink- 
ing, dried appearance at the out ends, as well as the 
ripe ones. But where they do well they are hard to 
beat, and I mean to try them at another place ; lor I 
think this dilfieulty can be overcome. J am not as 
Diueli concerned about the yellow fungus, tor I oidy 
lost a few stalks by it so fur, while the other takes 
half of my patch. I have seen the yellow fungus on 
the wild blackberries ui a thicket along the roadside 
in Lampeter Square, very bad for several seasons past 
—it seems to be spreading. 1 have tried the Wilson, 
it didn't pay ; I tried Missouri Mammoth, (all mam- 
moth but the berries ;) I tried White Blackberries, 
(a nuisance) " good for nix ;" I tried two varieties 
called Thornless — they may have less thorns, but they 
have plenty of jaggcrs, and the fruit oidy middling 
and not worth cultivating, tiive me the good old 
Lawton and the Kittitiny in perfection, and I think it 
is all that could be desired, (except the jaggers.)— 
J. B. E., LUne VulU'y, Laii. county^ I'a. 

There is a beautiful little pea-green motlL,* 
the hii-m of which attacks the ripe fruit of the 
raspberry, excavating galleries through it in 

'Aptodis rubivora. 



various directions, and, of course, destroying 
it, partially or totally ; and |iossibly this insect 
may also infest the" fruit of tlie lilackberry : 
altliough from our contributor's dcscripticin, 
we should think sonietliing else was the mat- 
ter. We hope some |)ractical blackberry grower 
will give him some light upon this subjecit. It 
can haidly have a climatic cause, or bilth ends 
of the rows would be alike all'ected. It may 
be in the nature of the soil, dilleri'nce in eleva- 
tion, or a rankiu'.ss of growth. Will J. B. K. 
institute a series of close observations the com- 
ing season, and, as soon as the rot appears, 
send us .some of the berries. 



The Horse's Foot. 

I see notices from dill'ercnt eorresjxmdents of agrl- 
enltural journals, in reference to the horse's foot — as 
it is the support of that noble animal — how it should 
be treated ; Jiow he should be fe<i, Ac. Now I do not 
propose to get up a discussion on tfds point, but will 
try to give my reasons for differing with some other 
people. 

One correspondent informs us that too much strong 
feed has a tendency to create fever, and hence the 
foot will become brittle. If this be so, my impression 
is, that the feed, providing it has a tendency to injure 
the foot, would have the same tendency to cause the 
liorse 1(1 lose his eyesight. Again : they recommend 
plenty of hay. Now, as for hay alone, I think it a poor 
substitute; for, according to some of our best veter- 
inary authorities, it is not very highly reeommended. 
But to go back to the frmt, and lookat the subject a 
little, it is apparent, that to have a good foot, have a 
good, first-rate No. 1 mechanic to shoe him, and you 
need never fear of your horse having bad feet. 

About two-thirds of the smiths know nothing atiout 
shoeing the horse. They think that burning the shoe 
on to make it level, and driving in the nails, leaving 
the elim'hes half an inch long, cutting great chunks 
from the sides and toe of the foot— (/lis I say, they 
call shueinij, and this is the way they are learning to 
be good horseshoers. 

In order for a smith to become a good horseshoer 
he must give the subject close attention, and this too 
from the very first start in the business, and then 
success will erown his efforts. I have known men to 
go ten miles to have their horses prupcrly shod. 

But this article is rather of a negative character, 
and as such, may be too much of a trespasser upon 
your time and space. I will therefore close tiy prom- 
ising in my next to describe as to how horses" sliouM 
be shod, and the kind of shoes that should he used 
in order to insure good feet to those noble animals. — 
J. Q. T., Vet. Surg., .Varietia, .Uarah 1, lHr.5. 

We know next to notliing about "horse- 
flesh,'.' and perhaps less about "horse feet," 
but we have no doubt our correspondent will 
be able to ventilate the subject to the satis- 
faction of our readers, who may be "horse 
fanciers." 



The Persimmon. 
I see the almve fruit noticed in the February num- 
ber and deservedly reeommended as a desirabli' fruit, 
by our friend C. lliller. There is, however, unolhcr 
short article in the same number, jirobably by the edi- 
tor, which is not correct. He says, "The JHoxpijriu 
Icald, or Chinese Persimmon, is represented as being 
as large as an apple. This is a mistake. I had the 
Kaki in bearing years ago; it is smaller than our 
native varieties, but deliciously sweet. The bark of 
this variety is yellow, and the leaves imrtake of the 
same color, while the Japan rersimmon is said to be 
as large as a good sized apple. It is eaten with a 
spoon. The bark of the Japan variety is dark brown, 
the [ilant far more robust, thick shoots, leaves large 
and thick, of a dark green color. Hon. J. llogg, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., who first introduced the Japan vari- 
ety, he truvelin;,' in Japan, suei'ccded in fruiting it in 
the open air i]i 1S71 or bSTli, but the cold winter of 
IST.i killed all his trees. Ilesent me four small plants. 
These all froze to the irround; two of them sprouted 
up from the roots. These I took up ami planted in 
lioxes, whiTi' I now have them in the green house. 
South of liallimore they will he perfectly hanlv. In 
ordinary winters they will he hardy he're, especially 
if planted on elevated grounds, but an occasional col j 
winter will assuredly cut them down. So, however 
desirable, we cannot depeud on their being a fruit that 
we ean grow out in the open air. — J. B. (lAitnEK. 

We confess thtit "large as an apple," is 
almost as indctinite as a iigure of comparison 
as to say " large as a piece of chalk ; " still we 
cannot see that our statement "is not correct,^' 
if our mUhnriUj is correct. 

Rind, on i)age .'(71, s:iys, "the Kaki, or 
Cliinese Date-Plum {Dios]iiimx A-oAi) is a tree 
of middle size, bearing a fruit about the size 
of an apple, of a reddish orange color, a 
very luscious fruit, with a brownish semi-trans- 



[larent jiulp. Tlic fruit of one species is dried 
with sugar like ligs,"and another author says 
they are "superior to ligs. " 

All depends now upon what kind of an 
api)le Rind had in his mind when he wrotf the 
above vagiiede.scription— whether a "Siberian 
crab," or a "pound-apple." 

The (luestion seems to be one of a purely 
.scientilic character— whether William Kind, 
or oin- friend .1. (i. 15., was wrong in his 
idtmtilicationof Dliisjii/rax kaki; as for ourself 
we "kick out" of all individual responsibility 
— p.\cei)t the— "it is represented." 

That our venerable friend did not succeed 
in growing tht^ fruit of the kaki a.s large as it 
is said to grow in (Jhinti, is not at all surprising. 
Neither did he grow the Scup|iernong grape 
as hirge ;is they grow it in the South— Georgia 
for instance. Tiiere are ('limatic or soil con- 
ditions that may cause these adverse results. 
^ Some years ago we rcc^eived, through the U. 
S. Agricidtural Seed Department, about twen- 
ty seeds.of a "Japanese Kadi.sh" (Raplutnus 
candatii.'') represented to grow bimches of crisp 
and tender radishes on thi^ tops, from 12 to 18 
inches in length. By the way, these to]) rad- 
ishes were nothing more than the .seed-pods, 
but they were said to be far superior to any 
variety of that cruciferous plant grown uiid((r 
ground, and made a most cai)ital salad. We 
distributed these seeds' among some of our 
horticultural friends, but, except in one in- 
stance, wi^ believe they all came to naught; in 
that instance tliey were iilantcdin in apotand 
forced forward in agreenhonse. They were sub- 
sequently exhibited at a Strawberry fair of our 
local society, at the Court Iloase, i"n the month 
of June, and a more puuv, wiry, spongy 
bunch of little distorted "tails," "could not 
well be conceived of; the very largest Ix'ing le.ss 
than six inches long. They were almost 
ta.steless, and yet they might lie quite a dilli-r- 
ent thing in .Japan ; and i>crhai)s, under differ- 
ent circumstances, a different result might 
have been obtained, even here. 



Clover and Cut-Worms. 

Clovek is generally esteemed a valuable crop for 
increasing fertility of "soil ; but is supiKised to aid in 
generating the "lut-worm." Is this theory correct? 
If so, it would be ot)jeetionable to follow it with 
tobacco.- An iNQtiiur.ii, Feb. '21, 187.5. 

There are various sjiecies of noxious insects 
under the name of "cut-worm." (Afjroti.s) that 
depredate ui>on young c;ibbage, In^an, aster, 
corn, buckwheat, lettuce, and other kinds of 
succulent vegetation, but we do not know thtit 
clover, in a very piirticnhir mannei-, "aids in 
generating" any of them. The insects most 
destructive to the tobacco cro]) are the Jan-tp, 
of the large gray " Ilawk-moths " (MacroKi/Ua 
caralina and 't-maru\ala), but these only attack 
the iilants when they are pretty well forward 
in the leaf, anil are not generally found in 
clover fields. 

Cut-worms are subterranean in their habits, 
feeding entirely upon the roots of vegetati<in; 
hatched from eggs deposited by the "owlet 
moths" in the ground the previous sea.son; 
burying themselves beneath the frost line and 
becoming torpid during the winter; conniig 
up ;ibout half-grown in the spring. 

During Mtiy and .liine they come up out of 
the groinidal night, or in very cloudy weather, 
cut off young vegetation near or just below 
the surface of the ground, devour a part of it, 
and then retire and renuiin hidden in the .soil 
near the scene of deva.station, during the day, 
where they may be found if properly looked 
for. When full grown they are from an inch 
to an inch and-a-li;ilf in length and of an 
ashen, or dark gray color. 

They change to a smooth brown chrysalis 
in the ground, from which is.sues a niotli, in 
June, Jidy and August, the body and fore- 
wings of which are various shades of gray, 
or blackish-grey, striped or vari<'gated— ac- 
cording to species — and the hind wings silvery, 
of various shades. The body of these moths 
are about \ of an inch long, and the wings ex- 
pand from an inch-and-a-half to two inches. 
They are night-fliers, and are attracted by 
luminous bodies. 



46 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



But the "Hawk-niotlis," that are the pro- 
genitors of the large green "tobacco worms" 
which infest the plants in Julj' anil Angust, are 
in the earth, a large brown chrysalis, with an 
appendage like the handle of a jug during the 
winter, and come forth in summer about the 
time the "jimson-weed " is in bloom. They 
are in repose during the day, but fly abroad in 
the evening, and regale themselves on the 
nectar of the weed aforenamed, and deposit 
their eggs on the leaves of the tobacco plants 
in small groups of from six to a dozen, from 
which the worm in due time hatches and de- 
veloHS, and then goes into the ground, where 
it has been reared!, and changes to a chrysalis. 
Hand-picking is the the cliief reliance, but the 
introduction of a sweetened, active poison into 
the trumi>et flowers of their favorite plant, 
will prevent many of the worms from being 

born. • 

^ 

Plums and the Curculio. 

There is no fruit in ejreater demand than the phjm. 
If any one could succeed in raising them, he would 
have no difliculty in tindinp; a market, and in making 
a pile of money out of tliem. But that little fellow 
commonly called the "Turk," (the cui'culio) stands 
in the way. 

Some liave been trying to circumvent the pest by 
introducing curculio proof varieties, but the result, 
so far, has not been very encouraging, as these cur- 
culio proof kinds compare with the green gage about 
the same as the sour crab docs to the smokehouse 
apple. The various expeiJients in use for preventing 
its depredations have not been very successful and if 
notliing better '* turns up" we might almost as well 
give it up for a bad job. But, as " every day brings 
something new," we must still hope for a successful 
remedy. 

Prof. Heiges, at the York meeting of the Pennsyl- 
vania Fruit Growers' Society, showed pliotographs of 
branches laden with beautiful plums. He has been 
experimenting, and thinks he has found a sure 
remedy against the curculio. His trees were laden 
with fruit, while tlie same varieties across the fence, 
on hie neighlmr's lot were a total failure. He simply 
syrintj^cs his trees with a strong suds of whale oil 
soap, commencing with the completion of the bloom 
and going over the trees after every rain, until the 
fruit is safe. Let us try this simple remedy next 
season. Its cost will be but tritUng. Have a lot of 
the stinky stuft' ready in an out-of-the-way place. 

A bucketful put on with a syringe, will completely 
coat over several trees. Anj' tinner can make a 
cheap, ett'ectuQl syringe. But it would pay to get a 
"portable pump and sprinkler," an instruments so 
useful about a place, for washing windows, carriages, 
watering plants, etc., that it need only be seen to be 
appreciated. Cost from ^5 to -JIO. — C. H., Couestoga, 
March Hth, 187.5. 

The remedy suggested by our correspondent 
is ceitainly a simple one. and of easy applica- 
tion, but it is "'as old as the hills," and for 
many years has been the general remedy in all 
cases of insect infestation, with different de- 
grees of success, according to the strength of 
the solution, the particular species of insects 
upon wlucli it has been tried, and the 
skill and perseverance with which it has 
been applied. We must confess that vc 
haven't as much cunlidence in it as we have 
in the "jarring" process, although it is un- 
doubtedly much cheaper and less laborious. 
Some months ago, we read an article on this 
subject, which we had intended to refer to 
at some future time, but we took so much care 
of it, that we have not been aljle to lay our 
hands on it since. It purported to be the ex- 
perience of an old peach and pliun grower, we 
think in fSouth Michigan. He considered the 
status of the rurndio to be such that it would 
be nearl}' useless for any man to attcm-pt to 
grow plums vmless he iilanted a large number 
of trees in the same inclosure — not less than 
one hundred as the iiihiirnuiti, but live hun- 
dred or one thousand and upward woidd be 
better, and would insure proportionately more 
successful results. He also gave an account 
of the quanties he sent to market, and the 
prices he realized, which seemed entirely satis- 
factory. His theory was, that it is useless to 
attempt to "kill off" the curcidio by artificial 
remedies, for it will he li.ere in greater or lesser 
numbers at each returning season, and the 
only way to meet the case is to ])lant and cul- 
tivate a crop large enough to sujiply the 
demands of the mark'et and the curculio also. 

He did not deny the efficacy of other reme- 



dies, but considered them "one-horse affairs" 
at best. A dozen or two of plum trees on a 
farm he considered only "curculio luirseries." 
We make these remarks, not to discourage 
plum culture on a small scale, but as sugges- 
tions pointing to large co-operative systems 
thr(jugh which the whole community may be 
ultimately supplied with plums. 



The Scuppernong Grape. 

As I am now having a little leisure time, I will take 
the opportunity to comply with the promise to furnish 
you with a short article on my operations with the 
Scuppernong grape this season. 

At the outset, I will say I am amazed at the pro- 
ductiveness of this class of grapes ; the quantity that 
can be raised on an acre of ground is no longer prob- 
lematical with me. I have one vine covering an arbor 
twenty yards long and fourteen yards wide, and 
thirteen years old, which has given me thirty bushels 
of clean grapes, by actual measurement, being at the 
rate of five hundred and twenty-five bushels per acre ; 
and as a bushel of grapes weighs fifty-two pounds, 
and yields three and a half gallons juice per bushel, 
lam getting at the rate of thirteen tons and 1,H00 
gallons of wine per acre. This vine has never had 
an hour's cultivation nor any manuring sipce it was 
planted, other than the leaves that fall from it annually. 

I have another vine larger and older than the above 
mentioned, being twenty-five years old. This is not 
so productive, in consequence of growing in ground 
too rich, being in the back yard to my house, where, 
from its receiving the waste water incident to such a 
situation, its growth is too vigorous. 

I have have had clusters of grapes this season car- 
rying twenty-four large berries, aud numbers of ber- 
ries measuring one aud a quarter (1'4) inches in 
diameter each. I found one berry which measured 
l'$ inches in diameter audiv; inches in circumfer- 
ence, which is the largest I have ever seen or heard 
of. I see in the papers some statements in regard to 
the large yield of grapes the present season in some 
of the vineyards in Calilbrnia, to-wit — four to five 
tons per acre. I have no doubt whatever that, with 
our Scuppernong, I can raise treble the number of 
pounds per acre that can be either in California or 
the Valley of Eschol, with any grape in the world. 

I have about one hundred vines of various ages 
under cultivation. — J. Van Bueen, ClarlcsirUle, Oa. 

We clip the above from the columns of 
the '■'■ llural i^mUlierner (tnd PlanUUion" more 
to show what can be done with this poinilar 
grape on its "native heath," than any design 
of recommeuding it to the culture of Pennsyl- 
vanians. If we are not very much mistaken, 
our veneraljle friend Jacob 13. Garber, of Co- 
lumbia, Pa., has given the "Scuppernong" a 
thorough trial, and finds it not at all adapted 
to the latitude of Lancaster county. 

This grape is also said to be free from the 
attacks of Phiilhixera and other enemies that 
this fruit is heir to, and that scions grafted 
on its roots will escape their infestations. The 
yield above described is so abundant, and the 
fruit so remarkably fine, that other attempts 
to acclimate jt might result more favoraljly, 
and therefore be worthy of extended trial. 
Of cotn-se, practical growers who cultivate 
grapes for profit will best know what to do in 
the premises. This is an exi>erimental or 
transition period in the Ilortieultm-al history 
of our country, and therefore in securing 
any step forward we must run the risk of tem- 
porary backward movements occasionally. 



Words of Cheer from a Veteran. 
Havino been confined to my room by sickness for 
the last three mouths of this extraordinary continnnl 
cold winter, I have been unable to get to Lancaster. 
I will now avail myself of the mail to tend you my 
subscription for The Lancastek Fahmku. I do 
hope, now that you have made so great a change in 
the character of the paper, with the increased size, 
that farmers and nil who are friendly to the farmers, 
will at once subscribe; for it. Ti'uly I have spent time 
and money to encoui-age it, but it seems all to no 
purpose. Now I am no longer able, or I should still 
try to say a good word for it. Every farmer wlio now 
refuses to spend the dollar I'or so useful a publication 
ought to have his name placed on a Itlack list.' To 
pay $.")(! or more to a set of unknown tree agents is, 
they think, well laid out, though when the trees 
c«me into bearing they mav i)erhai)S find themselves 
badly swindled.— J. B. G.,'Cclu„Ma, Feb. 18, 187.5. 

Nothing coidd stimulate us more in our en- 
terprise tlian the above words of cheer from 
our veteran friend, to whom we feel grate- 
ful for his many efforts in Ijehalf of The 
Faioier. We sympathize with him in his 



afflictions, for, to some extent, we have been 
a fellow sufferer, but hope we may both have 
a brighter and more joyous Spring. 

^ 

The Centennial and Small Exhibitors. 
What ixDUCEMEXTSforpersons of small means to 
exhibit anything at the Centennial ? Will they not 
be imposed upon and have to pay extortionate prices 
for board and lodging? Will it not be a very expen- 
sive undertaking to attend as an exhibitor ? Persons 
intending to exhibit would wish to know or be en- 
lightened before they get themselves into a trap. — J. 
B. E., Lancaster county, Fa. 

The foregoing queries, sent to us by an es- 
teemed correspondent, are very reasonable, aud 
ought to be very satisfactorily answered, but 
we cannot answer them so now. We hope, 
however, that small exhibitors will not be em- 
barrassed or deterred, and that no imposition 
will be permitted, under any circumstances, 
on the approaching a\igust occasion, aud we 
think there will not. The matter of "board" 
will not be difficult to arrange, we think. 



I am glad to see The Fakmer "turn over a new 
leaf." I have no doubt it will be a success in the 
hands of the enterprising publishers who have taken 
hold of it. The main thing now is to get the farmers 
to write. We have plenty of good practical farmers 
amongst us, who are not accustomed to " sling ink," 
whose views we should be glad to have thnmgh your 
columns ; but the chief attraction in The Faiimeu to 
me, are the articles on entomology. You shall hear 
from me again when I feel that I have anything worth 
writing. — J. C. L., Oap, Lan. county, /'i*. 15(A, 1875. 



FARM AND GARDEN ITEMS. 

Do Plants Need Water? 

Thomas Meehan, editor of the Oardener's ^fonthly, 
answers this question by saying that "if any one 
thiidcs plants need water, he can try by stopping up 
the hole in the bottom of a Hower pot, in which a 
plant is growing. This will be one of the best ways of 
learning that the essence of all good culture is to get 
rid of the water in the soil as soon as possible. This 
is the great principle that underlies the practice of 
underiiraining land. AVe want moist oir in the soil, 
not water. 'Firm potting' favors a large amount of 
air spaces. If soil is moderately dry, the more we 
' pound ' it, the more we pulverize it, and pulveriza- 
tion means dividing into minute particles. Tlie more 
particles the more spaces — the more spaces, the more 
porous is the mass. Every pfire contains air, and this 
air is moist air, and it is on this moisture that the 
plants draw. There is no difference in the manner by 
which a root draws moisture from the atmosijhere 
under the ground, and that by which the root of an 
air plant draws moisture above the ground. If you 
take the earth in which a healthy plant is growing, 
and handle it you will find no nat'.r in it; but you 
will perhaps find it moixt enough to damijen a 
piece of paper. We do not know that any amount 
of pressure would squeeze water out of some soils 
in which plants grow healthy, though jiossibly 
moist air might be so compressed as to make water. 
Inde.ed, the matter seems so clear to us, that we sup- 
posed it would be necessary only to state it to insure 
conviction. And we wonder very much that writers 
still contiime to use the word water, when they speak 
of the necessary conditions in the food of plants." 



The Milk Question. 

The farmers of Bedford, New Hampshire, had their 
annual "feast" on the r2th ult., at which they dis- 
cussed various phases of the farming interest. In 
re])ly to some comiilaints that they could get only 
four cents a quart for their milk. Ward Parker, of 
Merrimack, said he wastiredofthe continual whining 
about milkmen. If you don't want to sell your milk 
for four cents you needn't ; there is no law to jirevent 
your m.aking it into butter or carrying it to market 
yourself. If the milkmen pay all they agree to, that 
is enough ; if anyone will agree to pay more, it is your 
pri\ilege to sell to him. As for him, he wouldn't sell 
milk for six cents per quart; could do better making 
it into butter. By making butter he saved lugging 
home the price of it in grain and hunting the cuuntry 
through for new milk cows every fall. He believed 
the prospect was never so good for butter-makers as 
now. His cows have yielded over ?;UII1 worth of but- 
ter each this year, and the skim milk from each cow 
he calls worth $4-0 more; gets this amount out of 
skim milk by feeding it to calves which sell for from 
$.50 to *100 each ; keeps Devons and can sell at these 
prices all the calves he can raise. There are only 800 
Devons in the United States and Canadas. The first 
ones imported and sold were sold at low prices, which 
has kept the price down ever since. His cows give 
milled quarts of which will make a pound of butter; 
has one cow which has given 32 quarts per day ; feeds 
no grain except after the cows come in aud before they 
get out to grass. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



47 



A Potato that Resists the Colorado Bug. 

A. .lai-ksiiii, (if Frnli-riiU loiinry, Mil., inniiniiiii- 
cati'S the foUowiu}; iiitcroKtini,' fui'ls to tin- liiilliinmi' 
Ainri-lcan Fartiitr, wliicli lionuyscHiilii'iillrstcil liy tlie 
6wi)rii testimony 111" two of iiis liiliorfr.s. Aliout live 
years a'_'o In- neciveil Iroiii New Jersey u peeiiliar 
kiiul of a red |x)talo,uiiiler tlie name ol'8ilierian Heil. 
It pioveil to be a very prolilic bearer, anil of a inon- 
strims size; very mealy and wbolesome lor llie lalile, 
tlioti^'b some piir|ile streaks would neeasiiinally run 
llironi:!! the tubers. Last siinimiT lie planted tliem 
in hills, four feet apart, between youn^' irrape vines, 
wliieli stood eiirlit feet by eiL'lit feet, and raised on 
one Here a littli- better Mian one hundred busliels of 
niairnitieent imtatoes. He fertilized tlie bills by mi.K- 
inir lime with ten jieri'ent.of salt, and mixinir old 
eow manure with about ten per eeut of said lime and 
salt eninpound. He used a ijood shovelful of it in every 
lull, and embodied it with the yroiiud (elay soil) by 
diiruin;:. Tlie result, be says, was astonisliinir. 
Wlieu Mie potato buss (wliieh bad appeared in 
myriads) had eaten olf a vine, presently two or more 
viiies would shoot up. keepimr on u-rowinff until the 
November frosts killed them. Most eurious of all, 
tliev bore here and there small potatoes (not seed 
balls) on the vines. One remarkable bill yielded 
forty-tive averatre-sized |Kilatoes. .Ml his other kinds, 
as Early lio.se, I'eaeh Blow, Early (ioodrieb, thoujib 
treated in the same manner, were an utter failure. 



Sales of Chester County Stock. 

The proprietors of Clifton Farms, Kennet Scpiare, 
Chester eounty, whose advertisement appears in Tin; 
Fahmku, report havinL' reeeiitly sold tlie followiui; 
thoriiuurbbred stnek ; The prize Ayrsliire heifer, 
"Kennett Beauty," to .losliua Hunt, esip, Catasau- 
(pni, I'a. ; the two .\yrsliire heilers, " Lily Dale" and 
".luly .Morn," and the .Ayrshire bull ealf, "SirChel- 
ton,""lo Col. Joliii M. White, of t^outli Carolina; the 
Ayrshire bull ealf, "Ashland Duke," to Cieor^v II. 
Terry, Orient, N. Y. ; the Ayrshire heifer ealf, " Hill- 
side Beauty," to T. V\'. Krvin, .South Carolina; the 
two Ayrshire heifers, "Ashland Belle" and "Laura 
the Beauty," to liobert Ileunin!r, esip, Wilminfiton, 
N.C.; also the Jersey bull calf "Sir Clinton," to 
same tt;entleman; the Ayrshire heifer, " (jentle 
Annie" and Ayrshire bull, "Kennett Laddie," to 
Gen. J. Bratton, South Carolina; alsothetwo Ayrshire 
Jieifers, " Fair Maiden" and "April Morn," to Capt. 
Clowiiey, of same State; the Jersey bull, "Ashland 
Duke." to Jos. Boman, Lancaster county, Pa. ; the 
Jersey bull ealf "Clifton Boy," to Geo. B. Whislow, 
Gouvencur, N. Y., also the Jersey heifer "Lady Par- 
qua," to the same centleman; the .Jersey cow "Low- 
land Beauty," to W. T. liiid iV Bio., Freuebtown, N. 
J. Also prize Chester White and Essex pigs to many 
parties in the ditt'erent States. 



Charcoal for Sick Animals. 
Nearly all sick animals become so by improjier 
feeding. Nine cases out of ten the disestiou is 
wrong. Charcoal is the most efficient and rapid 
corrective. It will cure in a majority of cases if 
jiroperly administered. .\n example of its use: the 
hired nuin came in with the intellii:;ence that one of 
the finest cows was very sick, and a kind neighbor 
propiised the usual drugs and jmisons. The owner 
being ill and unable to examine the cow, concluded 
that the trouble came from overeating, and ordered a 
tcacupful of pulverized charcoal given in water. It 
was mixed, placed in a junk bottle, the head held 
upward, and Uie water and charcoal jioured down- 
ward. In live minutes improvement was visible and 
in a few hours the animal was in the pasture, quietly 
eating grass. Another instance of equal suci-ess 
occurred with a youngheifer which had become badly 
bloated by eating green apples after a hard wind. 
The bloat was so severe that the sides were almost as 
hard as. a barrel. The old remedy, saleratus, was 
tried I'or correcting the acidity. But the attempt to 
put it down always caused eouirbing, and it did little 
good. Half a teacupful of fresh powdered charcoal 
was given. In six hours all ajipcarance of the bloat 
had gone and the Iieifer was well. 

Selection of Breeds of Cattle. 

Mr. Shaw, of Milford, an extensive Now Hampshire 
farmer and dairyiiien says, our selection of breeds of 
cattle shoidd be determined by the use we propose to 
make of them. If we would raise beef, we should 
take Shorthorns; if a large quantity of milk, without 
reference to (pnility, desired, Ayrsbires ; but if we 
would iret good niiik, and make nice butter, then we 
elionld keep Jerseys or .\hlerncys. He had tested 
the milk of one of his Jersey cows, and found it con- 
tained 4:!'; per cent, cream. This was an extraor- 
dinary yield, but the milk from Jerseys would aver- 
aire 20 i>cr cent, cream. His herd nnike a iionnd of 
butter from less than six quarts of milk, and be bad 
made a pound frtun less than four quarts. Jersey 
milk, where it is known, sells one or two cents higher 
per quart than common milk : and larire quantities of 
Jersey butter, properly made and packed, can be sold 
readily at from ■'jO to 7.5 cents per (Miund. He knew 
one herd of Jerseys from which the butter was sold 
through the season for il.'ih per pound. Feed has a 



great deal to do with butter. Woidd feed no turnips 
or eabbaires. as they taint the milk, but had faith in 
beets. Milk sliould not be set in a room with pies, 
boiled dishes or anyl hing else, as it all^orbs all llavors 
arisintr I'rom other substances. It is a mistaken idea 
that Jerseys are not good for lieef; when projierly 
fatted, they make the best lieef in the world, tender, 
sweet anil rich. The notion that .Icrseys are not as 
hardv as other brei'ds is also a mistake. They eiiduri^ 
our eliinate well. Another thing in their favor is 
their dotillty. 

^ 

How Til Dksthov Eautii Woii.MS : Mr. Vick, in 

his Floral (iiiide, says that ten drops of carbolic acid 
in a pint of water, put in llowcr pots, w ill lU'slroy all 
the earth-worms which do so much damage to the 
plants. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



Valuable Household Recipes. 
AQiTATFiiN'loN OF FiiiST-ri.Ass Kkiti'Ks: .\ House- 
keeper of this city who communicates the following 
recipes to The Faiimkic makes frequent use of them 
in her family and gives them her unqualilied endorse- 
ment. We can vouch for the phtls and rolls as the 
best we ever eat: 

Coiustwiii I'liffx : One (piart of (lour, one qtnirt 
of milk and three eggs. ..Mix the milk gradually into 
the Hour to make a smooth batter ; also the yi'lks of 
the eggs; then add the whites beaten stilV: bake in 
gem pans in a hot oven, having the pans heated wlien 
you |ionr in the batter. 

French. Jiulh: Set a si>onu:e about ten o'clock in the 
morning with a half [jint of milk, two eggs well- 
beaten, with a cuji of silirar, one cn|) of butter, and 
one pint of yeast ; Hour to make a batter, not toostitf; 
let it rise until light, then make into a loaf, with flour 
sulKcicnt to make a soft dough ; let it ris** again un- 
til light ; then roll out thin, and with a soft brush 
spread with melted butter; cut into squares and turn 
over ; put into jians and spread again ; let thcrii rise 
until light, (about an biuir,) and bake in a moderate 
oven about twenty minutes. These will be found to 
be delicious, and alter a couple of trials you will find 
no trouble in achieving a success. 

Lviiion, or OniJiijf ('Hstard : One-quarter pound of 
butter, a half pound of susrar, two teaspoonsful of 
flour worked to a cream, four esys and one jiint of 
milk ; the grated rind ami .juice of two lemons, or the 
rind and juice of three oranges. Bake in crusts of 
jjastry. 

(Jiieen of Pmhliiigg : One pound of bread cninibs, 
one quart of milk, four eggs; sweeten and flavor to 
taste; a small i>iece of butter ; soak the bread in half 
the milk about an hour before using. Serve warm 
with sauce. 

Aiiulhfr ii'iiy — very good: Leave out the whites of 
the eggs ; when the pudding is done spread the top 
with a layer of jelly, or any sweetmeats you prefer; 
then put on the wdiitcs beaten still", with u cup of 
sugar; place in the oven to brown slightly. To be 
eaten with cream. 

Tiihi:e (ioon Uecipes. The Queen of PmWingii ; 
Take one jiart of nice bread crumbs, add one qtiart of 
milk, one cup of sugar, the yelks of four eggs, well- 
beaten, the rind of a fresh lemon grated tine, a jiicce 
f)f butter the size of an e.irg ; bake tnitil done. Now 
beat the whites of the eggs to a stitf froth, adding a 
tcaiaqi of ]iowdered sugar in which has been previ- 
ously stirred the juice of the lemon. Sjiread over the 
])uililing a layer of jelly, (any kind to the taste,) then 
jiour the whites of the eggs over, :inil jilaeein theoven 
initil brinvned. Serve with cold cream. This is the 
richest and best pudding I ever made or eat. 

I'hiin I'lKldiiifi : Take slices of light bread spread 
thin with butter; place in a pudding dish layers of this 
bread and raisins until within an inch of the top. Add 
five eggs, well-beaten, and a quart of milk, ami pour 
over the pudding ; salt and spice to taste. Bake it 
twenty minutes, and eat with liipiid sauce. 

,1 (ioud Will/ In Kir/i JJaiiiK: .M'ter the hams have 
been smoked take them down and tboroughly rub the 
liesb part with molasses, then immediately apply 
grt)unil pepjier, by sprinkliiii^ on as muib as will slick 
to the molassi-s ; then bani^ up to dry. Hams treated 
in tljiis manner will keep perfectly sweet, and free 
from insects. — J/'"^- (tooilhnc^ {(h-ttntjc couiiti/^ I''-,) 
in (tcruiuHtoifii Ti-lci/ra/ih, 

Cadhaoe a i.a CAti.in.owEii: Faith Koehester 
(Am. Ai/lnl.) likes her cabb.au'c cooked like eauli- 
ll(»wer, and she says it is almost as ::ood. This is the 
way she does it: Chop the cabbaLrc head flne, or cut 
it as small as you e;m well with a knife. Hal("of an 
averairi* head is sutlieient for a meal. Put it into a 
kettle, and jjour over it a pint of AiWiz/.f/ water. Cover 
it. and keep it boilinsr steadily, (not letting it burn 
dry by too Inird bitilinir.) l"or half an hour. Pour off 
what water remains — t he cabbaiie it self supplies some 
water in cookiie.' — and pour in a teacupful — or two, if 
you like — of irood milk, sailing' to t;iste. Let all Imil 
up tocretber, and it is done. If^ you put in considera- 
ble milk, it will be much liked if poured over "wliitc 
gems" split in two. 

Cooking Ci:i.eiiv: We all know what a delicious 
relish celery is wheu eaten raw with a little salt, but 



few of our readers may hi- aware that it makes an ex- 
cellent dish when cfioked. At the tietter class of res- 
taur:ints it is not r;ire to lind in tin- bill of l";ire Cream 
of Celery. A bowl ol'tbis, eaten with bread or crack- 
ers, is ii delicious and nutritious lunch, with nothing 
else. This cream of celery Is a diluted form of puree 
of celery, uscfi as u sauce f<ir i^amc. and the Aiiwi-ican 
Ai)rifiiltiiriKt thus tells us kow to make It: Cut white 
celery line, and stew with a little water, pepper and 
salt, in a covered dish, until it will form a pulp ; llieii 
milk Is added, or three parts milk and one of cream ; 
l)oil for a l"ew minutes, and pass through a sieve, rub- 
bing through all but the coarser parts of the celery. 
Heat aiiiiin, and thickeiiinir with a little (lour, stirred 
up with cold milk. If milk Is used without cream, 
then butter may be added. .\t home, besides the 
abovi- method, we more frequi'iilly cut it in pieces, 
cook it soft in water, pour olf the water, and add 
abundance of sauce, made of cream and a little liotir, 
or drawn itutler when cream happens tf> be scarce. 

White (Jems: Faith Koehester, who conducts the 
household dep;irtmcnt fvf the Amrricitii AtiricuUnriitty 
says, these should always be maile of the hrxt fif line 
flour and new milk, with a little salt, beaten well 
together into aslilf batter, t(Ki still' for griddle cakes — 
or into a soft dough, too soft for bisetiit — and baked 
in a hot oven in gem pans, made hot before the dough 
is dipped in. .She tliinks these are the best of" warm 
biscuits," and that you <m// put in baking [lowder, but 
advises you to try them without. 

White CtsTAiiDs: One jiint of cream, three ounces 
(tf sugar, the wbitesof four eggs, and one tablesiKH>n- 
I"ul of oramre-llower water. Boil the cream with a 
blade of mace ; let it simmer for about Ave mlnuti'S ; 
then take it olf the lire, ami add the suirar ; beat the 
wliitcs of the eggs to a complete Irolli ; put them into 
the cream ; set it on the lire again, and let it boil 
gently, stirring constantly, till it becomes thick ; take 
it olf tlic lire, add the oramre-tlower water, or a few 
drops of almond-flavor, and serve in custanl glasses. 

Bakei> Sweet Aim-les; Sweet ap[iles, which are 
not relished fur eating by the many, may be converted 
into a palatable baked apple dish, half jellied, deli- 
cious in flavor and moisture, which any one can have 
by stewing them in a porcelain kettle, with just enough 
molasses and water to prevent them from burning, 
till cooked through, and then transferring them to the 
oven with all the liquid residuum, to dry and brown. 

"EvEKV-DAV" PiDDixo: Half a loaf of stale 
brown home-made bread soaked in a quart of milk ; 
four egirs, foiw tatdcsiKionsful of flour ; a little fruit, 
dried or fresh, is a great :iddit ion ; steamor boil three- 
fourths of on hour. .Serve with the following sauce: 
Butter, sugar and water, thickeiieil witli a little corn- 
starch, and flavored with lemon juice and rind. 

Fancy Dish: Take half a dozen eggs, make a hole 
at one end and empty the shells ; 1111 tliem with blaiic 
mange ; w hen stitf and cold, take olf the shells ; pare 
lemon rind very thin, boil in water till very tender, 
then cut in thin strips to resemble si raw, and preserve 
in sugar ; HU a deep dish luilf full of jelly (jr nice cold 
custard, put the eggs in and lay the straw, nest-like, 
around them. 

Coi-KEE Cake: One eup of butter, one of sour 
cream, one of collee, live eggs, one eui" of currants, 
one of stoned raisins, one teaspoonful ol" cinnamon, 
one of allspice, one nutmeg, one teasiXKinful of soda ; 
add flour to mix hard, and bake slowly. 

KiCE Ci stakds: One ounce and a half of ground 
rice, three ounces of loaf sugar, and one pint of new 
milk ; boil the rice in the milk, adding the sugar, and 
a piece of cinnamon; pour it into custard cups, in 
wliiih a little fcesh butter has been melted, and bake 
in a slow oven. 

The .\nt Pest: Oueof the most troublesome pests 
to the housekeeper is the ant. especially the little red 
ant. We have tried chalking and all sorts of insect 
powder, and various other devices, but, like the 
weather siirns, wliich always "fail ill wet weather," 
they all seemed to fail in the ant season: but Camden 
Nellie furnishestbe (iermantown 7V/'.i/ni/>A with her 
experience, which is the simplest of all. She says: 
"In a cupboanl. inleeted with ants, I <me day put :i 
plate containing .some flour on one of the shelves, and 
left it there for several days. I soon noticed that the 
little pests did not molest it in any way, ami eoneluiled 
to receive some beiiclit from the knowledge. Accord- 
ingly I sprinkled wheat flour all over the shelves, 
pretty thickly, too, and so far I am satislied with the 
result. They lind it a hard mad to travel, and now 
we can put any article of food in that cupljoard with- 
out fear of them." 

DiI'HTiiEKrA: A gentleman of Troy, N. Y., who 
had a severe attack of ilipht heria, informs the Xntioual 
AfJi'icuUurUty that when the chokinir sensation was 
greatest, some pulverized bayberry rtjot hapix'iilng to 
come in the vicinity td" his nose, provoked a sneeze. 
This wasof course painful, but llii' jwiwder penetrated 
and bad the elfei't ol" cleansiinr out his throut llior- 
ou::idy for the time being. Uimiu re|M'ating the liose 
oiiei' or tw ice a day, or as often as the case required, 
he Ibund it to do him more t'ood than all the doctor's 
prc-criptions. Tlie harl substance svas loosened, but 
in small ijiiantilies. Since that time he has recom- 
mended it to several suffering in the same way, and 
all have found relief. 



48 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Cure for TooTnACHE: The London La7icet gives 
the following as a certain cure for toothache: Add 
one drachm of collodion to two drachms of carbonic 
acid, a small portion of which, inserted in the cavity 
of an aching; tooth, will give immediate relief. 

To Clean Oil Cloths: Add to one gallon of 
water two teaspoonsfulofammoniajWith which cleanse 
the oil cloth thoroughly, using a sponge and soft rag, 
and wiping dry ; then sponge off light!}- with sweet 
milk, wliich brightens the cloth and gives it a glossy 
appearance. 



The Cotemporary Press. 

The New York Semi-Weekly TiiiBUNE,themo6t 
perfect epitome of current events, on all subjects, 
upon our exchange list, or perhaps, in the Union. 

The American Agriculturist, Vol. 34, Nos. 1 
and 2, Orange Jvdd <t Co., is the highest eulogy 
necessary to pronounce on this journal. 

Home, Farm & Orchard, a $1 weekly quarto, 
Newburg, N. Y., about the ageef "The Farmer," 
small but very ably edited. 

The LrvE Stock Journal, New York, a beautiful 
and ably conducted illustrated quarto, very liable to 
be confounded with the " National" of Chicago, by 
the uninformed. 

The Japanese Mail, a quarto of forty-four pages, 
giving a " fortnightly summary of intelligence from 
Japan for transmission to Europe and the United 
States. Yokohama. — $12 a year. 

The Farmers' Union is a large, eight-page, well 
filled, and ably conducted agricultural folio; Minne- 
apolis, Minn., at ?2.00 per annum, weekly. W. J. 
Abernethy, editor and publisher. 

The Prairie Farmer, a double folio weekly jour- 
nal for the Farm, Orchard and Fireside, Chicago, 111. 
Two dollars a year. ■ Its reputation is established or 
it could not have survived forty-six years. 

The National Agriculturist, 16th volume, 
the same in form and size as the CttUivator (royal 
quarto) and handsomely illustrated and ably con- 
ducted. New York, $1.2.5 a year. 

The Progressive Farmer, a journal of practical 
agriculture, horticulture, mechanic arts, and litera- 
ture, issued under the auspices of the State Agricul- 
tural College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, a monthly royal 
quarto. $1 a year. 

The Cultivator and Country Gentleman 
commences its fort-flfth year, fiir more vigorous and 
fresher than it ever appeared in its youth. An excel- 
lent standard journal on agriculture that needs not 
our commending. Albany, N. Y. 

The "Pen and Plow," for 187.^, is one of the 
most spicy and best mechanically executed journals 
on our list. An agricultural and literary quarto of 
sixteen pages, printed on fine tinted paper, at $1 a 
year, monthly; New York. 

The Western Agriculturist: The February 
number for 187.5 is on our table. A twenty page 
quarto with additional tinted covers, Quincy, 111. A 
handsome imprint of interesting matter on " agricul- 
ture, horticulture and household reading. $1 a year. 

The New England Homestead, a double folio 
" weekly journal," concerning the farm, the orchard, 
the garden and the fireside, Springfield, Mass. $2. .50 
a year. Illustrating on its title page " the past " and 
"the present " in farm architecture and improvement. 

The Industrial Bulletin, one of our oldest and 
most punctual exchanges. Devoted to the protection 
of American industry. Published by the " Industrial 
League," Johnstown, Pa. A protective monthly 
quarto of sixteen pages, opposed to free trade, and 
ably edited. 

Wells' Annual of Phrenology and Phy'siog- 
nomy for 1875 contains m_any Portraits, Biographies, 
and Characters of leading'men, and much other useful 
and entertaining matter. Large octavo, full of 
pictures, sent first post for 25 cents. Address S. K. 
Wells, 389 Broadway, New York. 

" The Rural Southerner and Plantation " 
comes to us enlarged, improved, and changed in form. 
Instead of a folio, as heretofore, it is now a royal 
quarto of sixteen pages, and is combined with the 
^^ J'lantatiou*' and " iri/.so«'.s- Htrald vf Jltalth.'^ 
Atlanta, Georgia, monthly, at $1 a year. Cheap and 
well adapted to tliat locality. 

The Sanitarian still maintains the high position 
It took from the start as a leader of thought in sani- 
tary science. It is unquestionably the best work of 
its class in this country, and ought to have a general 
circulation. Edited and published by Dr. A. N. Bell, 
New York. Monthly ; $o a year. 

The Spirit of the Times, "a chronicle of the 
turf. Held sports, agriculture, and the stage." The 
February number of the 89th volume of this journal 
is on our table. An ably conducted paper; "each 
number containing more reading matter than any 
other periodical published in the United States." 
Royal, 2-1 page quarto.. New York — weekly — $5.00 a 
year. George Wilkes, Editor. 

Pamphlets received : "Second Geological Sur- 
vey of remisylvania." "Report of the Commission 
to Revise the Constitution of Pennsylvania." 



Catalogues of Seeds, Plants, &c. 

The following catalogues of trees, plants and seeds 
have been received since our last : 

E. J. Evans & Co.'s Catalogue of Fruit and Orna- 
mental Trees, Vines and Roses," York Pa. 

"H. M. Thompson's Price List of Evergreen and 
Deciduous Tree Seedlings, Fruit and Shrub Trees," 
Milwaukie, Wis. 

" DiNGEE & Conard Company's Descriptive Cata- 
logueof New and Beautiful Roses," West Grove, Ches- 
ter county. Pa. 

S. H. Purple, Columbia, Lancaster county, de- 
scriptive catalogue of roses, bedding and greenhouse 
plants, shrubs, trees, &e., for spring of 1875. 

Bryant's Nurseries: Retail Price List and Cata- 
logue of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Grapes, Small 
Fruits, Forest Trees, >&c. A. Bryant,jr., Princeton, 111. 

Geo. W. Schroyer, Lancaster, catalogue of roses, 
greenhouse and bedding plants, of which he has an 
unusually large stock for the ensuing season. See 
advertisement. 

James Fleming, New York, (successor to Hender- 
son & Fleming) annual descriptive catalogue of 
flower, vegetable and agricultural seeds, garden 
implements, &c., for 1875. 

F. K. Phoenix, of the Bloomington nurseries, 
Bloomington, 111. Wholesale price-list of nursery 
stock and his plant catalogue of greenhouse, bedding, 
hardy herbaceous and other plants. Established in 
18.52. 

Briggs & Bro., Rochester, surpass all their previ- 
ous efibrts in their catalogue for 1875. It is printed 
on a richly tinted paper, and elaborately IlluBtrateed. 
Theirs is one of the largest ^eed establishments in the 
country. 

II. E. Hooker & Bro., Rochester, send us their 
Illustrated Catalogue of Novelties and Specialties, and 
their Wholesale Price List of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Grape Vines, Roses, &e. Rochester seems to 
the national niirsery of the flower, plant and seed 
business. 

D. M. Ferry' & Co., Detroit, Michigan, illustrated 
and descriptive catalogue of garden, flower and agri- 
cultural seeds. This firm are extensive growers and 
importers of seeds, and their catalogue is one of 
unusual interest to farmers and gardeners. It con- 
tains 218 pages, profusely Illustrated. 

Cascade Nursery Company's Catalogue of 
Roses, Greenhouse and Bedding plants, Hardy plants, 
Vines and Shrubs. E. Y. Teas & Co., Richmond, Ind. 
They claim that their stock of roses is the largest and 
best collection in the United States. Eugene Verdier, 
the well-known Rosarian of Paris, has named a new 
hybrid perpetual after the founder of the firm, (Mon- 
sieur E. Y. Teas,) which the grower highly praises. 

Vick's Floral Guide, No. 2, for 1875, just re- 
ceived, is a gem as beautiful as it is useful. It has a 
prettily illustrated article on the seed and culture of 
flowers — another shot at " the government seed-shop 
at Washington" — " the post-office and seed distribu- 
tion," and an illustrated list of the novelties of the 
season. James Vick, Rochester, N. Y. Twenty-five 
cents a year, which includes the four quarterly num- 
bers of 200 or more pages. 



Lancaster County to the Front! 

In looking over our advertising list of nurserymen, 
seedsmen and florists, for March, we are struck with 
the fact that the proportion of advertisers outside of 
Lancaster county is larger than that of onrhome pat- 
rons. There are quite a number of persons in this and 
adjoining counties engaged in this line of business who 
would be greatly benefited by advertising in The 
F.vrmer who allow enterprising men in the same 
business at a distance to " steal a march on them," 
as Mr. Engle expressed it the other day at the Horti- 
cultural Meeting. To our certain knowledge hundreds 
of dollars are sent out of this county every year for 
seeds, plants and trees, which our own nurserymen 
and florists could keep at home, if they appreciated 
the value of printers' ink as their more enterprising 
rivals abroad do. It don't m.'ike much difference to 
us where our advertising jiatronage comes from, so 
long as our available space is occupjfd, and we have 
no fears that it will not ; but we simply suggest that 
it is not creditable to home enterprise that our own 
people, for whose interests we are laboring in endea- 
voring to foster a taste for the useful and beautiful 
in gardening and fruit growing, as well as farming, 
to let strangers reap all the advantage of it. If those 
who have agricultural implements, nursery stock, 
plants and seeds to sell, don't let the farmers know 
the fact, while those from a distance keep it con- 
stantly before them, how can they expect to increase 
their trade with the developing progress? As before 
stated, we can get as much advertising patronage as 
we have room for in The Farmer, without begging 
for it, ibr there are those who appreciate its value* as 
an advertising medium ; but as a matter of local 
pride we desire to see those at home whose interests it 
seeks to promote, availing themselves of its advan- 
tages. Therefore, we say, Lancaster County to the 
front I 



THE PROGRESS OF INVENTION. 



Official List of Patents, 

Relating to the Farm, the Dairy, Apiary, &c., 
For the Month, ending March 6, 1875.* 

Fifth-Wheel for Vehicles ; L. Blair, Paiuesville, 0. 

Mowing Machines; P. W. Brownhack, Limerick, Pa. 

Cultivators; E. Children, Dunleith, 111. 

Iron Tips for Vehicle Poles; J. Alder Ellis, Chicago, 111. 

Middlings Purifiers ; W. J. Fender, Minneapolis,Minn. 

Grain Binders; M. L. Gorham, Roekford, 111. 

Cultivators; M. L. Gorhan, Roekford, 111. 

Cultivators ; J. O. Milne, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Bridle Bits; Nathan P. Stevens, Hopkinton, N. H. 

Running Gear for Vehicles; J. Stirk, Lancaster, Pa. 

Brakes for Vehicles; Wm. Fletcher, Boston, Mass. 

Wheels for Vehicles; S. B. Fuller, Erving, Mass. 

Draft Equalizers; E. A. Beers, De Kalb,'lll. 

End Gate Fastenings; J. W. Collins, Chicago, 111. 

Fanning Mills ; Asa Y. Felton, Plain View, Minn. 

Spring Equalizers; T. L. Guest, Pottstown, Pa. 

Grain Separators ; M. D. Judkins, (Jlenwood, Minn. 

Churns ; Aug. Meger, Port Washington, Wis. 

Feed Racks; A. V. Mitchell, La Salle, HI. 

Harvesters; C. Myers, Pekin, 111. 

Hay Gatherers; C. T. Noell, Clarksville, Mo. 

Thill Couplings; E. Saper, Brooklyn, N- Y. 

Corn Planters; A Staley, Martin, Mich. 

Ladders : D. Argerbright, Troy, Ohio. 

Running Gears for Vehicles ; J. Becker, Seymour, Ind. 

Grain Drills; Wm. Brison, La Prairie, 111. 

Sulky Flower; J. C. Cams, Millbrook, 111. 

Farm Gates; S. H. Dasis, Chicago, 111. 

Apparatus for Feeding Fowls ; Alfred de Garis, N. Y. 

Bee Hives; J. R. Dixon, Topics, Miss. 

Floral Stands for Windows ; G. Hills, Plainville, Conn. 

Wheat Cultivators; E. E. Leech, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Riding Harrows; E. E. Leech, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Wire Fences; J. A. Little, Cartersburgh, Ind. 

Bag Ties ; J. O. Millue, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Hay Pjesses; H. E. Skillen, Pownal, Me. 

Wagon Jacks; J. B. Webster, Genoa, N. Y. 

Harness Hanging Frames ; X. Whiting, Trenton, Wis. 

Cotton and Hay Presses; W. A. AVright, Griflin, Ga. 

Green Corn Cutters; I. Barker, Otislield, Maine. 

Stump Pullers; C. C. Hogue, Bush Creek, Iowa. 

Governors for Windmills; W. L. Oliver, Rantsul,ni. 

Sulky-attachment to Plows; G. Van Winkle, Aaron,Ill. 

Shaft-tugs for Harness; T. E. Weber, Pittston, Maine.' 

Land Rollers; Wm. Williams, New Berlin, 111. 

Corn Shellers; W. S. Brogles, Nola Chucky, Tenn. 

Carriage Seats; Daniel Conbag, LTxbridge, Canada. 

Mowing Machines; E. C. Dewers, Towanda, Pa. 

Methods of Tubing Wells; W. T. Dobbs, Pana, HI. 

Chairs; Wm. T. Doremus, New York, N. Y. 

Harvester liakes; N. H. Felt, Auburn, N. Y. 

Drags; W.Gardner, Wheelershurg, Ohio. 

Wheels for Vehicles; D. Gribe, Pittsburg Pa. 

Garden Rakes; F. B. Hedge, Greenspot,"N. Y. 

Wagon Bodies; C. W. Kinne, Cortland, N. Y. 

Corn Planters; A. M. Mandy, Roekford, 111. 

Seed Planters; E. M.Potter, Rutherford DeiX)t,Tcnn. 

Cultivators; J. H. Rice; Keithsburg, 111. 

Whiflletree Hooks; O. J. Smith, Wanwatosa, Wis. 

Milk Cooling Apparatus; O. Y. Stickler, Canton, N.Y. 

Vegetable Slicers; A. Vuillier, Newark, N. J. 

Fruit Gatherers; C. A. Werden, Waukegan, 111. 

Harvester Droppers; Cyrenus Wheeler, Auburn, N. Y. 

Clinrns; James L. Wilson, Calhoun, Georgia. 

Harvesters; W. A. Wood, Hoosick Falls, N. Y. 

Hog Ringing Nippers ; W. E. Bingham, Decatur, HI. 

Bee Hives; John Bullock, Deep River, Mich. 

Plows; Cumberlon G. Cox, Richmond, Va. 

Stands for Flower Pots; E. D. Durant, Kenosha, Wis. ' 

Plow Adjusters; S. T. Ferguson, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Harness; Geo. W. Hoover, Kutztown, Pa. 

Harvester Rakes; J. H. Kiston, Roekford, 111. 

Bird Houses; E. A. la Baz, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Corn Planters; L. L. Lawrence, Dublin, Ind. 

Wheels for Vehicles; G. Leverick, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Portable Fences; T. MeSwarz, Daviess county, Ky. 

Lightning Rod; M. D. Phelps, Bristolville, Ohio. 

Plows; Artemas Rigby, LTpper Stillwater, Maine. 

Corn Harvesters; W.N. West, Milford, Mich. 

Cranberry Separators; D.Y. Saurford,NewEgypt,N.Y. 

Horse Checks ; John Sugden and J. P. Gaffney, Law- 
rence, Maes. 

Animal Shearing Machines; Wm. C. Harlow, Med- 
ford, Mass. 

Wheel Cultiv.ators ; G., S. E. W., and E. A. Brower, 
Crawibrdsville, Ind. 

Portable Horse Feeding Supports ; Albert H. Spencer, 
Boston, Mass. 

Bob-sleds; B. K. Verbryck and Thos. Newberry, 
Chicago, 111. 

Machines for Thinning or Spacing Crops ; M. H. 
Eustace, James >fc T. Kennan, Dublin, Ireland. 

Machines ibr Sharpening Horse-shoe Calks; Crasters 
Gleason and R. Hamiltou. Greenwich, N. Y. 

Band Cutting Feeders for Threshing Machines ; David 
Frost, Latrobe, Pa. 

Packages for Prints of Butter; A. Robinson, Web- 
ster, Maine. 

Unloading Attachments for Carts, etc. ; Thomas 
Crossley and L. A. Bertolette, Wilmington, Del. 

• Prepared expressly for The Lancaster Fakmeh by Louia 
Bagger & Co., Solicitore of Patents, Waehington, D. C. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



V. 



koivie:-im[J)lDe: 

FERTILIZERS 

TH£ B£ST. 



Farmers, Attention! 



Upon receipt of 10 eentB, to pay iirintiiig, postage and 
proportion of expense of this ndvertiBenieut, the Oray'e 
Ferry Chemical Works, mtiniifitcturers of Oil Vitriol, 
GrouuJ Bunes and other fertiliziUR materials, will send to 
any farmer or other jierson a rccijie for making n home- 
made fertilizer from bones and other chemicals, at a cost of 
about twenty dollars per ton, without trouble, apparatus or 
machinerj*, pronounced by hiindreds who have used it to be 
equal, if not superior, to any super-iihosphate of lime pur- 
chased in the market. Address 

GRAY'S FERRY CHEMICAL WORKS, 

Ofiace— 105 South Front Street, 

7-3-2m PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

STMNGE_BUTTRUE! 

The TOONG QUA CUCUMBER grows to weigh seventy 
pound'* each, and fine quality. 15 cents per seed; 10 Heeds. 
|l. SNAKE CUCUMBER grows from 2 to 8 feet long, and 
ooils like a snake. 20 cts. per paper. PERSIAN WATER- 
MELON. Very superior, and keeps perfectly /reHh and 
stee t throughout the winter, 20 cts. per paper. STRAW- 
BERRY WATERMELON, finest in cultivation ; 200 prizes; 
10 cts. per paper. JAPAN RADISH . Pods 2 feet long, and 
deUciouB. 15 cts. per paper. MAMMOTH CABBAGE. 
Heads weigh from twenty to sixty poundn pach ; tender and 
sweet ; ten cents per paper. CONQUP:ROR TOMATO, ten 
days earlier than any other variety ; 25 cte. per paper; 

JAPAN PEAS — Two hundred bushels per acre on common 
laud; uneiiualed for stock or table use; grows on an up- 
right stalk. Fifteen cents per paper; fifty cents per pint ; 
eighty cents per quart. 

CHUFAS— Furnish grazing all summer and food for your- 
Belif all Winter; fine for poultry, and fattens more hogs than 
ten times the area in corn; one hundred and fifty bushels 
per acre on poorest land ; ten cents per paper ; forty cents 
per pint ; seventy cents per quart ; ten dollars per bushel. 

NO HUMBUG,— We have certificates to prove all these 
claims. 

ROSE SLIPS— With good roots, of any variety the pur- 
chaser may choose, at four for fifty cents ; nine for one dol- 
lar, twenty for two dollars, one hundred for nine doUara. 

Also, potato, cabbuge and other I'lants at low rates. 

Seeds and roses by mail, pout paid. 

Send for our free catalogue giving full list, descriptions 
and tentimoruala from thorn who have grotcn the above seeds. 
Address 

SOUTHERN SEED & PLANT CO., 

Gallatin, Tenn. 

he Meschacebe says of us: "Their rare and prodigious 
vegetables elicit the ndmiration of all who have the good for- 
tune to visit their celebrated gardens at Gallatin." [7-3-lm 

SEEDS AND BULBS. 



ILLUSTRATED SPRING CATALOGUE FOR 1875 

UrOW READT. 

■sent, with a epecimen copy of The Anifricmi Garden, a new 

lUuslrated Journal of Garden Art, edited by Jamee Hogg 

on receipt of ten cts. BEACH & SON, Seedsmen, ' 

7-S-tf 7(i Fulton St., Brooklj-n, N. y 

ora 20,000 DEALERS 

IN THE UNITED STATES SELL 

BRIGGS & BRO.'S SEEDS, 

And tlie Miyersal verdict is mat Hey 

WII.L CiROW! 



KF"The Quarterly Illustrated Floral Work sent one year 
for 25 cts. Price Lists and Circulars sent free on applica- 
tion to BRIGGS & BROTHER, 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. -or- CHICAGO, ILL 

7-3-lm 

TS0B0T7GSBBED STOCZ 

FOB SALE CHEAP. 



PURE AYSHIRE CATTLE and CALVES, 

PURE JERSEY CATTLE and CALVES, 

of all agee, all very choice and nicely marked, from the 
choicest blood and milking families. Also, 

'■PRIZE CHESTER WHITE PIGS," 

of all ages. •' Unsurpassed,'^ These Pure-Bred Pigs have 
DO superior on this continent. Bred from our prize and pre- 
mium stock. Also, extra improved BERKSHIRE and 
ESSEX PIGS. Order soon. Address, 

CLIPTON FARMS, 

KENNET SQUARE, 

7-3-3m CHESTEB COCNTX, PA. 



RIVERSIDE NURSERIES. 

A fine assortment of NURSERY STOCK, Including : 

APPLE, PEACH, PEAR, PLUM, 
Cheiry, aud other Fruit Trees. 

GRAPE VINES, HLACKBEKRY, llASPBEKRY AND 
STRAWBERRY PLANTS. 

RHUBARB AND ASPARAGUS ROOTS, 

SEASE ti OSHAUZHIAL TSZES, BOSES, SESITBBEBT, te. 

Also a fine slock of FI.OWKKS and OUKKN HOUSE 
PLANTS, TOMATO, CABBAOEand other Vegetoble PUnts 
in season. 

tB'"Send for price list to 

H. M. ENGLE & SON, 

7-3-2m M.\UIKTTA, Lancaster Co., Pa. 

BONE DUST! 

GUARANTEED PURE. 

MAUFACTURED AND FOR SALE BY THE 
UNDEl SIGNED. 

Ko. 1 VERY FINE. 

Bagged and delivered on cars at Leaman Place in any 
quantity for 2X cents per pound. 

No. 2, SIZE OF WHEAT GRAINS, 

2>4 CENTS PER POUND. 
Address, MILTOIV B. ENHI>EMAN, 

7-3-3m LEAMAN PLACE, Pa. 



EVERYTHING 

FOR THE 

GARDEN! 

FOR 

Florists & Market Gardeners, 

at lowest rates — monthly wholeasle lists of 
which mailed free on application. 

35 Cortlandt Sti-eet, 
NEW YORK. 



C H £: IME I C J^ X« 



FERTILIZERS. 



Nitrate of Soda ; Nitrate of Potash; Sulphate of Potash; 
Sulphate of Ammonia; Acid Phosphate—yielding 23 per 
cent. Soluble Phosphate of Lime ; jirice, $27.50 per ton; also 

CLIMAX SUPERPHOSPHATE, 

CONTAINING 3 2(i per cent, of Ammonia and 24 per cent, 
of Soluble Phosphate of Lime. 

In reply to letters of inquiry, prices and the exact analysis 
of any or each of the chemicals will be given : and tliey will 
be sold with GUARANTEE of the quality as stated. 

GEO. E. tVIIITE, 

7-a-2m IGO Front St., New York. 

12 HENS GIVING \ 

PROFIT A YEAR. 

SYSTEM PATENTED. 

GOLD AND SILVER MEDALS, AND SEVERAL 

DIPLOMAS AWARDED TO 

Pror. A. OORBKXT 



MANAOBR OF THE 



GALLINOCULTURE INSTITUTE 

AT HICKSVILLE, N. Y. 
No Humbug. MilliouB of people have seen it. 
Working Book, explaining bow, 50 cts; Circular, 3 cts. 



For Sale at a Bargain. 

A FOSTER HAND PRINTING PRESS, in good order. 
Will print a form 13x18 inches. An excellent press for 
light jobbing. Enquire of PEARSOL & GEI8T, Publishers 
of The Lancaater Farmer 7-3-1id 



TRZZXSS, Stc. 

Weofferfor SPRING, '75, »■> >">u»oally 
large Mtot^k of wcU-Kruwit, thrifty 

Ntnndnrd nn<l nwnrf Friilt Trpea. 
<irnp<- ViiicN, •iinnll FriillK. 
4>rnniii«>iiliil 'l'r4>«*N. Nhriil»s. RoNes. 
Nrw nnci Knrr Friiil nii<l (kriinmrntnl Trr««. 
EV4>rerr<>ii itnfl ItiilboiiH Kooln. 
New ntitl Itnrp <Mr4'4>ii iiiitl llot-lloiiNe I'lantft. 
.Sinatt parreU /oru-ardfl by mail when deeired, 

ritOMrX ATTENTION GIVEN TO ALL KNQUIBIES. 

Daicriptive and liluKtralM Priced Calaloyueji nml prepaid, 
on receipt of utavipn, as/ollow»: 

No. 1— Fruits, IOC. No. 2— Mrnaraoutal Trees. lOe. 
No. 3— Oreenhons", lOo. No. 4— Wholesale. Frco. 

Address, 
Kntcibd 1840. 
7-2-3ni] Munnt ll,>i„- .M/iM-ni-A-, KOCH rsTKK. .\. T, 

MARIETTA NURSERIES. 

We invite the attention of Planters to a very largo and 
fine stock of 

APPLE, PEACH, PEAR, PLUM and CHEItnT TREES. 

Also, SHADE and ORNAMENTAL TUBES. 
Small Fruits, Roses and Green-house Plants. 
Send your orders early. Prices very low. Descriptlra 
Catalogues free. Address 

7-»-2m ENGLE & BRO., Marietta, Pa. 



ELLWANGER & BARRY, 



FIELD, GARDEN AND FLOWER, 

CANARY, RAPE, HEMP, 

Alsike & Wliite Clover; 

LAWN GRASS, GREEN CR 8S, 
CLOVER & TIMOTITY-. 

AT W. D. Sprecher's, 

31 E. KING ST., LANCASTER, PA. 



FLOWEE 

SEEDS, 

VEGETABLE 

SEEDS. 

7-l-3m] 



Spoener's Prize Flower Seeds. 

SpooBcr's BostoD Market 
VEGETABLE SEEDS. 

Descriptive Priced Catalogjie, with 
over 160 illustrations, mailed free to 
applicant. 

W. H. SPOONER, Boston, Mass. 



the: oLiD 



CRESeENT BONE DUST, 




AND OTHER 



RELIABLE MANORES. 



Uni/onn in quality and me- 
chftnicjil condition. 



For Circulars and Low Prices, address 

RALSTOIS & KIRKE, 

Successors to Jno. Ralston A: Co.. 
7-3-2m 170 FRONT ST., New York. 

I(X) 1000 

LODinARDand other choice Flnma, 

1 yr. 2. 4 feet $t2..W $110 
E;irly Beatrice Peach, 1 yr., lat class, 15. 
Alexander & Amsden 1 yr., 1st class, each $1, 

Asparagus Giant lyr., 1000, $2- 2 yrs. 3. 

" Conovers Colossal, 1>T.,1000,$3.S yrs. i. 

Rhubarb choice seediugs, 1.00 6. 

freebymaU 1.50 12.60 

Ash. White. S. 10 ft. 10. 60. 

Black Walnut, 10. U " 8. BO. 

Elm, White 10 12 " 15. 120. 

Uouev Locust, 8. 10 " 7. 80. 

Silver M„|,ie, 12. 15 " 10. 60. 

Mountain Ash, 8. 10 " 8. 60. 

•' *' Weeping, first clau, 12. 

Pine, Scotch fine, 3, 4 ft, lrans[>lanted k root 

pruned. 6. 50, . 
Spruce Norway flue, 2. 3 ft., transplanted and 

root pruned, 6. (SO. 

Berberrv. strong bearing, plantfl, 3. . 25. 
Calycanthus, 1. 2 ft. per 10. 1.50 8. 

Tuberoses, strong flowering roots, 3. 25. 

Sweet Potatoes. Nausemond and Southern Queen roots 
for sprouting, per bushel, $2.->0. Greenhonae and Bedding 
Plaats. Send stamp for price list, or 20c. for 5 Catalogue*. 

7-3-lm F. K. PUCENIJl, BloonaingtoD, lU. 



VI. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



NE\^^ GOODS 

OPENED DAtLT AT 

o xj nsr i>.A.i^ IE n.' s 

MILLINERY AND TRIMMING STORE. 



L,ij>tES, we have just opened a large assortment of 



Hamburg Edgings and Insertings, 

At 6cts. pee Yard up to $1.25. 

Also all the latest atyles of Dreae trimmings, such as 

GIMi>S, FRINGES, 

OF EVEBT DISCHIPTIOlf. 

Alsot ererytbing else kept in a 

FIRST-CLASS 
MILLINERT and TRIMMING STORE, 

And will always guarantee our prices to be the Very Low- 
est and quality the Best. 
Give ua a call at 

GUNDAKER'S, 

142 and 144 North Queen Street, 

7-l-3m1 

HEED, McQRANN & CO., 

Illili ill iiiiii 

LANCASTER CITY. 



Execute orders lor Stocks and Bonds, allow Interest on 
Deposits according to time, Loan Money, Make Collec- 
tions, Buy Gold and Silver, and transact a General 
Banking Business. 
Drafts and Passage Certlflcates for sale on Europe, 
GEO. K. REED, A. M. McCONOMT, 

B. J. MCGKANN, R. H. BRUBAKER, 

PETER McCONOMY, Jr. [7-S-3m 



CONSUMPTION CURED. 



To the Editor— Esteemed Friend: 

Will you please inform your readers that I have a 
positive 

CURE FOR CONSUMPTION, 
and all dlBordere of the Throat and Lungs, and that, by its 
use in my practice, I have cured hundreds of cases, and 
will give 

Sl.OOO.QO 
for a case it will not benefit. Indeed, eo strong is my faith, 
I will send a. Sample, free^io s^ny sufferer addressing me. 

Please show this let'er to any one you may know who is 
soffering from these diseases, and oblige, 
Faithfully yours, 

r>r. T. IB'. BTJItT, 

7-3-6m 69 WILLIAM St., New York. 

JOHN M. COWELL, 

Conveiancer aM Seal Estate Apnt, 

OFFICE IN LAW SUIUjXNG, 

i^. W, COR. DUKE AND GRANT 575., 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Real Estate of all deBcription bought, sold and ex- 
changed on commission. 

Loans Nfgotintfd. Mortgages bought and sold. 

JHropertifs taken in charge, and rents, interest, etc., 
collected. 

l*arlicular attefitioti givenjo matters appertaining to 
Real Estate Law, and Conveyancing. 

I>vedSf Mortgages, llriffs, Wilis and all other legal 
instruments correctly drawn and handsomely and neatly 
engrossed. 

MvxpH of Properties, Lots, F.irme, &c., and Draughting in 
general accurately and handsomely executed. [7-l-l2m 



OUR FENCE CORNERS. 

Whisperings from February. 

The Lancaster Farmer : The February number 
of this excellent monthlj' agricultural newspaper is 
out "on time,,' the fifteenth of each month being its 
regular publication day; and it is a decided improve- 
ment even over the first issue under the new manage- 
ment, both in tyjxjgraphy and the character of its 
contents. Among other improvements the extracts 
and miscellaneous matter are set in a new and com- 
pact readable minion type, which could not be pro- 
cured in season for the January number, and quite a 
new feature are the illustrations, which the publishers 
promise to improve still more upon if the enterprise 
receives proper encouragement from our farmers. 
Prof. Rathvon, the editor, manifests his usual untir- 
ing industry in the editorial department, which con- 
tains articles of interest and practical value on our 
" Situation ; " the Potato Blight ; the Patrons of Hus- 
baudry; the Rust on Blaeberries; What is "Angumen- 
tum ? " Daniel Webster and his kindness to animals ; 
the sex and varieties of Persimmons ; Good Butter 
and how to make and keep it ; Dying for our Country; 
The Agricultural Department of our National Cen- 
tennial, beautifully illustrated with a full page 
engraving, besides minor editorial articles. Henry 
M. Engle" contributes an interesting article on Lan- 
castercounty apples, giving a history of the " Smoke- 
house" and several other local varieties: Casper 
Hiller one on the Persimmon and its culture ; Jacob 
StauflTer the second of his series of "Wheat Glean- 
ings;" Henry M. Engle speaks another good word 
for The Farmer; and J. M. W. Geist, the office 
editor, furnishes a paper on the Culture of the Grape, 
in which Mr. Fuller's system of trellising and pruning 
is advocated and illustrated with engravings. The 
proceedings of our Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society are reported at length, and the prose of farm- 
ing is enlivened by Trowbridge's admirable poem of 
"Farmer John" — 

"You see, old Bay, 
And you, old Gray, 
I'm wiser than when I went away ! " 

Four pages, or twelve columns, are devoted to 
Agricultural and Horticultural Miscellany, Domestic 
Economy, (including various Housekeepers' Recipes) 
and Literary and Personal items. 

It is apparent that the farmers of the county are 
determined that this enterprise, which had been 
languising for some years past, shall be sustained. — 
Lancaster Daily Sxpreff. 



The Latest Acquisition in Sunday-Schools. 

A correspondent of the National Baptist shows 
how one Sunday-school was saved from being "talked 
to death" by its superintendent. He visited a flour- 
ishing school. Its exercises opened promptly, with- 
out an audible voice ; the hymn was silently placed 
on the blackboard, and sung; a teacher, previously 
designated, prayed; another hymn was sung, arranged 
in the same manner, and at once then, with no word 
from the superintendent, the classes entered upon 
their recitations. The visitor expressed his admira- 
tion to a teacher at the quiet order and studiousncss 
exhibited, and asked how this marvelous silence and 
earnestness had been attained. He was led to the 
superintendent and requested to propose the question 
to him. Beginning to say that he had never seen the 
like in his life, the superintendent quietly shook his 
head, and, lifting a little slate, wrote upon it, to the 
visitor's astonishment, "I am a deaf mute !" The 
stranger turned to his friend for an explanation. We 
had been talked to death, he said, in substance, by 
previous superintendents. It seemed impossible for 
an average man to avoid the error, so we chose a 
mute, who is an accomplished Christian gentleman. 



We have received from the publishers. The 
Lancafter Farmer for January. This newspaper has 
lately changed publishers, and at the same time 
changed its form. We do not want to flatter, but the 
change is a vast improvement upon the old Farmer, 
both as to its contents and its typographical appear- 
ance. Its editor is Prof. S. S. Rathvon, a scientific 
entomologist, and one of the best authorities in 
America on the important subject of entomology. If 
our readers desire to become thoroughly acquainted 
with the pests that annoy them most, and of which 
they know the least, we advise them to subscribe for 
the Farmer. It is an imperial 8 vo. of 16 pp., 
printed from clean type, on good paper, and is very 
cheap. Address Pearsol & Geist, Lancaster, Pa.— 
Louisiana (Mo.) Journal. 

•* 

A brow-beating lawyer, in cross-examining a wit- 
ness, asked him, among other questions, where he 
was on a particular day ; to which he replied : " In 
company with two friends." " Friends !" exclaimed 
the lawyer; "two thieves, I suppose you mean." 
"They may he so," replied the witness, " for they 
are both lawyers." ' 



" John, I am afraid you have been forgetting me," 
said a bright-eyed girl to her sweetheart the other 
day. "Yes, Sue, I have been for getting you these 
two years." 



DILLER & GROFF, 



AGENTS FOR 



The best in the market. Guaranteed to 
give satisfaction. 

No pay asked until the coDditions of the guarantee are ful- 
filled. Call and see it with the late improvements. 

ALSO A 

FULL LINE OF HARDWARE, 

BUILDING MATERIALS, 
STOVES^, 

And everything usually kept in a first class Hardware 

Store, at 

m 7 EAST KING STREET. 

7-Mm LANCASTER, PA. 



House Fupnishing Goods 

AT 

JOHN D. SKILES, 

No. 25 EAST KING STREET. 

Just received full lines of 

BLEACHED AISJ) rNBLEACHED 

SMrtiflL Slieetiiii & Pillow -Case Mnsliiis. 

TICKINGS, CHECKS, 

TABLE LINENS, TOWELS, 
NAPKINS, QUILTS, 

COUNTERPANES and COMFORTS. 

PRINTS— Newest Styles. 

PRINTS— Shirting Styles. 

CARPETS, OIL CLOTHS, 

WINDOW SHADES, fco. 

ALL AT LOWEST PRICES. 

Great Reduction in WINTER DRESS GOODS, SHAWLS, 
SKIRTS, he. to make room for Spring stock. Also, closing 
out our Winter Stock of 

EEADY-MADE CLOTHIS"G, 

At Prices Regardless of Cost. 

COATINGS, CASSIMERES and VESTINGS, made to or- 
der or Bold by the yard at greatly reduced prices. 



Call and be convinced. 
T-l-3m] 



JOHN D. SKILES. 



dealers in all KllinS OF 
FA1WII.Y and I.IllIE-BlTRXI9rG COAl, I 

Orders received at 

Office. NO. 15 East King street, and at the 
T-l-l!m] Yard. No. 619 NORTH PRINCE STREET. 



AGRICULTURAL STORE, 

No. 320 North Qneen Street, Lancaster, 

(Near New Market House). 

The Improved Rockaway Grain Fan, Pratt's P.itent Hay 

Rake and Corn Shellers for Horse and Hand Power, 

Cutting Boxes, Corn Planters, and Improved 

Cider MtUe 

of different kinds and sizes ; also, all kinds of Coach- 
makers' Stuff. 

Farmers, look to your interest before bujang elsewhere. 
I can sell at small profits. The Shop is two squares 
northwest of P. R. R. Depot, and two squares south of 
Reading Depot. Hickory Lumber and Spoke Wood taken 
In exchange for Machines. 

PLANING AND SA^WINa 

of all kinds at short notice ; and Caatings kept on hand for 
repairing Farm Machinery. Also, Agricultural imple- 
ments of every description on hand. Wire and Sieves 
made to order for fanners. 



6-B-12m] 



SAMUEL KEELEB, 

Lancasteb, Pa. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



VII. 



CENTRE HALL 

Has now ready the Largest Stock of 

READY-MADE GLOTHING, 

For MEN, YOUTH au.l BOYS, MADE UP OF EVEKY 
VAUIETV OF GOODS unil COI.OUS. 

PBICES TO SUIT EVERYBODY. 



Has an Immense Stock of 

PIECE GOODS. 

All the Latest Styles in the market to make up to order, &t 
low priceB, and at Bbortest notice. 

To save money, buy your ClothiuR at CENTRE HALX, a 
Live HouBO, where they keep up with the times. 

MYERS & RATHVON, 

CENTRE HALL, 12 East King Street, 

6-7-12m LANCASTER, PA. 



CO 



HATS, 

AND 

FTJRS, 

GENTS' GL0VE8, 

AND 

WALKING CANES, 

All at the lowest pHcee, at the 

CENTRAL HAT STORE, 

39 West King Street, 

Next to Cooper's Hotel, 

LA.NCA.STER, PENNA. 

AUES & HESLET. 



0) 



I— ^ 

l-3m 



PATENTS 

OBTADdD BEST iNB CHEAPEST BY 

LEWIS BAGGER & CO., 

. SOLICITORS OP PATENTS, 

\^/'ASHINGTON, D. C. 



ez^Addrfsa nil IclterB to P. O. Box <«. 7-3-12ni 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN PILLS. 



A TAriABLK MEDICINE. 

PROM NEW AND RARK MEDICINAL PLANTS 

RECENTLY DISCOVERED IN THE 

ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 



PURELY VEGETABLE. 

Fifteen yeora of earnest botanical research among these 
mouutaius and valleys have resulted in the diacovery, not 
only of many new varieties of plants, but of new species — 
some of which have wonderful medicinal and curative 
properties. By continued eiieriment their virtues have 
become kuowu — and thus from extracts of these newly dis- 
covered plants are these pills compounded. 

If properly used, they will cure very many disensea, pains 
and aches — aud are more esgeciallv valuable in Dl'.SI- 
M'Et'filA. LlVICRfOMHLAlSl. J yi>lO tISTiON, 
JAVXniCJS, and «11 cases of ITEVKHS. ftH.US, 
VJilNAHYanAKiDSKl'DiBQjse^, HHEVMATISM, 

cosTi jicyEss. II EA urn uns, niAJtRHfEA, 

MVMHS, MEAShES^toT Purifying the Blood, and for 
many other diseases, and all cases of Biliousness and Dis- 
ordered Stom:tcb. 

On orders accompanied by the cawh or fostal order, I will 
send safely by mail jost-paid one boi Pills for 2o cents, one 
duz. boxes, $2.50, one gross boxes, $'24.00. 

J. E. JOHIVSOM, 



OUR FENCE CORNERS. 

Law and Equity. 
It is told of, the lati- Judge Benjamin Tappan of 
Oliio, that when he applied to Judf;cRof the Supreme 
Court for admission to tlie l)ar of that State, he was 
asked the following questionn, to whleh he gave the 
aiiswir as follows: "Mr. Tappan, what is law?" 
Answer — " An unjust distriljution of justice. " Mr. 
Tappan, what is equity?" Answer — A confounded 
imixisitlon upon common sense I" No other questions 
were asked, aud he was given a certificate. 



The Lancaster Fakmek — Edited by Prof. S. S. 
Rathvon: \Vc have before us this excellent periodical 
in a new-ftfid Improved form, makini; a very liandsomc 
appearance indeed, and entitling it to the respect and 
attention of all those who "till the soil, or ply the 
loom or hammer." As a Lancaster literary and 
scientific production. It will command notice for its 
handsome typographical ajipearance, and will com- 
mend itself especially for the solid original matter its 
pages contain. The subscription price is only $1.00 
per annum, which should secure its extensive circula- 
tion anion our worthy farmers throughout our garden 
county and throughout the United States. We 
heartily commend the Farmer to the favorable notice 
of our readers. I'earsol i Geist are the publisherB. 
— Lancaster ]\'eekhj UevUw. 

The Only t>ifference. 

The servant of an army oflicer one day met a crony, 
who Inquired of him how he got along with his fiery 
master. " Oh, ex<-ellently ! " answered the servant; 
"we live on friendly terni.s; every morning we beat 
each other's coats ; the only ditrerence is, he takes his 
off to be beaten, and I keep mine on." 



HEMO^A^LI 

TRIMMING STORE 



The LANfASTER Farmer : The February num- 
ber of this journal Is even belter than the January 
number, which we took pleasure in commending when 
it made its appearance in its new dress. The present 
number contains several excellent editorials on sub- 
jectsof great interest to the farmer and horticulturist, 
while the correspondence and selected articles show- 
that careful editorial supervision has been exercised 
in their preparation and arrangement for the press. 
A beautiful engraving of the Centennial building in 
Philadelphia, is also published In the present number, 
which should be In the hands of every Lancaster 
county farmer, horticulturist and stock raiser. — 

Lancaster Itiielliqeneer . 

^ • 

An intolerable bore, having talked a friend nearly 
out of his senses, finally struck out on the " oyster," 
which he called "one of the most remarkable speci- 
mens of creative wisdom extant," when his friend in- 
terrupted him and "closed the debate" with the ex- 
clamation, "The oyster! Ah, yes, the oyster is a 
glorious fellow. He always knows when to shut up." 
^ 

The Lancaster Farmer : We take pleasure in 
acknowledging the receipt of the Lniicasler Farmer 
for January and February, In its changed, improved 
and enlarged form. We have no doubt that under 
the able control of Prof. S. S. Rathvon, it Is destined 
to occupy a first-class position among the journals 
devoted to scientific and practical Agriculture. lis 
contents are varied and well adapted to the wants of 
the farmers of our county; furnishing them with 
just such information as will be of great ultimate 
benefit to them in their daily avocation. — Marietta 
Register. 

An old-fashioned clergyman named More was 
riding on horseback one stormy day, enveloped in a 
loose" cloak of large proportions and having a broad 
scarlet collar. By the action of the wind the cloak 
was tossing about in all directions, when a gentleman 
rode up on a spirited horse, whleh shied and almost 
threw the rider. " That cloak of yours would frighten 
the devil," said the gentleman. " You don't say 
sol" replied .Mr. More; "why, that's just my 

trade." 

^ 

Lancaster Farmer : The February number Is re- 
ceived. It now certainly ranks among the first of our 
agricultural journals. Prof.S.S. Rathvon, the editor, 
islwidely known as a leading entomologisl, and asbeing 
well versed In the natural sciences and agriculture ; 
hence the Farmer cannot fail in his hands totakethe 
front rank among the journals that furnish useful 
and rellaWe information to farmer, gardener, fruit- 
grower, aud stock raiser. Address the ptiblishers, 
Pearsol & Cielst, Lancaster, Pa.— .V(. Joy Ihrahl. 



Our friends and patrons will plea.sc take notice that 

On the First of April 

will Remove our Trimming and Variety Establishment 

To 54 NORTH ftUEEN STREET, 

Into the Room now occupied by MU. JOHN A. KRBEN, 
as a Dry Goods store, directly opposite the Inquirer 
Printing onice. 

We are dally adding to our stock NEW and HAND- 
SOMK HOODS, and will sell at the Low«8T Prices. 

T-3-lm 

BLIJOMINUTO.N NLTltSKKV, Uloomiugtoii, 111.— F. K. 
Piiu£Nil. Spriii|{ liblsfrec, or thu Hut uf fourc.ituloguetl 
post fruo fur twenty avutii. [7-l-3m 



[urgerYiia ^ |kect(jtj. 



The undersigned have In preparation a NURSERY • 
MAN'S DIRECTORY, embracfiig a list of the 

NURSERYMEN, FLORISTS, SEEDS- 
MEN & TREE DEALERS 

OF THE tJNITED STATES. 

The work will be sold wholly by subscription, the 
price of which will be KIVK DOLLARS HER COPY. A 
limited space will be given to .Advertisements, at the 
following low rates : 

Full page, - $25.00 | One-third page. - $10.00 

Half page, - - u 00 | One-fnurth page, 8.00 
One-sixth page, $5.50. 

For Sample I'ag<'3, and further Information, address 

X). "W. SCOOTT & CO., 
T-3-4m] Printers and Publishers, Galena, Ills. 

VISITING- CARDS. 
FOR LADIES AND OENTLEMBS, 

Printed In the best style at the 6Blce of 

THE FARMER. 

NOW IS THE TIME TO SUBSCRIBE. 

1875. 



1821. 



54th 



"voXiXrjycE. 



7-S-«f 



ST. OEOROE, UTAH. 



A harmless, half-witted creature was accosted by a 
saucy fellow, who thought to make game of him. 
" I say. Jack, lad, dost want a place ! Master wants 
a fool." " \\-, indeed," replied Jack: "wants a 
fool, does he f Then are you going to leave, or does 
he want a couple ?" 

A man who was sentenced to be hung was visited 
by his wife, who suiJ, " .My dear, would you like the 
children to sec vou executed i" " No," replied he. 
"That's just like y.iu," said she; "for you never 
wanted the children to have any enjoyment." 



The Saturday Ivealag Post. 

The Oldest Literary and Family Paper in America. 

Founded Aug. 4, A. D. 1821. 

A large eight-page Journal, priutt'd on fine white paper, 
and beautifully illuHtrated. Contains A& columns of the 
choicest reading. Powerful aud jioj ular UlilciNAL avd 
Sebial Storikh from well known writers of abibty in each 
number, with from ten to fifteen C'omi-leted Talkh, 
Sketches and Essays, covering h wide raD^e of literature, 
and e^ch the best of itn kind. 

Our SPECIAL DEP.\KTMENTS will continue to be a 
brilliant feature ot the paper— The Boudoir, containing 
the very latent fashion news, presented in most attractive 
ferm ; Faikieh' Cclumn, aud Ovr Own Sphinx, never-fail- 
iug sources of iuBtruclion and umuMetnt-nt for the LITTLE 
FOLKS, News OK Inteweht, The Rkviewkb, New Pii»- 
LicATiuNs, Fxt^KTi.K, and the C(>«bkki'Oni>entb' BniEAU, 
contuiuing solid and valuable iubtruction given in Answehh 
TO ALL Inquirers upon almost every tiueetinn which can 
be presouted or diKcuBsed. Since THE POST passed Into 
the hands of the present Editor and Proprietor, neither la- 
l>or nor exj ense have been spared (o make it the VERY BEST 
Literary and Family Paj er pubhshed. New life and vigor 
have l)een infused into the old favorite; the be*t writers 
now contribute to its columns, and the reading matter, il- 
lustrations aud typographical appearance arc e<|Uol to the 
very best. THE POST, during the year 1875. will contain a 
larger fund of instruction, amusement aud entertainment 
than can be procured for the same terms in any other pa 
per published. 

TEIR^i^S FOIR 1875. 

Postage to anv part of the United States, hitherto paid by 
Subscribers, wi'll, after the Ist of Januar>, 187.%. be paid by 
us, without additional charge to our SubscritxTS. 

THE Post will l>e sent to aily address, either single or in 
clubs, as follows: Single Subscrilx-rs, oneoj^y, four months. 
$1-00; "*» muiiths, $1.50; om? y**-'^'', $i.OO. (lubs— Foor 
copies, one year, post-i-aid, for $10 00. which is $2 60 I *'r 
copy. Fight copies, one year, for $20 00, ^^^ »" additional 
copy FREK to any one remitting that amount at one time. 
Additions may be made to clubs at Knnic rales, via.: $^.50 
(^cb. Send stamp for sj ecimcn copy tu 

R. J. C. WALKER, 

EDITOR AND PBOPRIETOB 
727 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 



H 



ORSE-BILLS. 

PL.\1N l)U IN' FANCY COLORS. 

Printed in the Best Style at the olBce of 

THE FARMER. 



VIII. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 




WEBSTER'S Unabridged Dictionary. 

•* The best practical English Dictionary 

KXTANT." — London Qitarterli/ Review, Oct., 1873, 



To the 3,000 Illustrations heretofore in Webster's 
Unabridged we have recently added four pages of 
COIiOREn ILLUSTRATIONS, 

engraved and printed exijressly for the work, at large 
expense, viz.: 

ARMS OF THE STATES AND TERRITORIES. 

ARMS OF VARIOUS NATIONS. 

FLAGS OF VARIOnS NATIONS. 

UNITED STATES NAVAL FLAGS, to. 
Thus adding another to the many useful and attractive 
features of Webster's Unabridged. 



[^"The authority of everybody. 

Proof~20 to 1. 

The sales of Webster's Dictionaries throughout the couu- 
try in 1873 were twenty times as large as the sales of any 
other Dictionaries. In proof of this we will send to any 
person, on application, the statements of more than 100 
Booksellers, from every section of the country. Published 
by «, A C. MERRIMAN, Springfield, Mass. [7-3-lm 

FLORAL 



HEADQUARTERS 

AT 

SCHROYER'S, 

On Harrisburg Avenue, in the Ninth 
Ward, North of the College, 




IN FRONT OP 

H. A. SCHROYER'S GENTS' FURNISHING STORE, 

No. 3 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

Next door to Zuhni's Corner, Ceutre Square, 
Every day during the season, if the weather permits, 
where I will be pleased to accomodate those who cannot 
come to Headquarters. 

t^"The earliest, the beat, and the newest TOMATO 
PLANTS, in Pols and Boxes; also EARLY CABBAGE 
PLANTS, PEPPER PLANTS, &c. 

7-2-3m) GEO. W. SCHROYER. 





OUR 

Illustrated Catalogues 
^01^ 1875 0^ 

EVERYTHING 

FOE THE 

GARDEN! 

( Seeds! Plants ! ) 

Xlmplements, Fertilizers, etc./ 

Numbering nspagesand containing five 
beautiful colored plates^maWci. on receipt 
of 50 cents. 
Catalogue, without plates, free to all. 

85 Cortlandt St., 

NEW YORK. 


1 

1 








D. L. 

P. O. BOX SM. 



SECOND ANNUAL CATALOGUE 

OP 

^ SUSQUEHANNA GREENHOUSES 

AND 

PLANT NUESEEIEB 

NOW READT. 

RESH, Columbia, Pa. 

[7-1 -3m 




K 
H 

< 



% 
K 

< 

pa 



m Stpoilts. 



MONEY TO LOAN AT ALL TIMES, 

at Liberal Hates, at approved security. 

SPECIAL AND LIBERAL TERMS made with parties 
having charge of Trust and Estate Funds. 

B^"Governmeut and State Bonds, Gold, Silver, and 
Coupons, bought and softl. T-l -3m 



We would call the attention of 
housekeepers, and those commenc- 
ing housekeeping, to our very large 
stock of Cooking Stoves, Ranges 
and Heaters, together with our tre- 
mendous variety of House Furnish- 
ing Goods, such as Table Cutlery, 
Britannia and Plated Spoons, Coal 
Oil Lamps and Chandeliers, Wash 
Wringers, Brushes, Brooms, Buck- 
ets, Tubs, and every variety of Tin 
and Copper- Ware, all of which we 
are selling at the Lowest Prices. 
Flinn & Breneman, No. 152 North 
Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 7-3-3m 

$0 '° $20 Q. Stinson 



home. Terms free. Address 
& Co., Portland, Maine. 




My annual catalogue of A'egetable and Flower Seed for 
1875, will be sent free to all who apply. Customers 
of last season need not wi-ite for it. In it will be found 
several valuable varieties of new vegetables introduced for 
the first time this season, having made new vegetables a 
specialty for many years. Growing over a huniired and 
fifty varietiex on my several farms, I would particularly in- 
vite the patron :ge of market gardeners and all others who 
arc especially desirous to have their seed pure and fresh, and 
of the very bent Mtrain. All see^ls sent out from my establish- 
ment are coveted by three warrants as given in my cata- 
logue. JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 

PSIME FRESH OSAGE ORANGE SEED.— l.bush., $7.60; 
•i bush., $14 ; a bush.. i'iO ; 4 bush., $'25 ; 6 bush.. $30. 
7-3-lm F. K. PHffiNIX, Bloomington, 111. 



THE BEST 




LANCASTER, PA. 

JOHN BEST, 

MANUFACTURER OF 
Horizontal, Vertical and Portable, from IX to 100 Horse-Pr. 

STEAM BOILERS^ADAPTED TO ALL 
PURPOSES. 

[7-l-3m 

Castings of all descriptions. Heavy and Light, Made to Order. 






be 
MAILED FREE 
all appli- 
cants.— This Is 
one of the largest 
id iiiost oompre- 
h n s i v e Catnlof^rups 
published; contains ?16 
s, over 300 fine engrav- 
' ings, and gives full desci-ip- 
tioiis, j^riees, and directions 
planting about 1200 varieties 
f Vegot.ible and Flower Seeds, 
Beddini? Plants, Roses, <te., and is 
invaluable to Farmer, Gardener, and 
Florist' Addretss, D. M. FERRY & CO., 
Seedsmen and Florists, DETROIT, MICH. 



EDGERLEY & CO., 

MARKET STREET, 
In rear of Market House, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Persons wanting a good Carriage or Buggy, will do well by 
giving us a call. 

ALL WORK WARRANTED, 

and for the same quality the cheapest in the market. 

We have the best assortment of 

second hand vrork on hajid 

ever offered for sale in 

the county. 

REPAIRING PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO 

7-1 -3m 




Published Quarterly. January Nimber just 

issued, and contains over 100 PaOES, 500 EncravingS, 
dcicrintions of more than 500 of our best Flowers 
and Vegetables, with Directions for Culture, CoLtjKBD 

Plate, etc. The most useful and elegant work of 

the kind in the world. Only J5 cents for the year. 

Published in English and German. 

Address. JAMES VICK. Rochester, N. V. 



1 


^ 


^ 


T 


^ 


111 


H 


t' 




1 


y 


m, 


1 


1 


.x^ 


^ 




^ 


s^^^ 


ite^'^" 






^^^'^Bi 




- 




Prof; S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., APRIL, 1875. 



FEASSOL in GEIST, Publishers. 



THE FARMERS HOME ORGAN. 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY, 
AND MISCELLANY. 

Founded under the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 

Edited Tsy Prof. S. S. EATEVON. 



With the January issue (1875) The Farmer entered upon 
itsaeventh year, uuJerii change of luoprietois, the publica- 
tion ha\iiig bi-en triiUflfened to the inuleiHiKned, who ino- 
pose to make it in :ill re«i>ects a first-ch.sa locil organ of the 
importuut intereHta to which it is especially devoted. 

With this view The FAiiMEn has been enlarged and its 
form changed to the Imjeriul Mag;izine style, each number 
containing tw^nty-fourj-ages Imr.Svo., meiisuring 9J^ by 13 
inches, at least seventeen of which will be exclusively devott^d 
to reading niatrer, the advertisement sand "si anding matter" 
being limited to tbe remauiiiig pages. This inoeasc of size 
and change of form, together with the use of a more compact 
type, enables lis 10 give twice as much reading matter as 
was contained iu the old form. 

If this effort to give the agricultural community of Lan- 
caster county a publication worthy of their honnruble calling 
is liberally seconded, we propose to add other improve- 
ments from time to time, including illustiatioun of impor- 
tant topics of general interest, and papeis from special con- 
tributors on the more important loc;il industries and re- 
Bources of the county — a vride field, which has been very 
little cultivated by our local press. 

Thf coiitril*utioiifl of our able editor, Prof. Hathvon, on 
8ubj.-c'e c-oiiuected with the science of farming, and jtartic- 
ularly lli.it si.eciuUy of which he is so thoroughly a master — 
entoniologicii scieuce— some knowledge of which has bei-onie 
a necflairy to the successfal farmer, arc alone worth much 
more than the ^irice of this i-nblication. 

Thk Fabmeu will bo jmblished on the 15th of every 
month, printed on good pa] er with clear type, iu con- 
venient form for reading and binding, and mailed to eub- 
Bcribers on the following 

TEEMS: 

To subscribers residing within the county — 
One copy, one year, . - _ _ , $1.00 
Six copies, one year, - ..... 5.00 

Ten Copies, one year, ------ y.50 

To subscriljerB outsiile of Laucastor county, indudiitg 
postage pre-paid by the pubUshere: 

One copy, one year, ----- $1.25 

Five copies, one year, - - - - - . 5.00 

All subscriptions will commence with the January num- 
ber unless otherwise ordered. 

All communications intended for publication should be 
addressed to the Editor, and, to secure insertion, should be 
in his hands by the first of the mouth of i)ublication. 

All business letters, containing subscriptions and adver- 
tisements, should be addressed to I he publishers, 

PEARSOL & GEIST, 

Express Buildings, 22, South Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



RATES OF ADTKRTISING.— Ten Cents a 
line Tor each insertion. Twelve liuea to the inch. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



SIX TOPICS ILLTTSTRATED. 

TWENTY-FIVE ENGRAVINGS. 

EDITORIAL ARTICLES: page. 

Colorado Potato-Beetle. Ittutitratedf - 4'J 

(lallinoculture, et Ovaeulture, - ' - .50 

Distinguisliiner Sex in Etise. lUnstraleJ, .51 

The Cost of Our Receut War, - - 51 

Our Paris Letter ami Our Fence Corners, 51 

Susquehanna Sliail. lUnstrated, - .52 

Super-Phosphate from Kaw-Boues, - - .52 

Aliout (irouuil Hogs, - - . - 5:{ 

Rose Culture, ------ 53 

Another Remedy for the Potato-Beetle, .53 

The Illustrations in The Farmf:!!, - - 53 

Coiistruetionof B(.>ard Ftmees. IlliiKti-ati'il, .54 

Good Agricultural Correspondents, - .54 

The Centennial Exix>sition. Ilhtxtratcd^ 5.5 

John Bull After the Colorado-Bugs, - 56 

Alfalfa Clover, Barley, tSte., - - - 56 

Plantins Potatoes Early, - - - 50 

What Fertilizers are Used in Your County ? .56 

A Useful Tahle for Farmers, - - .56 

The Great Lilium Auratuin, - - - 5.S 

Irrigation in the Valley of the Rio Grande, .57 

Frank It DlFFF.NDEnr'FEn, Laucaslfr, Pa. 

Soap, How to Make it, JE - - - - ■5S 

Mountain Tea, Levi S. Keist, Warwick, - 58 

Timber for Fences, Levi S. Reist, Warwick, .59 

Letters, Queries and Answers : - 59 — 60 

Tlie Flower (l.iriliMi — Tiie t,'liineHC Yam — 
Tlie Persinimnti and Scnpi'cnioiigOrai.e 
— Tbe ('uicnl)i) auil Se<'il IMaiitiiip — The 
Potato Beetle and Kaily or Late Phint- 
iiig — I'eoaieHuuil tbe Uo«e-Hug — Apijre- 
ciatiuu of The Fakmkb, &c. 

Our Paris Letter: .... 60 

Farniibg aud Feeding ou the CoQtiueut of 

Enroiie. 

Our Local Organizations : . . 61 — 63 

ProceediugB of tlie Lancaster County Ag- 
rieultin-alaiid Horticultural Society, uud 
tbe Lancaster Pal k AsHociation. 

The Farm and the Dairy : ... 63 

Succes8lul aale of Short-IIoruB — Valuable 
Milk Cows— Setting and Skiiuniilig 
Oiealn— A Little Advice to Fanners — 
How a Dollar Spent will "Pay." 

Farm and Domestic Economy : . . 63 — 64 

The Nutrition of Oatmeal — Now for House 
Cleaning — ParaBites iu Bird Cagefl — 
AlHjut Housework and Help — Home 
Interiors. 

Information About Bees : - - - (H 

The Honey Beo in Farm Economy — 
yueriCM answered alxjut (jueens, Itulian- 
izing stock, kc. 

The Cotemporary Press, ... 64 

Catalogues of Seeds, Plants, &c., . .64 

The Progress of Invention, . - 64— V. 

New Patents Relating to the Farm, Dairy, &c. 

Our Fence Comers, - . . iii, vi, vii. 

Fact and Fancy, \Vit and Humor. 

Business Announcements, . - ii — viii. 



^ 

TIE LANCASTER EXPHESS, 

(DATLT ANTD WEEKLY.) 

Tlje Leadii;^ Local Family and Business Newspaper, and lh« 
oijly Independerjt Republicar; Jouraal it} the County. 



THE ^ FOUNDED 
WEEKLY, \ nv iiiK 

1843 J PRESENT PROPRIETORS, 



f ' 



THE 
A I L Y , 

856 



The Wkekly Expuess U:i8 been Iwfore the citiEenrt of 
Lancaster couuty for u jKirioit of tUIrty-two years, and Th» 
Daily Kxi'Rf.ss for over eighteen ye:irH. DuriiiK thia long 
jieriod, mid without chaut^e of maunf^ement, Tiii-: EXt>RKft9 
hu8 fairly c^iriied it Idr^e share of pntrouage and firmly 
eHtaliliHbed itselt in the public coiitldeiice. an an u))nghl and 
Indereiident journal, never hesitating to defend the right 
and denounce the wrong, no matter where found to exiiit. 
It huB always been a journal of jii-ogreKS, and the outspoken 
friend of cduc.itiou, temperance, 8ound morals and religion. 
Ah iu the i)a8t, so U will continue iu the future, 

TERMS OF THE EXPRESS. 

The Weekly Express, one year, - - - $a.oo 

The Daily Express, one year, .... 5.00 

The Express and The Farmer: To any pertjon roBidiug 
within thy liniiis of IjimcaKler cuunty we will mail — 
The \Veekly and the Lancaster Farmer, one year, $2.50 
The Daily and the Farmer, one year, - 5.00 

REAL ESTATE ADVERTISING. 

The extended circulation of The Kxi'KKbs makes it the 
best medium for advertiHJng Uetl EHtate and Personal 
I'roj erty in the county, a fact which can be allested by the 
many farniers anil utherH who have availe»l Iheintielvei) of 
the UHti of its columns, and to which we invite the attention 
of all having property to dispose of. 

PRINTING SALE BILLS. 

The Exi'itEKK printing ofllce is one of the tMutt fumiflh*d 
e»labliH)inieMt8 for turning nut all kindu of prniting to t>e 
found in the interior of the State. Wc arc prepared to 
print any job from the Hinall visiting card to the largent dale 
or horse Itill, j oster, or broadside, ]jlain or in colom, aa 
quickly as it can Ik- done at any Oiher establishment, and on 
«a reasonable ternis. We muke the i.iil:iting of SaU-bUla 
fur Farmerx a si-ecialty, and guarantee satiiifactiou to our 
cuHtonieru. 

OUR STEAM POWER PRESSES 

include the various patterns ndaptivl to printing books, 
pamphlets, pou'etH. sale-bills, hand-bills, millers' receipts, 
cataloguprt of live Hlock. and any kind of work done in a 
Rrsl-class irinting office; in short anything that may bo 
called for by the fiirnier, merchant, banker, mechanic, or 
business man, and we guarantee to do the work as satisfac- 
tory as it c;in Ui done iu I'lilladelphia or elsewhere. 

With one of the most com)>lete Job Offices in the Rtate, 
aud un8ur|)aasetl convenience8forexpo«lit)ously tuniuig out 
work by the U'st workmeu, under the iwrsonal supervisiou 
of the proprietors, who are both practical printers, all per- 
sona iu need of Printing will find It to their interest to glre 
us a trial. 

PEARSOL & GEIST, 

BOOK. NEWSPAPER AND JOB PRINTERS. 

Express Buildings, 22, South Quecn-st, 
LAITCASTEH, PA. 



Onr Prew* KootnM arc open to Viaitors, and they ar« 
always welcome to look at our machinery iu operation. 



\\ 



II. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



PENSrSYI/VASriA RAII.ROAD. 
Traine leave the Peunsylvauia Depot in this city 
as follows ; 





Leave 


Arrive 


■WESTWARD. 


Lancaster. 


Harrisburg. 


Pacific Express" 


2:45 a. m. 


4:10 a. m. 


York Accommodation.. 


7:50 a. m. 


Col. and York. 


Mail Train via Mt. Joy.. 


11:20 a. m. 


1:00 p. m. 


Mail Train No. 2 via 








11:20 a. m. 
3:25 p. m. 
6.10 p. m. 


1:20 p. m. 




4:50 p. m. 


Harrisblirg Accom 


8:10 p. m. 


Lancaster Triiiu 


7:35 p. m. 


Col. and York. 


Pittsburg Express 


8:56 p. m. 


10:10 p. m. 


Cincinnati Express* 


10:« p. m. 


12:C1 a. m. 


EASTWARD. 


Lsncaster. 


Phil.'.delphia. 


Atlantic Expiess' 


12:40 a. m. 


3:10 a, m. 


Philad 'a Expi i-Bst 


3:55 a. m. 


6:50 a. m. 


Harrieburg Express 


7:20 0. m. 


10:00 a. m. 


Lancaster Train 


9:28 a. m. 


12:25 p. m. 


Pacific Express* 


1.45 p. m. 


4.15 p. m. 


Elmira Express 


3.15 r. m. 


6:5^ p. m. 


Harr jsburg Accom 


6-20 p. m. 


9:30 p. m. 



The Columbia Accommodation Train will leave Columbia 
at 1:00 p. m., and arrive at Lancaster at 1:35 p. m. Keturu- 
ing, leave Lancaster at 3:40 p. m.^ and arrive at Columbia at 
4:15 p. m. 

York Accommodation leaving Lancaster at 7:50 a. m. aud 
Columbia at 8:20 a, m., will couiiect at York with Baltimore 
Accommodation, Bouth, at 9:13, arriving at Baltimore at 
12:05 p. m. 

'J'he York Accommodation, leaving York at 5:50 a. m., con- 
nects at Columbia, at C:35, with the train leaving Marietta at 
6:22 a. m., and at Lancaster, at 7:20 a. m., with the Harris- 
burg Expre88. 

The Pacific Kxpress east, on Sunday, will make the fol- 
lowing stupe, when flagged, viz.: Middletown, Elizabeth- 
town, Mount Joy, Biid-in-Hand, Lehman Place, Gaii, Chris- 
tiana, Parkeeburg, Coatesville, Gleo Lock, and Bryn Mawr. 

•The only trains which run daily. Mail train west on 
Sund.Ty will run via Columbia. 

tRuus daily, except Monday. 



MARSHALLS' 



Centre Square, Lancaster, Fa. 

Top French Kip Boots, For French Calf Boots, For Calf and 
Kip Boots, for heavy Boots and Shoes, 

GO TO MARSHALLS'. 

BOYS' AND YOUTH'S KIP BOOTS. 

RUBBERS OF EVERY STYLE. 

Ladies', Mieses and Children's fine Button Work. Also, 
particular attention paid to customers leaving their meas- 
ure. We use nothing but the best of material, and employ 
none but the best of workmen. 

CS'~Eepairing promptly attended to, [7-l-6m 



The Shirt Maker, 

AND DEALER IN 

FINE SHIRTS, SLEEVE BUTTONS. COL- 
LARS, CUFFS. DRAWERS, NECK- 
TIES. UMBRELLAS. GLOVES, 
SUSPENDERS. EMBROI- 
DERED SHIRT FRONTS. 

SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER, 

WARRANTED TO FIT. 

118 Is^OI^TII Q.TJEEIT' ST., 

(Next door to Horting & Schlott's Hotel), 

LANCASTER. PA. [l-Uim 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN PII.LS. 



A VA1.UABI,E MEniCISfE. 

FBOM NEW AND BABE MEDICINAL PLANTS 

BECENTLY DISCOVEKBD IN THE 

BOCKY MOnNTAINS. 



PURELY VEGETABLE. 

Fifteen years of earnest botanical research among these 
mountains and valleys have resulted in the discovery, not 
only of many new varieties of \ lants, but of new sjecles — 
Bome of which have wonderful medicinal and curative 
pro] ertiee. By continued experiment their virtues have 
bectime known — and thus from extracts of these newly dis- 
covered plants aie these pills compounded. 

If properly used, they will cuie very many diseases, pains 
and aches — aud are more eegecially valuable in J>1'.S'- 

rii:hsjA:j.ivKn iOMPLAiyi, iNniOLSTioy, 

JAVNVICIC, and all cases of JTEVERS, <OLJ>S, 
UJfJNAJtYuiid KIDNEY DiHeuses, HHEVMATISM, 
COS TI r EN ESS, li EA it TJi UJfty, J)1A RItJI OCA , 

MUMPS, MEASLES~for Purifying the Blood, and for 
many other diseases, aud all cases of Biliousness and Dis- 
ordered Stomach. 

On orders accompanied by the cash or postal order, I will 
send safely by mail post-paid cue box Pills for 25 cents, one 
doz. boxes, $2.50, one gross boxes, $24.00. 

J. E. JOHIVSOIV, 



7-3-tf 



ST, GEORGE, UTAH. 



2,000 Copies of The Farmer 

Have been printed each month since 
the publication passed into the hands 
of the present proprietors. Of this 
number the copies not wanted for regu- 
lar subscribers have been sent to leading 
farmers in the various districts of the 
county, for their examination, in the 
hope that they would be pleased with it 
and become subscribers. We are proud 
to be able to state that The Farmer has 
made a very favorable impression where- 
ever it has been read, and we have every 
reason to believe that its subscription 
list will be doubled before the year is 
out. Lancaster being one of the most 
populous and wealthy agricultural coun- 
ties in the nation, this journal is a very 
desirable medium for those who wish to 
reach a thrifty class of farmers. 



itow^ P!airil 



A New Work by a Praotical Painter, design 
ed for the ate of Xradesiueii« ITleelianics, 
]TIcrc1iaiits. Farmers, aud as a Guide tn Pro- 
resxional Painters. Coutaining a Plain Com 
mon-Sonse StateBient of the Methods employed by | 
Painters to produce satisfactory results in Pltiiu 
and Fancy Paintingof every description, inclnd 
Ing Formulas for inixlug Paint in Oil oi 
Water, Tools required, etc. This is just the Book 
needed by any person having anything to paint, and 
makes 

"Every Man His Own Painter." 

Pull Directions for Using White liCad— liamp- 
Biack— Green — Yel low — Brown— ^Vliit- 
iiig — Glue — Pumice Stone — Spirits ol 
Turpentine — Oils — Varnishes — Furni- 
ture Varnish — rank Paint — Preparing 
Kalsomine, etQ. 

Paint for Outbuildings 

— Whlteivash- Paste for Paper-Hangliig- ' 
Hamming; Paper-Graining in Oalc, niaple, 
Rosetvood, Black Walnut — Staining— 
Decalcomania— niakins Rustic Pictures 

— Painting Flower-Stands — Roseivood 
Polish- Varnishing Furniture — Wax- 
ing I< urulture— Cleaning Paint— 

Paint for Farming Tools 

-for Machinery-Household Fixtures, elo 

To Paint a Farm Wagon 

— to Re-Varnish a Carriage— to make Plas- 
ter Casts. The work is neatly printed, with illiis- 
tratlons wherever they can serve to make the subject 
plainer, and it will save many times its cost , 
yearly. Every family should possess a copy. Prico ' 
by mail, post-paid, $1. Address j 

THE FARMER, f 

, „ ,.^ Lancaster, Pa i 



A. K. SPURRIER, 

At Mayor's Of&ce, Lancaster, Pa. 

Criminal business promptly attended to at all hours. 

SPECIAL ATTENTION paid to Civil BusinesB. Collec- 
tions carefully attended to, and returns promptly njade, on 
reasonable terms. 

DEEDS. JUDGMENTS and MORTGAGES 

executed on short notice, aud satisfaction guaranteed. 






4> 
r* 

m 



Meres 




MONE¥ TO LOAN AT ALL TIMES, 

at Liberal Rates, at approved security. 

KT'KCIAL AND LIBEHAL TERMS made wltb parties 
having charge of Trust and Estate Funds. 

II3F"Government and State Bonds, Gold, Silver, and 
Coupons, bought and sold. 7-l-12in 

UTAH NATIVE PLANTS. 



Our climate is so niUd we Beldom have snow in the valleys 
— but in midsummer may find snow and ice in a day's ride. 
The plants from the regions of the extremes of heat and 
cold meet here and hybridize ; thus the many new plants — 
some very beautiful in bloom, and attractive as ornaments. 
Several new SPECIES have been discovered, and many more 
new varieties. 

I will send plantB or seeds, each in the proper season, for 
orders accompanied by the "ready," and in some instances 
will exchange for the rare and beautiful, for garden and 
couservatory. J. E. JOHKSON, 

7-3-tf St. George. Utah. 



Egtablisiied 17701 



Established 17701 



H.C. DEMUTH, 

MANUFACTUKER OF 
J, 



AND 



'§ Celt 

AN 

JOBBER IN CHEWING & FINE-CUT TOBACCOS 

All the best tobacco in the maiket at the lowest re- 
tail prices. [7-1-fm] 

114 E. King St.. Lancaster, Fa. 

The Only Place in lown for Cheap Soap. 
HERMAN MILLERS 

STEAM SOAP AKD CAKDIE WORKS, 

42 EAST KING ST. Fictory-SOrTTH WAIIB ST. 

K eeps constant ly on hand a good assortment of 

SOAPS OF ALL KINDS. 

Tallow and Fat taken In exrhange at tie highest mar- 
7-2] ket prices. Patent Wlieel Grease for sale. |(jm 

LANCASTER, PA., 

With whom may be found, at Wboleeale and Retail, a large 
aesortment of 

^KUGS, ^EDICINXS&I^^MEMICALS 

Fancy and Toilet Articles, 

SPONGES, BRUSHES, PEREUMEBY, &c., &c. 



Phyeicians' PreBcriptions cai-efully compounded, and orders 
answered with cure and dispatch. The Public will 
tiud our stock of Medicines complete, war- 
ranted (genuine, and of the best quality. [7-l-6m 

HORSE-BILLS. 
PLAIN OR IN FANCY COLORS, 
Printed in the Best Style at the olBce of 

THE FARMER. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



III. 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

ZAHMS CORNER, 

ITorth Queen Street & Centre Suc[are, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



A PULL ASSORTMENT OP 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN WATCHES, 
CLOCKS, JEWELRY, SILVER- 
WARE, AND 

SILVER-PLATED WARE. 

SOLE AGENT IN LANCASTER CODM FOR THE SALE OF 

The Aruiidel Tinted Spectacles. 

Theso Spectaclcfi have h'.'en bt-foro the public now for 
Bomo years, and have given entire satisfaction. They are 
uuquoatiouably the bent in the market. 

WATCH REPAIRING 

and GENERAL JOB WORK in all its branches promptly 
done. The well-earned reputation of 

for flret-clasa work \viU be fully maiutaiued. 

EDV/.J. ZAHM, 

ZAHMS CORNER, 
North Queen St. and Centre Square, 
7-3.3m LANCASTER, PA. 



DILLER & GROFF, 



AGENTS FOR 



The best in the market. Guaranteed to 
give satisfaction. 

No pay aeked mitil the coudilions of the guarantee are ful- 
filled. Call and 8©e it with the late improvements. 

.\LSO A 

FULL LINE OF HARDWARE, 

BUILDING MATERIALS, 
SSXOVK*, 

And everything usuiUj- kept in a first class Hardware 
Store, at 

. W. 7 EAST KING STREET, 

7-i-cm LANCASTER, PA. 

IB. IB. lVt.A.H.TII>J", 

MANUFACTURER OF 




Wlttiainspnrt antl T^ck tlnvt'n, 

BiU Mills— ROUND ISLAND & PORT.\OE, PA. 
7-1] Retail Lumber and Coal Yard, [6m 

WATER STREET, ABOVE P. R. R., LANCASTER, PA. 



IF YOU WANT A 
SS-WZITG MACSZITS, 

don't dot one before you examine the 

REMINGTON, 

— AT — 

H. A.SCHROYER'S GENTS' FURNISHING STORE, 

No 3 NORTH QUEEN STREET, 

NEXT DOOR TO ZAHM'S OOBKEK, 
WHO IS AGENT FOR LANCASTER COUNTY. 
t»-8end for Circulars. [7-»-3m 




JQHN H. HETZLEE, 



One of Ben. Butler's Last. 

One of the last as well as one of the neatest lilts 
maJe liy (Jeneral Hiitler, just before the elose of the 
last session In Coiiirress, oeeiirreil iliirini; llie fumcms 
"deaiMoek" tifrhl on the Civil Ki^'hts Hill. The 
question of adjournment was tinder eonsiileration, and 
(ieneral Butler had stepped over to Mr. Kamlall's 
desk for a jirivate eonsultation. Butler favored a 
iSiiiiday session. Kandall opposed. 

•• Had as I am, I have some respeet for God's day," 
said llii^ Demoerat, ''and I don't think it proper to 
hold a session of Congress on that day." 

" Oh, pshaw ! " resixmded Bntler, " don't the bible 
say that it is lawful to pull your ox or your ass out 
of a pit on the Sahhath-day ! You have seventy-three 
asses on your side of this House that I want to Ret out 
of this ditch to-morrow, and I think I am engaged In 
a holy work.'! 

" Don't do it, Butler," pleaded Sam. " I have some 
respect for you that I don't want to lose. I expect, 
some day, to meet you in a better world." 

" You will be there, as you are here," retorted 
Butler, ipiick as thought — " a manber uf the Lower 

In the eaki.y days of Ontario county, N. T., 
lived one Miller, from whom " .Miller's Corners," 
near Bloointielil, took its name. He had lieeii a black- 
smith, and had broui;ht alom; his tools, Imt desi;;nKd 
to give his attention mainly to fanniie^. But there 
were so many calls upon his mechanical skill that, 
without stopping to build a shop, he extcinporized a 
forge, cut down a tree, placed his anvil on the stump, 
ami went towork. Oneday ona man horsebaek. with 
plow-irons strapped across liis saddle, who had made 
his way from the south part of Canandaigua, encoun- 
tered ilarvey Heeoek at the Oliver Chapin School 
hou.se Corners, and inquired the way to Miller's hla<k- 
sinith shop. Heeoek replied : " You are in the shop 
now, but it is three miles to the auvil ! " 

Plowing made easy, is what the American farmer 
wants, and the wits of tlie Yankee inventor have 
at last soared to the comfortable solution of the 
problem. It goes forth to the public as a "shade 
attachment for plows," and consists of an utnbrella 
so fitted that the man at the plo<v is screened from 
the heat of the sun. The legal and formal descrip- 
tion, as filed at the patent olli<'e, is as follows : "A 
cranked arm is secured in a socket by means of a set 
screw, and is free to revolve in a horizontal plane. 
The outer cud of the crank is jointed, and provided 
with an adjusting brace, whereby it may be inclined 
and secured at any desired angle. A suitable socket 
at the upper end of the arm holds the umbrella 
handle, retaining the same by a simple spring catch." 
Illinois is just now in such a ferment about a 
bishop that the following is not malapropos. We are 
indclited for it to a correspondent who has heretofore 
sent us anecdotes of the late Bishop Whitchouse. 
During one of his sermons he undertook to illustrate 
a point by telling the congergalion how he had once j 
been lost on the prairies of Illinois, and had \yandered 
for a long time, weary and almost hopeless. At last, 
he saw a light, and ma<ie his way slowly toward it, 
shouting for help. "Just as I thought I could go no 
farther," said the bishop, "and was about sinking 
dowu in despair, the door of a cabin was opened before 
me, and the loiiq luohed-for ^Sucker' came." The 
unintentional pun brought dov.n the house. 

Of the many .iuvenile funniments that bubble 
up ami seek for publicity through the types, the fol- 
lowing of a little New Hampshire girl — quite mature 
at six — is not bad. She went into a store where her 
father was lounging, and slyly approaching him, said, 
" I'apa, won't you liuy me a new dress !" "Well, I'll 
see, I'll speak to your mother about it." A sad look 
came over the little maiden's face, until looking up 
with a smile into the paternal eyes, she said, " Well, 
papa, if you do speak to mamma about it, touch her 
easy, or she may want it herself! " He bought it — 
for the daughter. 

A Gascon who had a quarrel with the Bishop of 
Bazas, swore that he would never again pray within 
the diocese. Long afterward, in crossing a river in 
the neighborhood, "he was overtaken by a severe Imrii- 
canc. The boatman at last told him despairini;!y 
that nothing further could be done to keep the boat 
afloat, and that he had better recommend himself to 
the mercy of God. " Are you sure," said the Gascon, 
"that we are beyond the diocese of Bazas ?" 

A fi:w days since a very pretty young married 
woman, during a dinner-table discussion on Chureh- 
manship, opened the eyes of the company and demo- 
lished Iter husband by expressing, as her opinion, that 
"the only difference between the ritualists and Koinan- 
ists was in the fact that the latter burned iusccls." 

A J HUGE in whose court was a great deal of noise, 
exclaimed, "Ollicers ! call silenceinthe court. It is 
a strange thing that this noise cannot be put a stop 
to. I have decided I do not know how many cases 
without having heard them !" 




No. 9 SOUTH DUKE ST., 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Real Kstate hou'^ht. sold ami exch.inge(l. Loans nc- 
BOtlatcrt. I'rop.Tiicsr -u'ed. and 1 ntH co'.lect'^il. 

Affcnt forth' FARMKKS' Kli.E ISSUUANlE <0. of 
York, I'a. Assets, over f'JiJO.iOO. 7-l-3m 

1760. ESTABLISHED 1760. 



GEO. M. STEINMAN & CO., 

26 and 28 W. KING ST., 

HARDWARE. 



BUILDING HARDWARE, GLASS, 
PAINTS. OILS, PUMPS, 

TERRA com, IRON aiillSAD PIPE. 

LEATHER BELTING, 

SEEDS, PHOSPHATES, AND 
FAEM IMPLEMENTS. 



AGENTS FOE THE 
"OHIO" REAPER AND MOWER, 
WHANN'S PHOSPHATE, 
FAIRBANK'S SCALES, 
DUPONT'S POWDER, 
HARRISBURG NAILS, &C., &c. 

We have the largest stock of i{<>iieral Hardware Id the 
State, and our prioia are as low and terms aa liberal a« can 
be found elHOwUere. 7-3-301 

LUMBER FOU FARMERS. 

NO MIDDLE-MEN. 

We have a large stock of Lumber, and one of the most 
extensive Sash and Door Factories in the Stale, and we are 
prepared to furnish Honne and Karn Dills cjmiiletc. 

All kinds of Manufactured iMMiciiig, &c., making a speci- 
alty of suiiplving the auricullural eommiinily. We will 
make prices itilivered to any Uiilroad Station. All our 
material (flinranlped as rejiresented. All manufactured 
work kiln-dried and warranted not to shrink. All inquiries 
cheerfully answered. 

One of the firm can be seen at the Franklin House. North 
Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa., on Mjnday of each wv'ek. 

KENDIG, BRICKER&LAUMAN, 

7_i_12m] Middlctown. Dauphin co.. Pa. 



J. STAUFFER, 

LANCASTER, PENN'A, 
235 EAST ORANGE ST. 



All raattc-8 apperliiining to TNITED .ST.\TES or CANA- 
DIAN PATENTS. TKADE .MAUKS. and COPYHrOHTS. 
promptly attended to. His eil)erience, success a d faithful 
attention to the interests of those who engage his •orvicee 
are fully acknowledijcd and appreciated. 

Prellmiuari- (•xamiualions made for him by a reliable As 
sistant at Washingtou, without extra charge for dr^ng 
ur description. l7-4-tx 



IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



THE, 011.0 



ORESeENT BONE DDgT, 

AND OTHER 

RELIABLE MANURES. 

Uniforin in quality and me- 
chanical condition. 
Tor Circulars and Low Prices, address 

Successors to Jiio. Ralston & Co., 
_3_o~ 170 FRONT ST., New York. 




xioiviEi-iyEAXiE: 

FERTILIZERS 

THE BEST. 

Farmers, Attention! 



Upon receipt of 10 cents, to pay printing, postage and 
proiortiou of ex] euse of Ibis advertisemeut, the Gray's 
Ferry Chemical Woris, mannfaclurers of Oil Vitriol, 
Ground Bones and other fertilizing materials, will send to 
any farmer or other person a reci] e tor making a home- 
made fertilizer from bones and other chemicals, at a cost of 
about twenty dollars per ton, without trouble, apparatus or 
machinery, jirouounced by huudieds who have used it to be 
equal, if not su] erior, to any super-phosphate of lime pur- 
chased in the market. Address 

GRAY'S FEEEY CHEMICAL WORKS, 

O face— 105 South Front Street, 

7-3-2m PHIL.\DELPHIA, PA. 

STMNGE_BUTTIIUE! 

The TOONG QUA CUCUMI3EK grows to weigh seventy 
pounds each, and tine quality. 15 cents per seed ; 10 seeds, 
$1. SNAKE CUCUMBER grows from 2 to 8 feet long, and 
coils iike a snake. 20 cts. per paper. PERSIAN WATEB- 
MELON. Very superior, and keeps perfectly /rcs/i and 
sweet lliTOtlrjhmit the winter. 20 cts. per paper. STKAW- 
BERRY WATERMELON, hneat in cultivation; 200 prizes; 
10 CIS. per paper. JAPAN RADISH. Pods 2 feet long, and 
delicious. 1.") els. per jiaper. MAMMOTH CABBAGE. 
Heads weigh from twenty to sixty pounds each ; tender and 
sweet ; ten cents per pajier. CONQUEROR TOMATO, ten 
days earlier than any other variety ; 25 cts. per paper; 

JAPAN PE.\S— Two hundred bushels per acre on common 
land ; unequaled for stock or table use ; grows on an up- 
right stalk. Fifteen cents per pajier; fifty cents per pint ; 
eighty cents per quart. 

CHUFAS — Furnish grazing all summer and food for your- 
self all Winter ; line for poultry, and fattens more hogs than 
ten times the area in corn ; one hundred and fifty bushels 
per acre on poorest laud ; ten cents per paper ; forty cents 
per pint ; seventy cents per quart ; ten dollars per bushel. 

NO HUMBUG.— We have certificates to prove all these 
claims. 

ROSE SLIPS— With good roots, of any variety the pur- 
chaser may choose, at four for fifty cents ; nine for one dol- 
lar, twenty for two dollars, one hundred for nine dollars. 

Also, potato, cabbage and other plants at low rates. 

Seeds and roses by mail, punt paid. 

Send for our free catalogue giving full list, descriptions 
and testivioniats frmii those who have groivn the above Heeds. 
Address 

SOUTHERN SEED & PLANT CO., 

Oallatin, Tenii. 

Le Meschacebe says of us: "Their rare and prodigious 
vegetablcH elicit the admiiation of all who have the good for- 
tune to vi«it their celebr:ited gardens at Gallutiti." [7-3-3m 



The undorslgncd have In preparation a NURSERY 
MAN'S DIKE(_TURy, emljraelag a list of the 

NURSERYMEN, FLORISTS, SEEDS- 
MEN & TREE DEALERS 

OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The work will be sold wholly by subscription, the 
prlee of which vrlll he FIVE DOLTARS PER COPY. A 
limited space will be given to Advertisements, at the 
loUowlni,' low rates : 

Full page, . $2.1.00 I One-third page, - $10.00 

Hair page, - - 14.00 | One-Iourth page, 8.00 
One-sl.xth page, $5.60. 

For Sample Pages, and further Inlormatlon, address 
ID. -W. SCOTT &; CO., 

T-3-4m] Printers and Publishers, Galena, Ills. 



PUBLIC SALE BILLS 
FUR REAL ESTATE OR PERSONAL PRORERTY, 
Printed expediously at the otlice of 

THE LANCASTER FARMER. 




EEO.W.BRflWn 

FDSMITDRE WAREEOOfflS, 

No. 13 EAST KING STBDET, 

Over Llpp's Tin Store, next door to First 
National Bank. 

PARLOK,DINING-BOOM 



AND 

KITCHEN FURNITURE. 

UPHOLSTERING DONE IN 
ALL ITS BRANCHES. 

HAIR, HUSK & COMMON MATTRESSES. 

CANE AND WOOD-SEAT 
O 13: ^^ I IFL S . 

All kinds of Ftirnitnre made to Order. 
t»~Repalring of all kinds promptly attended to. 
7-l-6ni] GTIO. W. PRCWW. 



d 

SI 

H 

d 

V 

SI 





RLMOVLD FROM S. WATER ST. 






CO 
Q 

-4 

DO 

to 

Co" 

/§ 

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MILLWORK 

OF ALL KINDS 

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Estimates Fnruislieil 

Aud all iuformatiou con- 

ceruiug the business 

cheerfully given. 



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GUARANTEED PURE. 

MAUPACTUBBD AND FOR SALE BY THE 
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No. I VERY FINE. 

Bagged and delivered on cars at Leaman Place in any 
quantity for 2>j cents perpjund. 

No. 2, S ZE OP WHEAT GRAINS, 

2M CENTS PER POUND. 
Address, MIIiTOX B. ESHLEMABr, 

7-3-3m LEAM.\N PLACE, Pa. 

EVERYTHING 

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at lowest rates — monthly wholeasle lists of 
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C XI E: 3VE I C .A. X. 



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CLIMAX SUPERPHOSPHATE, 

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GEO. E. WHITE. 

7-3-2m 160 Front St., New York. 



DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OP 

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DEALER IN 

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Case mi Wmi-Ue^i Okdfs, 

ALSO AGENT FOR THE CELEBSATED 

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A FOSTER H.\ND PRINTING! PliESS, in good order. 
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light jobbing. Enquire of PEAKSOL & GEIST, Publishers 
of The Lancaster Farmer 7-3-lm 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Pro£ S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. APRIL, 1875. 



Vol. VII. No. 4. 



COLORADO POTATO-BEETLE. 

« {Doryphora deeemlincata.') 

The accoinpanyiiiK liE;iiivs, wo tliiiik, suffi- 
ciently illustniU' this iiuw notorious insect, in 
its various stages of dcvolopment, without iii- 
ttictiuf; upon our readers a tcelniical descrip- 
tion of it. It may, liowever, Iw necessary to 
state, Ijy way of simplilicatiou, that a a shows 
the CfiRS. deposited in groups on tlie under- 
sides of tlic potato leaves; and which, 
when first deposited, are of a lemon 
yellow color: 6, ?j, 'j, the hirnr, of vari- 
ous ages, colors, oraiific and black; r, 
thepi(jj((,a lit;ht clay yellow,and always 
found under ground; d, (?, the hiuitjo, 
or adult l)ectle, colors dark clay yel- 
low and tilack; e, a wing cover, magni- 
lied, illustrating itsspeciliclineations, 
theother figures being the natural size; 
/, one of the posterior legs. 

The most common translation of 
the Latin name is " Tenlined Siiear- 
man," y/hich. tptviJifdHi/ seemsobvious 
enough, but i/oicriVd??;/ it would bedif- 
Ikult to see anything aliout the insect 
that conveys the idea of a spearman. 
These figures, together with the living 
forms, which are becoming familiar to 
potato growers in Lancaster county, 
will enable those to identify them who may be 
yet unacquainted with their general appear- 
ance. 

It seems hardly necessary to publish the his- 
tory of the "Colorado Potato-Beetle" again 
in the columns of The Faumek, and yet, in 
view of the fact that it may come before a larger 
nimiber of readers since " our new departure " 
than it did in our former volumes, and that past 
e.xperiences have had a tendency to direct the 
attention of potato growers towards a more 
thorough imjuiry than they have condescended 
to bestow uiion it heietofore, it may not be in- 
appropriate to reproduce what we have for- 
merly written, with such modifications, addi- 
tionsand corrections as subsequent experiences 
seem to suggest. And again, notwithstanding 
the floods of literature with which our country 
is now almost everywhere deluged, it is some- 
times discreditably apparent that a great many 
peoplestill read •'little or nothing," and espe- 
cially those who, one would think, have the 
greatest interest in reading the practkal mat- 
.ter that h:is appeared, from time to time, in the 
columns of the agricultural, horticultural and 
scientific journals of the country. Moreover, 
if it requires periodical preaching, and thecon- 
.stant illustration of "line upon line," and 
"precept upon i)recept," to impress or remind 
people of tlieir ridigions obligations, wecannot 
reasonably expect that they will give heed even 
to tluir material interests — especially where 
reading is involved — without a reiteration of 
our admonitions, in res|)ect to those things 
which are likely to seriously ((/fWthose interests. 

In the spring of 1845 a friend of ours, hxtated 
in Wisconsin, in the vicinity of Grand de Tour, 
and him we had pri'viousiy commissioned to 
collect for us the insects of that region. His 
first instalment we received sometime during 
tlie sunniier of that year, and among them were 
four specimens of a large chrysomelan, which 
we subse(iuently submitted to a competent 
coleojiterist — for we then possessed neither de- 
scription nor catalogue of American insects — 
and hc> named them Poliiyramma W-lineaUi of 
S.\Y, with juncta of Gekmek, as a synonym. 
On a subsequent occasion we received two spe- 
cimensof the same species,but somewhat larger 
in size, from South Virginia. Allied species, 
then included in the genera, lllephnridn, Lahi- 
donifru, Zij(jn(jriiinmn and Cal'lijrnpha, we had 
frequently found in Lancasterand York coun- 
ties, hut we never noticed that any of them fed 
upon the potato tops. Calliifrapha we gener- 



ally found most abundant on the dwarf willows. 
For about fifteen years our groU|) of (^hry- 
sonu'lans remained undisturbed, unlit the laie 
lamented Mit. WAl.sii.of Hock Island. Illinois, 
demonstratiMl tliat U)-linc(tl<i. Mid* iiiitft<t were 
not .synonyms, but distinct; that those we re- 
ceived from (irand dcTonraiid Virginia were 
thi' junctit, and that h)-linii<i from (!ol<irado 
and farther west, only reached Wisconsin, 
Iowa and Illinois, about 18(jl or 1802. And 




that wherever they appeared they were par- 
ticularly destructive to the vines of the common 
potato, {Solanum tubcrosuni,) and since then 
they have become a common pest. 

This enemy of oneof our most essential crops 
having, to all appearance, now fixed itself in 
Lancaster county, allow us to ott'ersome specu- 
lations as to how it got here so far in advance 
of its usual yearly progress through the AVestern 
States. In 1S71 we heard of its being within 
twenty miles of the western boundary line of 
Pennsylvania; and as its previous progress had 
been from sixty t(j .seventy miles a year, we 
might naturally have looked for its "advance 
guards "in this county, about the year IS7.") 
or 187(). But it was here already in IS7-J, and 
as its first appearance was in the vicinity of 
the Pennsylvania railroad, there is reason to 
conjecture" that it had been brought here some- 
how on the rolling stock of that road. In 1870 
a few of these beetles had been discovered in a 
potato patch in the town of Worcester, Ma.ss., 
according to Dr. Packard, who gave it as his 
opinion that they had been conveyed thither 
on the railroad, as the enclosure in which they 
were discovered was in proximity to tlie road. 
But through Yankee ingenuity and vigilance 
they were exterminated. 

No\\', the last brood of the season of this insect, 
either in its pui>a or mature state, hyljcrnates 
during the winter sea.son — that is, l)ecomes 
torpid — either under the ground, un<ler heaps 
of field rulibish, or in " cracks and ci'cvices," 
or other convenient hiding ))laces. In the 
autumn of 1871 they were noticed near the 
eastern boundary of Ohio, deserting a potato 
field V)ecau.se no more potato plants wore in 
their green or succulent slate, and winter was 
approaching. Tliey were so nunurous in cross- 
ing over the rails of the ro.ad, that the driving 
wlieels of the engines would sometimes make 
a whole revolution without making any for- 
ward progress, in consequence of the cruslied 
bodies of the insects lubricating the tracks. 
AVe may, therefore, reasonably conclude, that 
some of them took refuge in the rolling stock 
standiiig on the road, or in exposed freight, 
subsequently lo.aded on the cars — for even the 
streets, sidewalks and yards of some of the 

*We are in possession of iltiislratioiisof tliisiiiseet, 
and in a future nuinliernf our jnurnai we will publit^li 
ttieni ami piiinl out the speejJie ilistinetions lietween 
it and lO-Zute/d, auil also soniethinir alK)ut its -jreo- 
trraphioal distribution, its history and its habits, fur 
the edilication of our readers. 



towns, were full of them and thus were con- 
veyed toother remote localities. It isditlicult 
to comprehend how they could so soon have 
crossed the Allegheny mountains, and have 
reached ICastcrn Pemi.sylvania, on any other 
theory. 

It is true that the matured beetles arc pro- 
vided with ample wings, and although tlieir 
flight is sluggish, they may still possess the 
power of flying a great distance in calm 
weather. Butterflies have an appar- 
ently weak and awkward flight, anil yet 
they have been known to alight on the 
■y^~J rigging of vessels ninety or a hundred 
mihsoutalsea,iufair weather. Insects 
of various kinds have fri'ipiently teen 
known to cross the liritisli (^haimel, a 
distance of thirty or forty miles from 
the continent of Em-ope "to England, 
and vice v< r.sn. This does not preclude 
theiiossibilityof their being also trans- 
ported by artificial means, and it was 
evi<lently by such means that they were 
first brought into Lancastercounty. 

Although potato growers are liegin- 
ning to acipiirc a realizing sense of 
their destructive habits, and to learn 
Something of their individual identifi- 
cation, yet there is a vast amount of 
the most profound ignorance still 
abroad in reference to their history, their trans- 
formation, and their modes of reinvnluction 
and [lerpetuation ; some alleging that the 
" white butterfly" deposits the eggs from which 
the disgusting grubs are hatched; others that 
the grubs are the parents of certain plant-lice 
which infest the potato vines; and others again 
that when the female is d<me laying her eggs 
she creeps into the groimd, and comes forth 
again rein vigorate<l; many of them vigorously 
warring against the grubs," but paying no atten- 
tion to the mature beetles — the authors of the 
pestilential hordes. 

Although the lives of virgin or gravid female 
in.sects may be jirolonged to an iiulcfinite 
period, yet when they have oviposited, they 
usually .soon die thereafter from exhaustion. 
As the female "Colorado Beetle" deposits 
from one thou.siind to twelve hmwlred eggs 
within a period of about forty days, there is 
reason to believe that she .soon thereafter shares 
the common fate. This is also the ca.sc with 
the males after their sperniatozoic energies are 
exhau.sted. Therefore those which survive the 
hybernating period .and make their apj)earance 
in early spring, are either gravid or virgin 
female, and imexhau.sted males. We have seen 
the .sexes in coin in the early |)art of .June, and 
therefore concluded that they had hylH-rnated 
in the pupa state; theearlier eggs must there- 
fore have been from females impregnated la.st 
year. 

Under these circumstances then, it becomes 
the bounden duty of all tin- imtato growers in 
a district infested by theColorado Potato Bee- 
tle to exerci.se a vigilant watch for the.se insects 
early in the spring, evcm tefore their potato 
plants have broken through the surface of the 
ground, and by careful and thorough hand- 
picking or otherwise, to gather and destroy all 
the adult Ix'ctles as soon as they make their 
ai)i)earance; for in so doing they destroy from 
ten to twelve hundred insects in embryo. 
Although the beetles themselvesalsofeed upon 
the i)otato plants, yet their injuries are only 
as one to to a hundred, when compare<l tothe 
injury inllicted by the larva. Butthe farmers' 
labors in t his <lircetionsh(mld not ceiwe here, for 
some of the insects may have evaded their ut- 
most watchfulness. They should, therefore, 
thoroughly examine all their potato plants, 
and, if eggs are present, they will l)e found in 
clusters of from twenty to iifty on the under- 
sides of the leaves. 
Thejse eggs are sufficiently conspicuous to be 



50 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



detected by the naked eye, and are a bright 
orange color wlien first deposited, but as incu- 
bation supervenes, tliey cliangy in color to 
dirterent shades of brown. These eggs sliould 
be carefully collected and destroyed. The em- 
ployment of the children of the household could 
be beneficially and economically improvised for 
this purpo.se," but in the absence of such chil- 
dren it would be far better to hire children at 
reasonable wages than to leave the work un- 
done. One day's vigilant labor in early spring 
would be worth more than ten days at a later 
period, when the eggs are hatched, and the 
larva have begun their devastating work. 

REMEDIES. 

If, however, through negligence or other- 
wise, the insects have become so numerous that 
handpicking would be impracticabk^ and hope- 
less, and antidotes or mechanical means be- 
come necessary in order to save the crop, what- 
ever is done shoidd be done intelligently, sys- 
tematically and perseveringly. Too many re- 
medies are carelessly and hastily applied, and 
then if no good from them becomes immedi- 
ately apparent, they are luiqualifledly con- 
demned. People exi)ect the result of artificial 
remedies to be something analogous to a patient 
taking a dose of medicine. He shuts his eyes 
and swallows the pill, and then folds his hands 
and waits for its operation, without any other 
eflbrt on his part. You might as well attempt 
to kill a bird by dropping a little salt upon one 
of the feathers of its tail, as to expect to kill 
potato beetles by such an indolent application 
of remedies. The tobacco grower goes to work 
more skillfully and perseveringly than that, j 
and surely the potato crop of the country is of 
more consequence to the poorer masses of the 
people than the tobacco. 

Remedies may be divided into three classes, 
namely : Mamial, arViflrial and naturul. To 
the first of these belong hand-picking and the 
various contrivances which have been invented 
or devised for knocking the insects oil' the vines 
into receiving vessels, by the hands, a broom 
or wisp, a bat, a revolving fan-wheel i)assed 
between the rows, or by a sort of scoop with a 
divergent mouth. The simplest of these is a 
shallow pan held in the left hand under the in- 
fested vine, and then with the right hand sweep- 
ing or stripping them oft' iuto the pan, and de- 
stroying them. As the.se insects are not gifted 
with any very great powers of locomotion and 
prehension, they very readily fall into such a 
trap, if it is carefully and skillfully manii)u- 
lated. Of course, in the use of these remedies 
many of the insects may tall upon the ground 
near the base of the plant, and therefore these 
should receive careful attention, or they will 
soon returu again to the places from where they 
had been temporarily dislodged. The adults, 
also, when they fall, will be apt to practice de- 
ception for awhile, and pretend to be dead — 
trust them not. 

The artificial remedies are many — good, bad 
and indifterent; but even the best of them may 
be worthless, if not skillfully and perseveringly 
applied. Woodfuhts, strewn on the jilants when 
they are wet with dew or rain, is claimed as a 
remedy, on the ground that an alkalinous sub- 
stance results from a combination of ashes and 
water, that is distasteful or destructive to the 
insects ; air-slaked lime, on account of its acid- 
it'erous qualities; yas lime, as a repellant orex- 
pellant, through its asphaltic odor; pulverized 
tuhacro, on account of its narcotic qualities, and 
for the same reason tohwco dienvtions are ap- 
plied; a solution of wliaJe nil soap, which is a 
general remedy for the destruction of insects, 
is also classed among the artificial means to ex- 
tinguish the Colorado Potato Beetle ; white 
hellebore, on Account of its poisonous qualities, 
has been applied, and in some instances with 
perceptible effect; but, so far, the best remedy 
yet discovered is Paris green, ai)))lied as a pow- 
der or held in suspension in water. Those who 
have tried both plans, give the preference to 
the dry powder application as tlie simplest, 
most economical, and also most effective, when 
carefully administered. 

As a liquid, a tablespoonful of Paris green 
is put intoacommon pailof water, thoroughly 
stirred up, and sprinkled on the infested plants 



with a common watering can, or a sprinkler 
made for that sjiecial purpose. In the same 
manner, a potato grower recommends one 
pound of concentrated lye dissolved in a barrel 
of water, sprinkled on the plants at any hour 
during the day; but an intelligent farmer, re- 
siding near this city, reports that he has tried 
it without any visil)le good effect. ' Although 
all the foreiroing remedies may destroy some 
of the insects when skilfully and perseveringly 
used, yet many of them have proved failures. 
Tills may notbesomuch on account of the 
substance used, as upon its intrinsic quality — 
its uece-s.sary strength to kill the insects or drive 
them away," and yet not to injure the plants, 
or not being so cmidoyed as to come in imme- 
diate contact with the evil. 

One pound of dry Paris green, however, 
thoroughly mixed with twenty pounds of 
wlieat,"rye, oafs or buckwheat flour, has, uprm 
general trial, been adopted as the best artifi- 
cial remedy, and to which no danger attaches 
if the ordinary care be taken, as in the use of 
any other poison. It must also be remembered, 
that the dilution of Paris green must be in pro- 
portion to its quality, if the desired benefits are 
to be expected from its use. 

Now that the demand for this substance is so 
great in the western States, " a shoddy " or 
adulferated article has found its way on the 
market, and farmers have been cheated and 
their crops destroyed through the application 
of a weak, ineffectual remedy, and the remedy 
itself decried as a failure. Honorable druggists 
ought to compound and mix the remedy them- 
selves, and keep for sale nothing but a good 
article. If we do not greatly misconstrue the 
"signs of the times," tlie demand for Paris 
green will be a brisk one in the future, and 
none but a practical druggist would so well un- 
derstand the mixing of it, for on this depends 
greatly its beneficial effects; moreover, the 
man who sells the best article, would certainly 
rt ( f ^ tli( largest patronage. 

fi A tin or wooden cylin- 

drical l)ox, {(j) capable 
of hf)lding about one 
quart of the remedy, 
having a wire-gauze or 
perforated bottom, to 
avoid waste, is a good 
implement to scatter 
the powder on the 
Jilants. This box should 
lave a handle at the 
side, three or fotu' feet 
9 long. If this box is held 
over the plant, after the lid (/() on the perfora- 
ted end is removed, and a gentle or brisk blow 
is struck on the handle with a small mallet, 
enough of the powder will be discharged to kill 
all the insects it cimies in contact with. 

Care should lie taken nol; to inhale any of 
the mixture; but a very small quantity* in this 
diluted form would not be veri/ hurtful. The 
ojierator should always keep to windward of 
the discharge, but, if possiljle, the remedy 
should not be used when it is very windy, as 
much of it would be wasted, and would jirob- 
ably not reach the enemy. The best time to 
use any powdered preparation is early in the 
morning, when the dew is on the plants, or 
immediately after a rain. In the absence of 
dew or rain, and it became important to save 
the cro]), the plants could be wetted artificially. 
In our next number we will pulilish an illus- 
trated article on natural remedies, as a neces- 
sary sequel to the foregoing; which will be fol- 
lowed with an illustrated paper on other species 
of "Potato-beetles, " that our patrons may com- 
prehend what this popular term really means. 




* On this subject, however, we refer our readers to 
paices 85 and ".Oof the Marcli numberof The Fakmek, 
aud commend to their careful consideration the whole 
article, iu which both sides of the question are ably dis- 
cussed. Also to the second column of pagQ. 43, as 
touching the poisonous qu.alit y of the insect itself. We 
have received several other papers on the same sub- 
ject, from authors, which we may insert in some 
future issue, but in the meantime we would like to 
have the experimental knowledge of our local potato 
growers themsi Ives — whether negative or alHrmative 
— because we desire to invest the subject with facts, 
and not merely reckless /iKJcics. 



GALLINOCULTURE et OVACULTURE. 

Without stopping to discuss which of these 
branches of hmnan husbandry has the prece- 
dence in the ordinary developments of na- 
ture's realm, it may be as clear to state that 
without chickens there could be no eggs, as 
that without eggs there could be no chickens. 
Under any circumstances, the egg and 
chicken questions are assuming a magnitude 
and an importance in this country, that 
are little apprehended by the masses of our 
citizens, or perhaps even by those of more than 
orduiary intelligence on other subjects. Per- 
haps it may surprise some of our readers to 
learn, that through the reports of the Chief of 
the Bureau of Government Statistics, at Wash- 
ington, it transpires that diu-ing a period of 
eleven months, in 1873, we have imported 
.5,4(J7,264 dozens of eggs, at a cost of 4^732,- 
234, and that the importations of 1874, proba- 
bly, far exceed those amounts. If acciu-ate 
statistics of tlfe consumption of eggs in the 
United States could be obtained, we feel con- 
fident that the general result would be an 
"eye-opener," and clearly demonstrate the 
little danger there is of overstocking the mar- 
ket. One large hotel in Boston uses an aver- 
age of one hundred dozens of eggs daily, and 
another in Philadelphia one hundred and fifty 
dozens daily. According to the most reliable 
data that can be obtained on the subject, the 
annual consumption of eggs and poultry in the 
Union amounts to the enormous sum of two 
hundred and sixty-five millions of dollars. Six 
millions of dollars worth of poultry were sold 
in New York and Boston alone, in a single 
year. This exceeds the commercial value of 
all the swine and half the value of all the 
sheep sold during the same period in those 
places. It exceeds the entire value of the 
neat cattle, and over four times the total value 
of the horses and mules, yearly sold in those 
cities. 

Mr. Geo. S. Burnham, in his work on poul- 
try, states that during last year one estiiblish- 
ment iu Europe, engaged in the egg and 
poultry business, averaged 50,000 dozens week- 
ly, which, with the annual sales of chickens 
hatclied, yielded ^28-5,000. The expenses of 
the establishment amounted to §145,000, leav- 
ing a profit of .fl35,000 a year. 

It seems to us that these facts and figures 
very clearly illustrate the increasing impor- 
tance of gallinrivulture and ovaculture in our 
country, and the necessity for systematic ef- 
fort in a most useful industrial enterprise 
— an enterprise which, if intelligently and 
perseveringly followed, could not help being 
remunerative. 

The fact that the eggs of the ostrich, the 
crocodile, various species of terrapins, and 
other rejitiles are hatched without the aid of 
tlie mothers that lay them — by the heat of the 
sun alone — led the Egyptians, centuries ago, 
to improvise the hatching of the eggs of poultry 
by artificial means; and the existence of the 
"Egyptian egg-ovens" has passed into his- 
tory as a domestic institution these many 
years. 

But the artifl(tial hatching of eggs and the 
raising of poultry, as a source of profit, has 
not been confined to the Egyptians, -but 
on the contrary, the Chinese, and tlie people 
of Damascus, Palestine and elsewliere, in an- 
cient times, were extensive artificial breeders. 

Let any man in ordinary circumstances 
ponder the subject — let him note how often 
during the year he has had eggs and chickens 
served up at his daily meals, and see how it 
will compare with rancid bacon and tough 
beef. The fact is, both eggs and chickens are 
usually too high in price for the general cou-» 
sumption of the common people. 

Many people of delicate con.stitutions and 
sedentary occupations are nearly all the time 
half starved, because they cannot appropriate 
the coarse and fatty food that is relished by the 
robust man, .or the one who has much daily 
physical exercise. 

Tliere is no reason why modern ingenuity 
should not be able to improve upon the ancient 
systems of chicken production, and develop an 
industrial occupation that will pay. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



51 



From the days of Ari.stnththiwn to the pres- 
ent i)erioil, liistoiy has In^eu dotted in every 
century with the Importance of this industry 
and its pecuniary results. Tlie Itouian Em- 
peror Constant ine, notwitlistandinji the war- 
hlce period in whicli lie hved, reeoj;nized t]u' 
claims of t;alliiioeuIture, Ijy writini; a memoir 
on the snliject, and lonj; liefore his tiini' the 
Grecian i)hilosopher had suggested improve- 
ments on the K},'yptian system. The ICn^dish, 
French, Germans, Italians and I'ortufjuese, 
had also experimented with more or less suc- 
cess on the sul)jeet from an early |>eriod. 

It is true there has not been that success, as 
a general thing, in the temperate or cooler 
climates, whicli dislinguishetl the Egyptians, 
but the chief obstac'les have, on(' by one, been 
overcome, and the GnUiiuH-ulturc instilidc at 
Ilicksville, Queens county. New York, .seems 
to have solved the knotty problem. This busi- 
ness, like all other kinds of business, must be 
practically underetood before it would be wise 
to embark in it, but when understood, no 
doubt it would afford more pleasure and profit 
than any other rural occupation in the coun- 
try. Prof. A. Corbett, the manager of the 
institute above named, is contident that Jire 
hundred dollars a pear can be cleared with 
twelve hens. We need more business occupa- 
tions, we need chea|ier poultry and eggs, and 
the.se needs alone will command cxmsumption 
and profit to those who embark in the enter- 
prise with their eyes open. 



DISTINGUISHING SEX IN EGGS. 

The popular notion that a pointed egg will 
produce a male, and a strictly oval or blunt- 
ended egg a female chicken, was long since 
demonstrated to be simply egg-otistical non- 
sense coming from that class of folks who take 
popular tradition for truth, without due in- 
vestigation. Most j)ecri)le admit the desiiabil- 
ity of knowing whether a certain lot of eggs 
will hatch out cockerels or pullets, but very 
few will admit the possibility of such knowl- 
edge, classing it among " those things which 
no fellow can find out." But, about a year 
ago our attention was arrested by the results 
of experiments published in the West Chester 
pai)ers,by Wm. J. Pyle, of West Goshen, Chester 
county, which struck us as very remarkable, 
and worthy of further experiments. About 



It will be 
seen that the 
air-chamber 
(Fig. a) is di- 
rectly at the 
apex or Itlunt 
end of the 
egs; tliis will 
hatch a lively 
cockerel, of 
quicl< {growth 
and light 
plumage. 



the same time, (March 12, 1R74) this new test 
was illustrated in Tfie Fam-ierx'' Journal and 
FouUry Exchange, of Philadelphia, prefaced 
with the remark, by the editor, that "during 
the piist yeiir we have had brought to our no- 
tice no less than three experiments, which seem 
to be entirely succe.ssful in selecting eggs that 
would produce male or female as desired ; and, 
as the season of liatching is ui)on us, and the 
experiment can be tried without labor or ex- 
pense, we have decided to give the information 
to our readers, and have had the following 
diagrams made to illustrate the sidiject more 
plainly,"fortheloan of which illustra'tionsTiiE 
Fakmer acknowledges itself endebted to Mr. 
Joseph il. Wade, editor of the excellent Poul- 
try Journal above named. 

In his "Code on Poultry Keejiing," Mr. 
Edwards, of England, quotes Columulia, Miis- 





cal, Stephanus, Ueaumer, and others, as au- 
thority for the instruction to "examine the 
liosition of the air cavities in the eggs, and 
only letain thosethat have tlKMU placed directly 
at the apex of the liluiit or large end, avoiding 
all that have them ])laced at all to the side. 
In this way eight eggs out of ten will jirodiice 
cockerels." A correspondent of the London 
Journal of UorlU-ulturf furnished the following 
as the result of his experience: 

" Lust winter an old country |K)nllry-kcc|ier told 
me he could dlstinguisli the sex In ei;fjs; I hiiiLrhiil at 
him, anil was none the Iras sceptical when he told me 
the following secret: ' E^KS with the air-bladder on 



This (Fi?. 
h) is the kind 
rejected by 
all of the ex- 
peri mentcrs 
who have so 
far reported, 
as it "will be 
good for no- 
thing but the 
pot." 



the centre of the crown of the egg will produce cock- 
erels; those with the bladder on one side will jjroduee 
Jjullets.' The old man was so certain of the truth of 
this dogma, and his poultry-yard so far confirmed it, 
that I determined to make experiments upon it this 
year. I have done so, carel'ully registering every egg 
' bladder vertical ' or ' bladder on one side,' rejecting 
every one in which It was not decidedly one or the 
other, as in some it is only very slightly out of the 
centre. The following is the result : Fifty-eight 
chickens were hatched, three are dead, eleven are yet 
too joung to decide upon their sex ; of the remaining 
forty-four every one has turned out exactly true to 
the old man's theory. This, of course, may be an 
accidental coincidence, but I shall certainly try the 
experiments again. I am now trying the same theory 
upon ducks' eggs." 

Mr. Pile has used his plan for some time, 
and he is confident that if it is followed out to 
the letter it will succeed every time. Last 



Mr. Pyle 
6aysthis(Fig 
e) will hatch 
a pullet of 
quick and 
healthy 
growth, and 
will become 
a hen of good 
laying quali- 
ties. 



summer, he hatched one hundred and twenty- 
two chickens from eggs selected on this prin- 
ciple, and one hundred and nineteen were 
pullets. lie siiys : 

"I always- select eggs of medium size, believing 
them to be the best for this puriKJsc. I then get a 
large lamp, and take an egg in my right hand, be- 
tween the thumb and two foretingers, big end upper- 
most, and hold it as near to the light as possible, then 
hold the little finger of the left hand across the middle 
of the egg. This will throw the light on the egg ; 
then turn it around slowly, and you will iK-rceive a 
dark spot, the size of a three-cent piece, directly in 
the centre of the large end, or on one side, as in dia- 
grams a, ft, c, and d. 

"As I raise poultry for eggs and for market, I, of 
course, set only eggs like letter c, with a few of letter 
(I to replace the cocks of last year. 

" It would he well for an amateur to break a few 
eggs, empty out the contents, and examine the large 
end, where the air chamber in the diB'ercnt positions 





as in diagram will be distinctly seen. Where the air 
chamber is wanting the egg is unfertile and will not 
hatch." 

In publishing Mr. Pyle's experience with 
this test, the editor of the VilhKjf Record Silid : 

"Our expi-riiiiic this spring (1'<T4) proves this 
little |K)int. Wi- .set a little bantam hen on seven 
white leghorn eggs, In live of which we could iliseover 
no air ehamber, an<l after she had been sitting ten 
days we limnd chickens only ia the two which had 
air chambers." 



This (Fig. 
d) will also 
hatcli a pul- 
let, but of 
slow growth, 
a poor layer, 
inclined to be 
mascul ine, 
and will 
sometimes 
crow. 



The other day we wrote to Mr. Pyle, stating 
that we intended to publish the result of his 
tests in The F.vumeu, and that we were 
desirous of knowing whetliei;^hc had any new 
facts likely to modify his former statements. 
It will be seen by the following reply, that he 
has no doubt of the reliability of the test, and 
simply repeats his instructions for the benefit. 
of the amateur : 

Mr. Ceist : I have no cuts of the eggs, but I send 
you to-day a pa|KT containing the diagrams ; jou can 
cut them yourself. If you should publish them, 
please say that when the air-bladder is not to ho seen 
at all, the egg is not fertile. It may \>e plainly seen 
by holding close to a strong light, large end upper- 
most — between the thumb and first two lingers 
of right hand, with left hand placed over the top, and 
the the little linger one-third down the egg. Turn 
it around quictlv. You have all the instruction that 
is needed.— Wm. S. Pvle, April 6, 1875. 

The Cost of Our Recent War. 

Mr. David A. Wells has furnished the Cob- 
den Club of England with an essay upon the 
expenses, income and taxes of the UnitM 
.States. We copy the following statement of 
the cost of the Rebellion: 

The whole cost of the war to the Northern 
and Soutbeni Stiites from IHOl to ISdO is esti- 
mated as follows: IJves, l,(tOO,OtM); property, 
by destruction, waste, etc., $it,t)(K),O()0,00O. 
The gross exi>enditures of the United States 
from .lune, 18(U, to July, lH(>(i,S;.-,,792,2o",00<). 
Of this the actual war expenses were al)out 
$5,34-i,-2:^7,CKX). 

The expenses of States, counties, cities and 
towns in the Northern States, not represented 
by funded debts, have been estimated at 
S.')00,(IOO,0(X). The increase of State debts on 
the war account was S123,(HXJ,000. The in- 
crease of city, town and county debts is esti- 
mated at 8200,000, (XX). Total war expenses 
of the loyal States and the National Govern- 
ment^ Sfi, 105,2:57,000. 

The estimated direct expenditures of the 
Confederate States on account of the war were 
S2,0OO,(RKI,OOO. 

Aggregate estimated expenses of the war to 
the country. North and South, «?H, 105,237,000. 

The total receipts from all sources during 
the second year of the war were less than 
842,0(M),(K)o. The expenditures were §00,- 
(MXJ.OOO per month— at the rate of 8700,000,)KX) 
a year. 

^ 

Our P.\nis Letter, which appears in this 
issue of The Faumek, is an ably written and 
interesting resume of agricultural i)rogress on 
the continent. These letters will hereafter Iw 
an imiwrUmt feature of this journal. 



OuK Fence Cokneks constitute an original 
and "taking" feature of The Farmer. They 
are snug corners to (ind an4 enjoy a laiigh in', 



52 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



THE SUSQUEHANNA SHAD. 

This fish, one of the most delicate and tooth- 
some in itsseasontliatvisitstheiuland streams 
of our country, Belongs to the Herring family, 
(Clupeid^e.) There are several species be- 
longing to the restricted genus Alosa, at least 
two of which ascend the Susquehanna and its 
tributaries (when not obstructed in 
their passage) the earliest " run " of 
which is the "Hickory Shad," (Alosa 
tyranis,) but the true shad of tlie Sus- 
quehanna, and the one most highly 
prized, is the Alosa 2)rcestahilis. Of 
all the shad caught elsewhere in the 
country, there are perhaps none supe- 
rior in size and excellence of flavor 
to those caught in the Susquehanna 
and its tributaries, and the higher up 
the streams they are caught, the fat- 
ter, more solid and delicious' they are. 
Those taken at Safe Harbor and Co- 
lumbia are far superior to those taken 
nearer the Bay, and before the era of 
internal navigation, and when the 
rivers of Pennsylvania were unob- 
structed by dams and fish traps, those 
taken at the Marietta, Elliott's Is- 
land and Clark's Ferry fisheries, were 
even superior to the former named. 
Shad ascend the streams for the pur- 
j)ose of spawning, after which their 
flesh becomes soft, milky and insipid, 
and many of them die before they 
reach the Bay again. The young fry 
descend the streams in autunm, and 
many are taken in fish-traps or "bas- 
kets," to the great prejudice of the 
fishing interests. From autumn until 
■spring the shad inhabit the deeper ^ 
bay or sea waters, but return every S 
season to gladden the heart of man, X 
and relieve him from the stale mono- "^ 
tony of "flitch and rancid sausages. " 
Neal,in one of his"charcoal sketches, ' ' 
through one of his characters says: 
" Of all the fish that swims, commend 
me to the shad as the most gentle- 
manly and best educated, for every 
year they return to our very doors. 
This is no doubt owing to the fact 
that they are partial to ' schools,' und 
by a little improvement in the curi- 
cuhim of those schools, they might be -o 
taught to ring the door-bell and in n 
quire for the cook." 

All the legislative protection that 
shad require, are clear and unob- 
structed fishways from the bays up to 
their spawning places. They are not 
a local fish, but flsli 'of passage, and 
will find their way into streams of 
their o-ivn accord, and without the 
labor of " stocking " them. 

Although the sh.ad is one of the most 
excellent of fislies in its edible quali- 
ties, and also symmetrical in form, 
yet It cannot be iiroi)erly considered 
a "game-fish." It is by no means 
remarkable for taking the fiy, or any 
other kind of bait— indeed, the in- 
stances where it has been caught with 
a " hook and line, " are not at all com- 
mon, although upon the authority of 
"FiiANK FoRRESTEK " it is stated 
that they will take the fly if it be a 
large and gaudily colored one. There- 
fore in fisliing for sliad the chief reli- 
ance is upon tiie net. This is of vari- 
ous forms, adapted to the conveni- 
ences of the fishing pools, but along 
the shores of the Susquehanna, and 
on its islands and artificial batteries, a 
long sweeping seine is mainly used. 
In the bays and elsewhere, a Gill-net 
supplies the place of the seine, but 
the Susquehanna fishermen have al- 
ways looked ujion this mode with much dis- 
favor. In some places a "scoop-net," or dip- 
net, is the only implement that can be used. 

It is within the memory of many of the older 
citizens of Lancaster, when shad were taken in 
the Conestoga, and even within the city limits. 

There are various views as to the quantity 



and quality of aliment in fish diet, and the effect 
it exercises upon the mental and physical 
systems of those who consume it. It has 
been claimed by some writers that it sharpens 
and facilitates theexerciseof the mental facul- 
ties, whereas fat pork and susages have the con- 
trary effect. AVe arc pointed to the " univer- 




or flesh kind except fish. We cannot resist the 
impression, however, that in our consumption 
of animal food, we ouglit to make a wider dis- 
crimination in favor of fish, and the efforts 
made at this time to propagate these animals 
by stocking our exhausted streams, seems to 
also point in that direction. 



THE VALUE OF FISH-FOOD. 

Many elaborate comparisons have 
been made as to the comparative 
value of butcher-meat and fish : occa- 
sional controversies have arisen on 
the suljject, in which the utmost di- 
versity of opinion has been expressed. 
Someeconomic writers maintain that 
fish has no food value worth speaking 
of; others say that fish-food must oc- 
cupy a middle position between vege- 
tables and beef and mutton. Again, 
a learned authority says that fish, well 
cooked, with oil or fat of some kind, 
or served with butter when brought 
to table, "it is chemically the same," 
for nutrition, as butcher-meat. 

Another writer says that fish as food 
is only fit for children and inva]ids,and 
is totally unfitted to support the health 
and vigor of men or women engaged 
in laborious occuiMtious. As usual in 
such disputes, we may hold that the 
truth lies between the two extremes. 
Many people following laborious oc- 
cupations, especially in Scotland, live 
largely upon fish. In that country, 
the fishermen themselves eat a con- 
siderable portion, and, as a class, fish- 
ermen are strong and healthy; and 
their wives who undertake a por- 
tion of the men's work are still strong- 
er and healthier. In Portugal, fish 
fried in oil forms a very large projjor- 
tion of the food of the pi^pulation; 
their tlsh-diet is supiilemented with a 
little bread and fruit, and although 
the peasantry of the land never par- 
take of fresh meat, yet they are a 
hardy, vigorous and brave people. 
Let it be remembered that fish is a 
necessity of life in France and Spain, 
and as regards the latter country, a 
constant organization is at work in 
the British islands to sujjply it with 
many kinds of cured fish. A huge 
proportion of the pilchards taken on 
the coast of Cornwall, as well as many 
himdred hogsheads of cured and 
smoked herrings, are sent to the Span- 
ish markets. 



•rnmi i"iti.TO"iiii|tfii|. ir 

sal Yankee nation," as an illustration, in com- 
parison with the dull, heavy and obscured in- 
tellects of porkeaters. Be this as it may, we 
have no positive evidence that the highest type 
of humanity that ever trod this earth of ours, 
embodying the highest manifestation of spiri- 
tual intelligence, ever ate anything of the meat 



SUPER-PHOSPHATE FROM 
RAW BONES. 

We l)elieve that super-phosphate 
made of raw or unburnt bones is much 
superior to that usually made from 
calcined bones. In the latter case, 
everything lilje organic matter is 
driven off or decomposed by the heat 
and escapes. 

The French chemist makes the 
value of manure depend ui)on the 
amoinit of nitrogen which it contains, 
but super-phosphates from calcined 
bones contain no organic matter, or 
a very trilling quantity. 

The supcr-pliosphate also contains 
5l).8per cent, of phosphate of lime, 
and thei-efore contains 26 per cent, of 
phosi)horic acid. The soil is con- 
stantly being robbed of its phos- 
])liates. The ash of wheat, corn, and, 
indeed, all the cereals, contains a large 
percentage of phosphates. This is 
taken from the soil, and we return, in 
most instances, manure made from 
the straw and hay, which is, there- 
fore, eomjiaratively i)oor in phosphates, for it 
is a trulh that farmers should lietter appreci- 
ate: Tliat a manure cannot be richer than the 
SKbstancefroni which it is made. A cow fed on 
straw cannot yield more manure, nor, indeed, 
so much, than that contained in the straw. 
Hence our lands become impoverished in their 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



53 



phosphates. They may be rich in cverythinjj; 
else, but a (lelicieiicy in phospliates will be 
fiital. You may be able to urow line wheat, 
straw or corn stalks, but the ijrain will lie 
wanting. One close of a pood super-phosiihate 
will supi)ly the needed aliment, and you have 
an excellent prain crop. 

We believe almost any land, which has been 
hmp eropi>ed, will be ijreatly benelited by a 
proper applieation of tliis manure. Many new 
soils are delieient in phosphates, and you are 
unable to raise a crop of cereals until you fur- 
nish thisneeded product. VuiW the peopleof 
tliis (•ountry contrive some plan for preservini; 
those useful jiroducts, carried to our (titles in 
the shape of fruit, grain, etc., etc., which are 
u.sed us food, and waslu'd into tlie sewers and 
rivers, we shall never be able to keep up the 
fertility of our virgin soil. We may carry 
puano from Lobos islands, husband our straw, 
manufacture bones into s\iper-pliospliate, and 
the cry will be, Rive ! pive ! pivit! We nuist 
leani to return to the soil tlie ))liosphates and 
other valuable products snatclied from it by 
the wondrous growth of vegetables. 



ABOUT GROUND HOGS. 

The past winter having been an extraordi- 
narily long one, and an intensely cold one, 
a more than ordinary interest has attached 
to this animal, on account of a traditionary 
belief in its prognostications of the weather. 
The Dii/th is to the elt'ect, that if the ground- 
hog comes out from his winter cpiarters on 
"Candlemas day" (Fell. ,2d,) and if there is 
sutfieient sunshine to make his shadow visible to 
him, he inunediately returns to his lair, 
which will be followed liy si.c weeks of severe 
whiter weather. ]5ut i^ it is cloudy, and he 
cannot see his shadow, the event will be fol- 
owed by an early spring. The '2d of February 
of the present year, happened to be a cold but 
bright sunny daj', and this, it is said, ac- 
counts for tlie severe winter weather which 
has followed. 

To show that the ground-hog has no possi- 
ble cimuection with this meteorological phe- 
nomenon, his nature is such that he would not 
come forth on a such a cold day as we had on 
the id of February, 1S7.5. Now this auiuud, 
otherwise called the "marmot," (Aniomiis 
monax) is a hybernatiug rodent, and the length 
of his dormant period isaltogther governed by 
the temperature of the weatlier ; therefore, his 
animation is not revived until the warm spring 
temperature is sutfieient to produce that 
effect. He is a most inveterate feeder, and 
consumes an enormous (puintity of green and 
succulent vegetation, especially young clover, 
and nothing would arouse him from his win- 
ter sleep but luuiger, induced by the genial 
'return of spring. When there is from tln-ec 
to live feet of hard frost in the earth, as there 
was on the 'ind of Feliruary of the present 
year, it would l.'e impossible for the gronnd 
liog to come out of his burrow, down deep in 
the bowels of the earth, lielow the line of frost. 
When he retires in the fall he closes the mouth 
of his burrow with earth fnim the inside, 
and does not open it again until he is instinc- 
tively admonished that winter is over and 
siiring has assumed her reign. Although we 
believe him to be too stupid to make any re- 
liable prediction in regard to the weather, yet 
he is not stupid enough to come forth when 
the thermometer is down to or below zero. 
Again, as to candlemas day, it is not likely 
that he would regard it much ; if there should 
hajipen to be a week or ten days of warm 
weather in the mf)nths of l^ecember or Janu- 
ary, warm enough to excite his hunger, for 
instance, it would make very little differenc'e 
whether the time wasChrisl»ii(.s,s, Candleiua.s.s-, 
or Easter?H'/.ss : he would be apt — like any 
' ' other body ' '—to make diligent inquiry about 
something to eat. 

There must, of course, be a cmcse for every 
outward effect, and even when that cause is 
discovered it may tran.spire that it is itself 
only the effect of some anterior cause, no^w 
of which, however, have any special' relation 
to the ground hog, or any other animal alreiwly 
"tabernacled " in the realm of nature. 



Whatever faith "wiseacres" mny profcxH to 
have in the predictions of a visionary ground 
hog, we think there are but few who would 
hazard the success of an important enler- 
lirise upon the weather prophecies involved in 
his candlemas adviut. It is, therefore, not 
very likely that any "jirudent body" will 
sutler uuich through the "thin faith" which 
is jirofessed in the gniund hog. 

Independent of wealhiT prognostic's, there 
is. however, an interest atlaeheil t<i this ani- 
mal ; for it is such a gro,ss feeder that, where 
it exists in large numliers, it makes sad havoc 
in the clover fields of the farmer, and on this 
account is "hunti'd <lown " as an evil of more 
or less magnitude. Under t\u'. cmnnion names 
of woodchucks, ground hogs, marmots, go- 
phers, prairie dogs,*' siiermoiihiles, and ground 
stpiirrels, we have about twenty spei'ies of 
rodents in the United States, wliich form a 
distinctive grouii, and all of which possess, 
more or less, the cpialities of tlie Lancaster 
county ground-hog, on whose habits the 
weather is often prognosticated. 



ROSE CULTURE. 



We extract the following from the columns 
of the Amcrimn Farmer, jiulilislied at Haiti- 
more, Md. It is part of an address read before 
the "Maryland Horticultural Soeiety " at its 
February meeting, by Mr. James I'entland, 
who is distinguished in his profession as a rose- 
grower, and the originator of numerous va- 
rieties of that beautiful and fragrant flower. 
We have seen many roses, "good, bad and 
indifferent, "the lattercpiality perhaps predom- 
inating, and we have thought that much of this 
indiffiTcnce w.as the result of a lack of that cul- 
ture which seems so practically detailed in Mr. 
Pentland's address. There are many other 
jioints in this address, referring to varieties, 
&c., which may only be of local significance, 
but our (luotation, we think, will be applicable 
to any locality. Under any circumstances, 
we cannot reasonably expect fine roses with- 
out the necessary culture, any more than we 
can any other subject of the vegetalile king- 
dom, and possibly even with culture we may 
sometimes fail. 

" Very few iicrsons linow liow to cultivate a rose In 
order to' liriii"- I'nrtli all the latent lieaiily coiilaiiieil in 
the Hower. Many ai-e eoiiteiit wlieii't hey buy a rose 
from those who have them to sell, to take it home, 
dig a small hole in the sroiind in their garden, and 
put it therein, (I eannot eall it planline:) leaving it 
take eare of itself, and when they come to look for 
flowers they find none. Ami no wonder ! It will not 
stand sueh'treatment, but will wither and die, and 
then the poor gardener who sold it eomcs in for the 
blame. 

Now, this is all wrong. There is not a (lower that 
grows that requires kinder treatment than the rose, 
and there is none more deserving, or that will better 
repay good cultivation, cither in a coniniereial point 
of view or for the gratitieation of two of theJine senses, 
namely, sight and smell. 

To grow a rose to perfection you must in the first 
place lind the jiroper soil in wliicli it delights, which 
is a stiff, loamy, strong virgiu soil ; yes, even a clay 
soil, provided it is well drained and deep and cool, so 
that the roots can tind their way down into a cool 
place, in order to get away from tlie inlluenee of our 
burning summer suns. In the next place you must 
sec to it that the soil is pniperly enriclied ; for, depend 
upon it, you will not see a rose in [icrfcetion in a poor 
soil ; for', like the grape vine, it is a very gross feeder. 
Therefore make; your rose ground very rich and deep. 
Use any well-rotted niamire for your plants, and 
plenty of it ; and as your roses gain strengtli, you can 
give tliem almost any kind of manure, even to fresh 



*Somc years ago we received a fine specimen of one 
of these species by mail from Western Missouri. It 
had been obtained in its winter hybernation and in- 
closed in a tin box, and after having liecn thus con- 
veyed aboiU thirteen hundred miles or more, when 
the box was opened in a warm room, tlic animal re- 
vived and became very active, ami also very jiug- 
naeions, which is a characteristic of the genus. After 
a confinement of a week or more it made its escape, 
by pressing apart the wires of its cage, and from 
thence passed through an aperture in the cellar, and 
never was recovered. It, probably, I'ilher starved to 
death or became food for rats. Tliis species Is, per- 
haps, the smallest of the genus, and now Is scien- 
tifically known as Sperniopholix trithceiiilincdliif, and 
various common names, as the " striped gopher," 
"striped marmot," Jcc. 



night soil. Watering with liquid manure occasion- 
ally yfiu will Unci a gi'cat help. 

Ill orilcr Id have fine fliiwers you will find pruning 
a very important |K)int in the cultivation, and this 
part, 1 am *iirry to say, is but poorly understoixl by 
most cultivators, for how often do you see a rare 
plant smiblieil olf at Its extremity. In order to give the 
liiish a nice round lica<l of vi'ry slender shoots, U|Km 
which yim see a small weak flower, not worthy of 
being called a flower, looking as If It was ashamed of 
itself, (and I don't wonder that is Is) insteail of bring- 
ing out all the bi'auly of which It is capable. 

To have fine, large and beautiful flowi'rs, you must 
have plenty of good, healthy riMit-powcr, and not so 
much wood, anil to obtain this you must have the 
ediidition previously mentliined. If y<iur rose plant 
lias had those conditions you will have giHid, strong, 
hi-allhy ltowIIi from the ground, and In the Knll, or 
very early in the Spring, when danger of severe frost 
is over, (I jirelcr fall pruning, for by pruning then 
you make the plant more capable of withstanding 
our severe frosts, because the late growths made t)y 
the rose are too tender and sappy to withstand our 
cold climate) commence jiruning by cutting out all 
the old wood of the previous year, or at least all the 
wood of that year until you reach the new and strong 
Wdod of this, if the growth has been made uiKin any 
of it, as it very frci|uently will be, unless care has 
been used w hilc growing. .Vfter you have cut out 
all of the old growth, then commence and reduce the 
new growth to tliree or four or more buds, according 
to the strength of the growth. Strong growing va- 
rieties may have more wood left upon them than the 
weaker growing varieties. If you f(dlow out these 
instructions, my word for it, you need not be ashamed 
of your rose llowers. 

The remark has often been made to me In the 
mimth of June, when the rose Is In its best estate, by 
persons visiting my place: How is it that lec don't 
have as fine llowers u|ion our nise bushe^i as youi* 
arc; mine arc larger bushes than yours, and of the 
same kinds? and the only answer that I could give 
lliemwas, "they are not jiropcrly pruned." Why, 
they would rejily, a gardener pruned them, and he 
ought to know. What a comment uixui ganleners! 
Yes, he oiir;ht to know, and a good gardener doef 
know, but the fact is, he is not always allowed to do 
as he knows it should tie done, for many persons are 
so afraid of seeing their pets cut down tmi close, sup- 
posing that it will kill them ; and, again, many want 
large liiishcs, which they can easily obtain, tint It 
must always be at the expense of the llowers; whilst 
others again desire (pianlity and not quality. To all 
siicb I must say, don't blame your roses for not dis- 
plaving tlu; full beauty of which they are capalilc. I 
sha'U close this iwrtioii of my subject by saying, in 
brief, if you want fine flowers give your plants jilenty 
of roots, and short tO|is ; you can get the former by a 
rich soil and good cultivation, and the knife and good 
judgment will do the rest." 

Spe.aking of desirable varieties, Mr. P. says: 
"But if you want a rose in which you can feel 
a re;il enioynieiit, in beholding its delicately 
mifolding petals, in inhiiling its most extpii.site 
fragrance, peculiar to itself alone, observing 
its delicate habit of growth, and its constant 
bloom ; whose colors, so delicate, look ius if 
the breath of man would soil them ; then you 
must grow the tJueensT)f them all— the Tkas 
—so called, from their flowers having the rich 
aroma of fresh tea." These are general favor- 
ites with the ladies. 



ANOTHER REMEDY FOR THE POTATO 
BEETLE. 
Mr. W. F. M assey, who seems to be a practi- 
cal man, and one of intelUgeut oUservation. 
comnumicates to the Amcriean Farmer (Md.) 
that a strong decoction of the green rof)ts of 
the "Mav-apple," or " Mandrake "— Pwio- 
phiiUumpiltdtum — ellectually killed the "Colo- 
rado i)otiito-beetles," in a case, or cases, where 
he him.seir tried it. He does not claim to lie 
the discoverer of the remedy. He found it in 
the pages of an agricultural journal, ami at 
once proceeded to submit it to a test, with a 
favorable result. AVe give it here for whiit it 
is worth, and commeiul it to our readers i\n 
worthy of a trial. The potato-b<-etlc is such 
an arch-enemy to the farmer that he might 
afford to be moderately "humbugged" a few 
times, if it only faintly promised to lead to the 
discovery of aii antidiite against this increas- 
ing scourge. AVe a.sk oiu- ftirmers to try it next 
summer and to send to us the result. 



The illustrations in this issue of The 
F ARM KU constitute. an interesting and instruc- 
tive feature, which will be maintained iu the 
future. 



54 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



THE CONSTRUCTION OF FENCES. 

The growing scarcity of timber in Lancaster 
county, where we have not yet realized the 
importance of supplying the waste of years by 
planting forest trees for the purpose of fuel 
and fencing, invests the question of the con- 
struction of fences with a growing impor- 
tance. The best variety of trees to plant to 
supply these wants is one of the questions now 
before our Agricultural and Horticultural So- 
ciety for discussion, and it will naturally in- 
volve the comparative merits and economy of 
hedges, wire, board, ywst and rail, and the 
old-fashioned worm-fence. The scarcity of 
timber in this section, suitable for either of 
the latter, and our direct communication with 
the piue lumber regions, suggest the economy 




yigure 1. 

of board fences, and to their construction we 
will confine our remarks in this article. 

The board fence can be recommended for 
economy and neatness ; but these desirable 
qualities are often entirely lost by the careless- 
ness of the builder, and the enclosure assumes 
a dilapidated appearance within a short time 
after being put up. In erecting a fence of 
this description it will be found highly advan- 
tageous to bear in mind the old adage that 
' ' whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing 
well." In the first place, the requisite boards 
for a given distance should be all piled together 
to ascertain their respective lengths, and those 
not coming up to the standard dimensions 
should be sawed to fit, or sorted out and 
placed together, to be subsequently, used by 
setting posts to suit them. In measuring the 
distance for the posts care should be taken to 
use accuracy. The usual distance in a fence 
of this kind is seven feet, tUe boards being 
fourteen feet long. The distance should be 
measured invariably from middle to middle 
of each post without regard to their size. The 
holes should be dug large to permit the ram- 
mer to be used freely around the posts — a 
common error in setting posts being to make 
the holes too small, thus iireventing the earth 
from being thoroughly packed and leaving the 
posts unfirm ;ind rickety. An excellent plan 
is to make the holes large and fill in with 
stones. This prevents the fence from being 
thrown out of line by the action of the frost, 
and preserves the bottoms of the post from 
speedy decay. 

After the posts are set, the top boards are to 
be first nailed, and in doing so particular pains 
are requisite, as they are to form guides for 



proceed with rapidity and accuracy. The rails 
being nailed on, the usual practice is to stop 
here ; but the most important work to secure 
a strong, durable fence remains to be done. 
Now saw small pieces of board to accurately 
fit the spaces between the rails, and nail them 
against the post as seen in Figure 1, which 
illustrates a panel of fence at this stage of the 
operation. These little blocks are made from 
the waste pieces of the rails ; they are quickly 
l)repared ; one nail holds them and they add 
much to the durability of the fence. They 
should never be omitted. The finishing touch 
is given by nailing a facing strij) foiu- or five 
inches wide on every post, which not only 
makes a neat finish but greatly strengthens 
the fence. Tlu^ addition of a cap rail will 

.give additional stability and preserve 

r~J tlie crowns of the post from decay. 
■l This is simply another board running 
T"^l on top of the posts, and pnijecting a 
■1 — J little over the edge of the top rail. 
Fiijure 2 shows a section of fence com- 
"1 pleted, with facing strip and cap rail. 
The cost of such a fence varies with 
the price of lumber in different sec- 
tions ; but the average expense has been 
reckoned at $'2 a rod or 12^ cents per 
foot, wliich includes all expenses, nails, 
cartage, digging, &c. The cost of keeping it 
in repair is about a cent and a half a foot, 
each year, which includes its entire renewal 
every twelve years. 

A writer in The Coimtry (?e»i?emaM says that 
for several years he has adopted a mode of 
making board fence which reduces the num- 
ber of posts and the holes to be dug one-third 
or one half. He sets the posts at a distance 
equal to the whole length of the boards, and 
places a short piece of scantling, or the split 
portion of a thick slab, midway between them, 
extending from the top of the fence down to 
where the lower board is usually placed. He 
saves the expense of the lower board by bank- 
ing up the eartli ten or twelve inches at the bot- 
tom. In this way a surface drain is made for 



This plan possesses the advantage of cheap- 
ness, since it is easily made, and no iron what- 
ever is required. All gates thus hanging will, 
however, after a time "sag down, for the wood 
of the gate rots, even if the post remains firm. 
Figure 4. shows a plan for hanging gates, 
where the hanging post projects above the other 
parts of the fence, in order to permit the con- 
nection of a rod or chain between the outer 
extremity of the gate and the upper portion 
of the post, as shown in the engraving. We 
have represented a rod composed of wood for 
this purpose, but the connection may be made 






Figure 2. i 

the remainder. Two space boards may now be ' 
u.sed to assist in nailing the remaining rails I 
with accuracy. These consist of pieces of 
stout boards, about as long as the fence is 
high, having as many notches cut in them as 
tliere are rails in the fence. The space boards j 
being hung one at each end of a top rail, act i 
as supports for the boards below while being I 
nailed, at the same time preventing any error ! 
as to distance, and enabling the workman to '. 



h'igare 

carrying water away from the posts, and, most 
important of qll, when horses and colts occupy 
the field, a barrier is offered by means of the 
ditch and bank, to prevent their crowding or 
leaning against the fence. For this reason 
the bank should be narrow at the top, as a 
broad shelf will enable them to i)lace their feet 
upon it. The boards are nailed to the battens 
or stiffeners the same as to the posts, and with 
long boards two are placed in each panel. 
, With the cap similar to that shown in our 
i illustration {Figure 2.) and the protection 
~ offered by the earth bank at the bottom, 
he claims that a fence thus constructed is 
as strong and secure as a common board 

t fence with double the number of posts. 
We think the earth bank is a good idea to 
combine with tlie fence we have illus- 
trated, as neither cattle nor horses will 
place their feet in a ditch or on the steep 
side of an embankment for tlie sake of 
crowding or leaning against a fence. The 
saving of the bottom board will pay for 
raising the bank, if it is done with a plow after 
the posts are set and before the boards are 
nailed on. 

A plan of constructing and hanging a good 
and cheap farm gate is shown in Figure 3. 
It will be observed that it is constructed with 
diagonal studs and is l)ne of the strongest that 
can be made. The heel post has two snjall 
I)rojections, one at the top, the other at the 
bottom. These fit into corresponding holes 
made in a pin. This i)in fits into a hanging 
post, as shown by the dotted hues in the figm-e. 



Figure 4. 
with a chain whenever it is desirable. Gates 
constructed in this manner can be opened and 
shut without the least risk or fear of sagging, 
by reason of their violently shutting to. They 
are not expensive and might be more generally 
adopted to advantage. 

It is of the first importance to have the 
hanging post properly secured ; and even then, 
in a few years, it giVes way, from decay. An 
effectual method of preventing rotting in posts 
is to chnr their bottoms. The preservative 
qualities of charcoal are well-known. About 
eighty years ago a quantitj- of oak stakes were 
found in the bed of the river Thames, in the 
very spot where Tacitus says the Britons fixed 
a vast number of such stakes to prevent 
the passage of Julius Ca?sar and his army. 
These stakes were charred to a consid- 
erable depth, had retained their form com- 
pletely, and were firm at the heart. This 
quality of charring was well-knowTi to the 
ancients. Most of the houses in Venice 
stand upon piles of wood, which had all 
been previously charred for their pre- 
servation ; and in England estates were 
formerly marked out by charred stakes 
driven to a considerable depth. Another 
method which the writer of this has success- 
fully tried for preserving wood in moist sit- 
uations is to give it a good soaking in gas 
tar or paratfine. An inlet for a sewer made 
of common pine wood and thus treated lasted 
for years and was entirely sound when re- 
moved. Another, not thus prepared, rotted 
in a couple of years. 



Good Correspondents : Major Freas, the 
veteran editor of the Germantown Telegraphy 
hits the nail squarely on the head when he says 
that to be a good agricultural correspondent, 
it does not require any great amount of learn- 
ing. One has only to be sure the language he 
employs tells just what he means to say ; and 
it will be found in nine times out of ten that 
the simplest and most common word is better 
than one seldom in use. And so in regard to 
facts, one should be sure that they are just 
what he expresses them to be. People often 
write that such and such results were "about" 
so-and-so, when it would have been just as 
ea.sy to give the whole in feet, pounds or 
bushels, exactly as it occurred. It may seem 
precise and particular to some people ; but it 
leads to habits of exactness which in the end 
save a deal of trouble all round. In these 
days when " exact science " is becoming so 
jiopular, it will do no harm to ask for exact 
figures and exact expressions ; and to corre- 
spondents of agricultural papers especially, 
we may say that probabilities, iwssibili ties and 
absolute certainties, are very different things, 
and should always be considered while writing. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



55 




THE GREAT CENTENNIAL EXPOSI- 
TION OF 1876. 

By the time tliis number of The Farmer 
gets into tlie hands of onr rcadciH, it will hn 
only one. short year before the ijreiU L\r}x>sition 
of the nhte- 
tie)tthceutti- 
rtj will be 
opened to 
the publie, 
if the origi- 
nal inten- 
tion of the 
proj ectors 
of the en- 
terprise is 
realized. 

\Vc say 
only one 
shirrl year; 
for, com- 
l)arinj;w7i((£ 
/( as be e n 
done dur- 
ing; tliepast 
fice years, 

with what is to be done in the one coming 
year, the time seems very short indeed. 
Another event of the kind, in all its sijinili- 
cance, caiuiot oecur at;ainnntil the year lii7(), 
a jieriod whi<-h, there perliaps is not a single 
being now on earth tliat eoiild in human i)roba- 
bility witness it. The (luestiou naturally arises, 
Have onr peojjle anything like a realizing sense 
of this great event in our national history ? 
Are they making any preparations to jiartiei- 
pate in itV Do they even ihiuh-nli it with that 
method whieli usually preeedes the outward 
manifestation of living aelion? Have they 
.systematieally reflected at all upon what en) 
be, and what oiiijht to lie, done in the matter '? 
Lancaster county is a part of the three origi- 
nal counties that in the early history of our 
country constituted the entire province of 
Pennsylvania. She is within seventy miles of 
the historically venerated spot wliere tirst was 
liromulgated on this continent the declaration 
that '''these loiitcil i-nhmks are, and of riijhl 
oiujht to he, free and iiidejiendint .S'/o('.s. " She 
has justly won the distinguished title of the 
" Garden of the Keystone State," and there- 
fore she occu]iies a moral, physical, political 
and geographical position that will not permit 
her to be a mere spectator of the "coming 
event." Her sister counties and states are 
looking towards Iier for a demonstration wor- 
thy of the prominent position she occupies in 
relation to our gi'eat State and its material pro- 
gress. Not to participate fully and freely in 
the Centennial P^xposition, would be equiva- 
■lent to her voluntary exiiatriation. To consent 
to be a mere spectator of the scene, would be 
a palpable stultification of the attitude which 
history and circumstances have assigned her; 
and she conl<l no more Ijc a part of Pennsylva- 
nia or the Union, without a iiarticipation in 
Pennsylvania's distinguished glory, than a 



ments, in it exclusively her own, and to carry 
such an idea into effect there ought to be an 
organized effort of her citizens, and a pro- 
grannne clearly setting forth what ouglit to be 
done; for, without some sncli organization, 



very little can be accomplished without involv- 
ing much labor, iirocrastination or delay — and, 
" delays are dangerous." 

We cannot resist the apin-ehension that, 
like the sessions of Congress, or the State 
Legislature, procrastination may steal a march 
on time, and push too much of the work that 
ought to be done earlier, into the last days of 




the working session, and thus create hurry and 
confusion at the opening of the Expositi<in. 
The past histories of these industrial exhibi- 
tions have suthciently demonstrated the dan- 
ger of this, and we ought to profit by tlie ex- 
periences of the past. Another point we desire 
to illustrate is this: In all onr experiences of 
local exhibitions, during their continuance or 




man could be a i>art of heaven without parti- 
ciiiating in its beatitudes. 

Lancaster county is sufficiently large, 
wealthy, pojmlons and accessilile to the gieat 
Exposition, to have a department, or depart- 



after they were over, we have been met with 
the remark from many speefators. tliat if they 
"had only known what woidd have been on 
exhibition, they could have produced articles 
much superior to those they had seen at the 



fair," and these remarks would often lie aeconi- 
panieil by regrets, that tliey had not been ex- 
liibit(u-st!iemselves. Ili-re is just where "the 
trouble comes in." Too many iieople indulge 
the idea of being benefited, entirtained or 
amused, without contributing to thi' benefit, 
the entertaiununt or amusement of others, or 
to tlie general credit of the occasion. This is 
a mutual, human work, to be conducted on a 
human plane, by liuman beings, and for the 
instruction of humanilij, in the commeiuora- 
tion of a liuman event. 

Of course, it is not expected that crfri/ one 
can, or slioidd, Ix'come an exhibitor, butinany 
more than usually jiarticipate in these afliiirs, 
can assist, in one way or another, in helping 
to forward the work to its consummation; Ix'- 
sides, it is as nmch a matter of course tlial 
if no one pra(aieally participates in it, there 
cannot possibly ln' an exposition at all. Under 
any circumstances, we should feel humiliated 
if it should transpire that the native county 

of liouKitr Fui.Toxand Linhlkv Mfnu.w 

the lionie of the "Sage of Wheatland," and 
the "Old Commoner"— with its immense 
agricultural, mineral and manufacturing re- 
sources, should have a meagre representation 
in tlie tiUK.VT Ck.ntenmai.,. 

Any one desiring to forward tlie work, 
should immediately jiut himself or herself in 
communication, and co-oiierate, with Mn. C. 
M. 1I(JSTKTTK1!, of Lancaster city, who hits 
been aiipoilited the general agent" of htncas- 
ter county, and has his headquarters at the 

Stevens 
" House. 

^Ve un- 
derstand 
Mr. II. 
inten «is 
to pu b- 
lislia de- 
scriptive 
<iut line 
of vhat 
ought to 
be done 
by our 
coun t y , 
and luno 
i t ought 
to be 
done. 
We liope 
the peo- 
ple will 
re spond 
iheerful- 
ly. We 

have, in lonner issues of The FAliifEi;, 
given illustrations of the Agricultural Hall ami 
Hortieiiltunil Hall. In this we illustrate the 
JIain building, tlie Art (iallery or Slemorial 
Hall, and the Centennial Medals, the latter of 
which will be valued by future generations as 
keejisakcs of tlie first Centennial of the great 
republic of tlie world. The following arc the 
dimensions of these magnilieent buildings: 

MaixExhuutiox Uiir.DiNO: Lengtii(East 
and West,)!. SSI) feet; width, 41)4 feet; heiglith 
of central towers. 120 feet. Main iiitranceon 
Elm avenue. Area covereil. '.KiCi.OOS s<|Uare 
feet, this divided into ]iarallel zones, length- 
wise of tlie building: countries and states will 
occuiiy parallel sect ions crosswise of the build- 
ing. This arrangement will bring the products 
of each cla.ss from the whole world into the 
same line. 

Art (rALi.ETiY: I><Migth, 30.") feet: width, 
210 feet; heighth, ."jO feet; heightli of dome 
above the ground, 150. Materials; Granite, 
gla.ss and stone. Site: Lansdowne Plateau, in 
Fairmount Park. 

The following, furnished to theGermantown 
Teleiinijih, by Walter Elder, theejninent Phila- 
deljihia landscape gardener, if it does not act 
as a stiinulanl to owr local florists, to partici- 
pate in fhe "Great Exposition " them.selves, 
will at least excite a desire to witness the dis- 
play made by others: 

THE <iUF..\T KXPOSITIOM COSPERVATORT. 

Tlic (rranil Conservatory, witli its ihoire collections 
of tender exotic plants and ornamental garden sur- 



56 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



roiindinge, will be oneof the moet interesting features 
of the Centennial Exposition in 1876. The structure 
will look noble, chaste anil eletrant. All the other 
buildings, except the Agricultural, will be filled with 
the ingenuity and handiwork of man, and will show 
the advanced prouress of art and science; the plants 
in the Conseri'atory will show the gracious works of 
God. Some will dazzlethe sight with the brilliancy and 
splendor of their blossoms so lovely; others will be- 
wilder the senses with the sizes, forms and singular 
variegations of their leaves; some will tickle the fancy 
with their curious habits and strange faculties in many 
ways ; others will delight the scent with their sweet 
perfumes. The grand combination of the whole, and 
the amazing diversity of the various genera, will show 
the illimitable greatnessof the omnipotence of an All- 
wise and ever-gracious Creator. The building will be 
well-vcntUated for the comfort of visitors. 

The great century plant (agavia Americana) will 
be there, of many tons in weight. Beside it there will 
be the grand screw pine (pandanusodoratissma); and 
the famous fan-palm (coryphiaumbraculifera,) with 
its broad fronds of fan form ; *the curious pitcher- 
leaved plant (nepenthes phyllamphoraand distillato- 
ria,) whose every leaf is a natural pint pitcher, and 
always full of water distilled from the atmosphere ; 
and the xpater-hohling pines, whose spine serated leaves 
form a tube at the bottom which is always full of 
water, also drawn from the air. Then the venus fly- 
trap (dioncea muscipula,) with many natural Irapx, 
like iron rat-traps, with teeth. When a fly goes into 
one, it closes up until the fly is dead, and again opens; 
the sensitive plant (mimosa sensitiva,) which curls 
up its leaves and crooks its joints at the touch of the 
human hand; the bottle-bru.sh plants (metrosideras 
floribundus and beaufortia decussata.) whose flowers 
are scarlet, and the form of bottle-brushes, and very 
beautiful. There will be the famed yuccas, which 
grew in the Garden of Eden; and of whose leaves 
Adam and Eve made needles and thread to sew their 
firstclothes; the needle wastaken from yncca gloriasa, 
and the thread was from the yvccajilatnentosa. In the 
water-tank there will be Victoria J'iji, the grand queen 
of the aquatics, whose leaves measure ten feet in 
diameter, and the double waxy blooms, two feet 
across, all spread out upon the surface of the water, 
with many gold and silver fishes playing beneath 
them. So glorious will all be, that visitors will never 
forget their amazement. 

The managers, Messrs. Mitchell , Ritchie and Hough- 
ton, are gentlemen of skill, energy and fine taste. 
They will endeavor to make the arrangements sur- 
pass in perfection everything of the kind the world 
has ever yet seen. We cordially invite all the people 
from every part of the nation to visit our Centennial 
Exposition of 1876. 



JOHN BULL AFTER THE COLORADO 
BUGS. 

Denis Donohue, the British consul for the States of 
Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky and Missouri, whose consulate office is in Bal- 
timore, yesterday issued the following circular : "In 
order to avoid the introduction into Great Britain and 
Ireland of the 'Colorado' or potato-destroying beetle, 
I am instructed by her Majesty's Government to cau- 
tion exporters against shipping with potatoes intend- 
ed either for use during a voyage to or for importa- 
tion into the United Kingdom, any potato haulms or 
stalks, or adhering soil, from the place in which such 
potatoes are grown. The otficers of customs at the 
various ports of the United Kingdom have been in- 
structed to examine carefully all potatoes coming 
from the United States and from Canada, whether 
brought as merchandise or ship's stores, and to take 
care that all particles of haulm or stalk, or of loose 
soil, which may be found with such potatoes, be de- 
stroyed by fire." 

We are not sure that the action involved in 
the above extract from a recent number of the 
Baltimore Sun, will not eventually prove a 
most stupendous "mountain in labor," which 
may result in bringing "forth a mouse." In 
our opinion, the non-importation of potatoes 
from the United States and Canada will be 
about as ineftcctual in diminishing the geo- 
graphical limits of the Colorado potato-beetle 
as the non-importation of corn-cobs. Although 
it is not impossible that some of the pests may 
be carried over to England and the continent 
of Europe in cargoes of potatoes, yet that is 
not the chief danger of their transmission. 
They will be carried over (if they ever reach 
foreign shores) in the same manner that the 
oriental cockroaches were brought here, and 
that the American cockroaches were carried 
over to England ; and nothing short of abso- 
lute and universal non-intercourse could prove 
a certain bar to their progress. When they 
reach the sealioard they will go into their 
winter hybernation in the ground, if they can, 
but in any convenient nook or comer, if they 
cannot. Late in the autumn of 1874 thou- 



sands of them were scattered over the pave- 
ments of Lancaster city, crawling under door- 
steps and through cellar-grates, or anywhere 
else, to get "out of the cold." In another 
article in this ntmiber of our journal we have 
given our theory of their sudden and unex- 
pected advent in Lancaster county, at least 
three years before they could have reached 
the western base of the Allegheny Mountains, 
according to their ordinary progress. Where- 
ever they have appeared in Pennsylvania they 
have always been first observed in the potato 
fields along the railroads; and the plain in- 
ference seems to he, that they were cairied 
thither on the rolling stock of the road — per- 
chance amongst the freight, whether it con- 
sisted of potatoes or anything else. Ours is 
not the function of an luinecessary alarmist, 
but we would respectfully admonish John 
Bull that before five years he may have the 
CoJorado 2)otato-bcctle on his soil, anyhow; and 
if it once becomes domicilated there, it is not 
going to leave it in much of a hurry. No; we 
do not think there is much danger of its being 
exported in cargoes of potatoes; but tliere are 
many other contingencies through which this 
end may be effected. It was demonstrated 
last year, both at Marietta and here in Lan- 
caster city, that where they had eaten all the 
potato leaves, they scraped the "epidermis" 
off the ripened vines, leaving them white as 
bleached skeletons; and, not content with 
this, when the meagre crop was dug up, the 
beetles attacked the tubers, almost burying 
themselves in the cavities they had eaten out. 
It is true that, should they happen to bury 
themselves deep enough in the potato tuber, 
and hybernate there, they mirjht thus be 
transiwrted to other places; but these are 
only exceptional cases. 



ALFALFA CLOVER, BARLEY, &c. 

Many of the agricultural journals which 
come under our ol)sei'vatioii have something 
to say about Alfalfa clover, and therefore we 
conclude that it has been, or is about to be, 
introduced into the middle region of our coun- 
try as one of its grass or hay crops. 

Our attention has been incidentally called 
to this subject by reading a published letter 
from Rev. C. Dny Noble, fomierly of Chicago, 
111., but who is now residing at Riverside, 
San Bernardino county. Southern California. 
Mr. N. says: "The Alfalfa clover will pro- 
duce about eight crops a year, at a profit of 
SlOO per acre;" and that if the land is proper- 
ly irrigated (either natiually or artificially, we 
presimie), the roots are good for an indefinite 
period; and it is alleged that there is no bet- 
ter food for all kinds of stock that are not 
subjected to hard work. It is true, the tem- 
perature in the winter is very seldom lower 
than .3(P above zero; but still, in our Lancas- 
ter county climate, we might manage to grow 
four or five crops, if the roots were not ex- 
posed to an open, boisterous, and hard-freez- 
ing winter. Barley hay is, however, consid- 
ered better for working horses, and brings 
$12 a ton in winter. .$400 an acre have been 
realized for barley liay in one year. When 
barley has been sown and harvested, the year 
following two and even tt rec crops of barley 
hay can be realized without re-sowing. Corn 
and wheat are not profitable, but oranges, 
lemons, figs, grapes, iiomegranites, almonds, 
English walnuts, peaches, plums, apples, apri- 
cots, bananas and strawberries all do well. 
The Muscat grape, and the raisins therefrom, 
are the most profitable staples of the district. 



PLANTING POTATOES EARLY. 

E. S. Brownell, in the Country Gentleman, says: 
" From the experience I have had,Iwould recommend 
planting as early as the ground is in a suitable condi- 
tion. Potatoes planted early will in most seasons 
mature early, and will be less liable to be injured by 
blight or disease. Planted early, they will be fit to 
harvest early. I recommend harvesting as soon as 
ripe, if in August. Let (hem dry and put them in 
"the cellar ; be sure to exclude light and air, in order 
to preserve the quality. I am of the ojiinion that po- 
tatoes planted early are less liable to be false-hearted, 
as tubers that grow quick are much more liable to 



show that defect. Cutting tubers to single eyes will 
largely increase the yield from the amount of seed 
used. It also has a tendency to produce large tubers, 
but not so many in a hill as where more seed is used, 
which will produce more in number but of smaller 
size. Brownell's Beauty has excelled all varieties in 
producing the greatest weight from a single pound, 
but 1 think the Eureka, that originated with me in 
1871, one year after the Beauty, will do better still." 

All of the foregoing, and much more, we 
think, would accrue to the planting of pota- 
toes early. Now, that the " Colorado beetle " 
is likely to become a "fixed institution" in 
Lancaster county, furnishes an additional 
stimulant to plant early. It is well known, 
from past experience, that the early crops 
suffer less damage from the infestations of 
this insect than the late crops; nor is this 
a mere arbitrary result, and altogether with- 
out a good reason. Only a little reflection 
will illustrate that the reason is quite obvious. 
The early spring brood are never so numerous 
as the later broods. The vicissitudes of cold 
winter and variable spring may subject the 
insects to contingencies to which they are not 
exposed in midsummer. However tenaceous 
they may be there are nevertheless many that 
perish, one way or other, between their autumn 
hybernation and their spring resuscitation ; 
moreover, if birds or domestic poultry will 
feed upon them at all, they are more likely to 
do it then, when food is scarce, after a long 
winter fast, than they are at a later period, 
when fruit or vegetable food becomes more 
abundant. Their parasitic and carniverous 
enemies are also more numerous as the season 
advances than they are at its beginning. 
These things, taken together, seem to suggest 
early planting. 



WHAT 



FERTILIZERS ARE USED IN 
YOUR COUNTY? 

To circulars sent to statistical correspondents 
of the Agiicultural Department, in sixteen hun- 
dred and twelve coimties in the United States, 
propounding the above question, answers have 
been received from ten hundred and ninety-six; 
and the following tabulated report shows the 
pereenteujeot the different kinds of manure and 
fertilizers used. 

It will be observed from this table that the 
manure from farm-animals is the main reli- 
ance for sustaining the fertility of the soil. It 
is also demonstrated from other statistical de- 
tails of the office, that fully one-half of the 
counties in the United States are cultivated 
"literallj' without fertilizers of any kind," 
and another fourth, with the incidental aid of 
"green manuring," or a little lime, plaster, 
cotton seed, &c., &c. On the whole, however, 
the farmers of the country are becoming better 
versed in the philosophy of fertilization, and 
better able to adapt their practice to the pecu- 
liarities of the soil. 



states. 



Maine 

N. Harapshire. 

Vermont 

MassactiusettB. 
Rhofle Island.. 

Connecticut 

New York 

New -Jersey 

Pennsylvania. . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

VirRiuia 

N. Carolina 

.S. Carolina . , . . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

MissisBippi../.. 



u 

IS 






p. a. 


P.ct. 




73 


27 




84 


16 




85 


15 




7.5 


25 




78 


22 




81 


19 




68 


32 




69 


31 




76 


24 




72 


28 




40 


60 




59 


41 




51 


49 




■26 


74 




33 


67 




45 


6.5 




53 


47 




60 


40 









States. 


S3 




<a 




Ph 




P.ct. 


Louisiana 






70 
65 


Arkansas 


Tennessee 


80 


West Vii-giuia.. 


77 


Kentucky 


97 




85 
73 


Michigan 


[ndiana 


84 


[lliuojs 


95 


Wisconsin 


90 


Minnesota ... 


98 




100 


Missouri 


95 


Kansas 


100 


Nebraska 


100 


California 


98 



P.ct. 

30 
35 
20 
23 

3 
15 
27 
16 

5 
10 

2 



A USEFUL TABLE. 

To aid farmers in arriring at accuracy in ascertain- 
ing the amount of land in different fields under culti- 
vation, the following table is given: 

5 yards wide by 9(iS yards long, contains one acre. 

10 yards wide by 4S-t yards long, contains one acre. 

20 yards wide by '^42 yards long, contains one acre . 

40 yards wide by 121 yards long, ctmtains one acre. 

fiO feet wide by 72fi feet long, contains one acre. 
110 feet wide by 306 feet long, contains one acre. 
220 feet wide by 198 feet long, contains one acre. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



57 



IRRIGATION IN THE VALLEY OF THE 
RIO GRANDE. 

The irrigation of tin; soil by artificial means 
is not a niodeni invention, nor a cu.stoni of 
recent date. The soil of certain c()nntries has 
always, at certain seasons, retjuired other 
means than those supplied liy the iircvailinj; 
iiatm-al laws, to insmc satisfactory returns t<i 
the husbandman ; nor did it require more than 
ordinary jiowers of observation to perceive 
that if a deficiency of moisture was Iiurtful to 
growini^ vegetation, the needed supiily of tliat 
essential must prove beneficial. We may 
safely assume, therefore, that the practice ol' 
irrigation is coeval witli that of agriculture 
itself. 

AVe find, consequently, that in those early 
times when Africa and Asia boasted of tlie 
great monarchies of the world, this method of 
assisting the i)arclied soil to yield its treasuics 
was almost universally i)racticed. IIow the 
annual overfiowings of the Xile make green 
and fruitful the valh^y rendered famous by 
that classic sti'cam, is known to all ; l)ut it is 
not so generally known that on the temples, 
jiillars and other remains tliat still strew the 
banks of that mighty river, are pictured a 
numlier of devices whereby the turbid waters 
were dra^\ii from their channel and distiibutcd 
over the sandy stiil at times when the low 
waters of the Nile refused to (juit their muddy 
bed. 

A complete net-work of irrigating canals 
covered the greater part of Assyria and Baby- 
lonia, abimdant relics of which still greet the 
eyes of the traveler. These, however, were 
also employed for inirposcs of navigation, and 
were found useful for a double jiurpose. Even 
to-day the waters of the Euphrates and the 
Tigris are drawn from their channels l)y the 
same methods emphned 4,000 years ago. In 
Spain, France and Italy, as, indeed, in all the 
otlier countries bordering on the Mediterra- 
nean, irrigation enters largely into the neces- 
sities of the husbandman ; and without it his 
lalKirs in many places would meet with iinor 
returns. It was also tried in England in the 
sixteenth century ; but as the rain-fall in that 
country is generally sullicient, and too often 
in excess of the farmer's needs, it soon fell 
into disuse. It is still a common practice to 
turn the water of adjacent streams into 
meadows, when the .summers prove unusually 
dry. 

After this somewhat lengthy introduction, 
we turn now to the method of irrigation as 
practiced on this continent, and we purpose 
to describe it with sufiicient minuteness to 
render it intelligible to every reader. Our 
observations, extending through a i>criod of 
. many years, relate more particularly to the 
valk-y of the Kio Grande, although "all over 
Mexico, excepting only the valleys of the 
Sierra Madre range and the narrow" belt bor- 
dering on the .sea-coasts, the same geneial 
system prevails. Even here the artificial 
watering of land has jirevailed from immemo- 
rial years. Cortes and Ids com])anions found 
the practice in general vogue among the 
Aztecs; and as the (ilan followed here ditfers 
from that pursued on the Eastern continent, 
it is a fair jiresumption that tlie concpierors 
adopted the method observed by the natives. 
Tliere are two primary facts connected with 
this subject which must be borne in mind : 
first, that irrigation is necessjiry only where 
there is a deficient rain-fall ; and, second, that 
it is practicable only in the valleys and coun- 
try lying adjacent to streams of water. Where 
the latter ar? wanting there can of course be 
no artificial irrigation. It follows, therefore, 
that in a regi(ui wheie there mv few rivers or 
streams of considerable si/e Hint may lie made 
available, there are often innnense tracts of 
land which are, and must forever remain, 
comparatively valueless for agriculluial pur- 
poses. Gen. W. B. Ilazen has quite recently 
called attention, in an article in the North 
American Iievi(u\ to the immen.se region of 
country lying immediately eastward of the 
Eoeky Mountains, which,' from insufficient 
rains and the limited number of streams, will 
to all intents and purposes bid defiance to the 



efibrls of the pioneer to make it available for 
his siqiport. The vast plains of Colorado, 
parts of Mebraska and Western Kansas, por- 
tions of New Mexico and Arizona, and the 
Llano Estaciulo of Texas, are all included in 
this category, as well as nuich of the table 
lands of Mexico. 

The town of El Paso, in Mexico, is built on 
the right bank of the Rio Grande river, and 
contains, proViably, 4,r)t)0 inhabitants. Thesis 
are scattered along the river for a distance of 
six or seven miles ; and although the valley is 
in some ])laces three miles wiiie, all or nearly 
all the cultivated land lies within a mile of 
the river bank, the rest being unoccupied. 
About two miles above the town the river has 
cut through a range of mountains, and, as is 
usual in such placi'S, there is ('(insiderabli' fall, 
and, what is eciually desirable, a rocky forma- 
tion, thnuigh which a stable and permanent 
mouth has l)een hewn for the irrigating ditch 
or canal. Such canals are called ureqidaa, and 
the main or principal one, the araiuia inndrc, 
or mother canal. To furnish enough water to 
suiiply the above poi)ulation, nine-tenths of 
which are farmers on a larj^er or smaller scale, 
requires a canal of considerable dimensions. 
Indeed, the El Paso acequia is the largest we 
have ever .seen, being at its origin about 
twelve feet wide and five feet deep, and in 
A\n\\ and May, when the spring rise has 
swollen the river, generally bank full. 

In digging an ace(iuia it is desirable to have 
as much, and, if possible, all the water that 
(lows through it, abucc the level of the fields to 
be watered, because in that way the entire 
quantity can be poured out over them, while 
if part Hows lower than the surrounding 
ground, it is not available, and conse(|uently 
lost. It is very desirable also that the mouth 
of the acequia — the mouth is that end where 
the water first cjiters it, and not, as in a river, 
where it discharges — should be quite or nearly 
on a level with the bed of the river from which 
it draws its supplies, because then, however 
low the water in the stream might become in 
a dry season, it would still continue to (low 
into the aceciuia; whereas, if the mouth of the 
latter was above the bed of the source of su])- 
jily, either temporary or permanent dams 
would be required to divert the How into the 
irrigating ditch. And just here we may call 
attention to the advantages this mod(" of sup- 
plying the water has over that jiractised in 
oriental countries ; here the canals are filled 
by the direct flow of the water into them from 
the rivers, while there it is jiumped or raised 
up by machinery more or less rude, the motive 
power lieing furnished by either men or cattle. 
The former method has the advantage, both 
on the score of simplicity as well as that of 
economy. 

The digging, cleaning and keeping in repair 
of the acequias is a matter of h^gislative en- 
actment, and in every townshi]) is under numi 
cipal control. There is a mayordomo or gen- 
eral sujiervisor, who app(jints the necessary 
number of subordinates, called alathh^ de 
aijua, or water magistrates, through whom all 
complaints, reiiuests for the u.se of water, and 
other like business must be made. Every resi- 
dent, either pei-sonally or by |)roxy, is re- 
quired to do a certain number of days work, 
annually, on the acequias ; this amount of 
work is governed by the wealth of the indi- 
vidual, if he be a merchant or a professional 
man, but if a farmer, then by the amount of 
grain lu^ plants. The measure whereby this 
service is regulated is the (ilniwhi^ equal to 
.about one-fifth of our bu.shcl ; beyond a cer- 
tain number of almuilas, however, a new regu- 
lation conns in, and then the service exacted 
includes carts and oxen to haul brush, stones 
and dirt, when necessary. Any one can com- 
pound by paying money instead of rendering 
physical labor. Besides the regularly assessed 
duty, in times of emergency, when a svulden 
or unforseen tlood destroys or threatens to tear 
away the banks of the acequia, or other dan- 
ger impends, the Prij'ecin or Mayor of the dis- 
trict ('aTi, and often docs, seize every man or 
boy his police can get theirhands on, and sends 
them to the point where the impending dan- 



ger is. To keep in order tlie acequia madre 
from its mouth to the point where the lateral 
and smaller aceiiuies branch ofi', is the duty 
of the entire county, but the citizens of each 
precinct (of which there are seven) are obliged 
to attend to the branches tliat llow through 
their several districts. 

This compulsoiy labor on the irrigating 
canals is a very serious tax on the farmer: 
more time than would be supjiosed is tlui.s, in 
a measure, hi.st to him, and is an unceasing 
cause of complaint. The water of the Hio 
Grande dining the spring ri.se holds in solu- 
tion mineral and vegetable matter equal to as 
much as one-lilt h of its bulk. This being pre- 
cijiitated soon (ills up the canals, and necessi- 
tates fre(|uent cleanings: from one to two feet 
of dirt are dug, or rather hoed from the bot- 
tom, for th(! lioe is to the Mexican what the 
shovel or spade is to the Iri.shman : the dirt 
thus thrown out heightens and strengtheua 
the banks of the canal. 

It is found necess;iry to irrigate the planted 
lands every eight or ten days during the sum- 
uut: should considerable rains intervene, then, 
of course, such frequent waterings are not re- 
quired. No one can obtain the use of the 
water without application to the Alcades do 
Agiia, and not always then, for the sui)ply is 
nearly constantly short, except during the 
spring lloods. This often leads to taking the 
water by stealth at night, partiiailarly at dis- 
tant fields where the lialiilily to detection is 
not great. Such misdemeanors are severely 
jiunisbed when di.scovereil. Most farmers pre- 
fer to irrigate at night, not only to avoid the 
heat of the sun, but also ljccau.se they believe 
the application of the water to be more etKca- 
tious then than during the day. 

A field to be irrigated is laid off into small 
beds or divisions, each from ten to twenty 
yards square: this is rendered necessary from 
the fact that no considerable piece of ground 
is found sudiciently level to allow of its being 
evenly Hooded at one time; some porti<ms 
would get too much water, and other parts 
none: the ubiquitous hoe is therefore brought 
into requisition, and a border from six to twelve 
inches high is thrown up around a small Ix'd 
of the size mentioned aliove. The water from 
the acequia is turned into this small patch un- 
til the soil will absorb no more, when the same 
process is cimtiimed with the ne.\t division, 
and so on until the whole field is gone over. 

This is a tedious proceeding, and when the 
water .supply is short, three or four acres are 
all one man can go over in a day. When we 
consider, too, that the wheat planting sea.sou 
is in .lanuary, when sometimes spells of cold 
Weather occur,and that thelaborer isobliged to 
staijd and work in mud and water up to his 
knees, it becomes apparent that the work is 
anything liut agreealilc. And taking the mira- 
berof (lays a farmer spends in irrigating his 
crops, and then adding the time he is annually 
compelled to devote to cleansing and repair- 
ing the canals, it will at once be seen that the 
.system entails no lit tlee.^penseuiiont he iilanter. 
All this labor enhances the cost of his crops. 
It must be very evident also, that, other things 
being equal, agricultural products raised by 
irrigation cannot compete with those grown 
in iiiaces where copious rains render such a 
coui-se uniK'cessary. Besides, no amount of 
artificial watering of land can render the pro- 
duct e(|ual, either in (juantity or quality, to 
that grown when the moisture is precipitated 
from rain clouds. AVIien, in addition to the 
usual amount of irrigation, there are also sea- 
sonable rains, the inerea.se in the crops pro- 
duced is from thirty-three tofiftyiicr cent. A 
hot sun, falling day after day, upon a soil that 
has been flooded, bakes it dry and hard, and, 
thecrnst that is formed, becomes full of cracks 
and fissures, all of which are hmtful to vege- 
tation. 

Lateral acequias of all dimensions branch 
off from the main stem and cover the valley 
lik(^ a net work. The water for household 
purj)oses, as well as for watering stock, is 
taken from them. Ilorsesare washed in them 
every day during the summer season, an<l they 
are also {he common resort of men and women 



58 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



for bathing piu'poses. Traversing as they do 
the country in all directions, they are spanned 
by innumerable rude bridges, whose repair is 
a part of the duty of the supervisor and his 
assistants. All in all, the system is simple 
enough, but the innumerable annoyances which 
arisefrom floods, from beavers and musk-rats 
who dig holes through the banks and cause 
leaks, and from cattle which, in crossing them, 
break down the borders and send the water in 
all directions, and from many other causes, 
are enough to disturb the eqanimity of any one 
who is not, like the Mexicans, a confirmed 
optimist. — F. R. D., Lancaster, Pa. 



SOAP. 

To live in a clean house, to wear clean 
clothes, and to have a cleaq skin, are privi- 
leges hot to be lightly esteemed. A free use 
of the compound which bears the honorable 
name, Soap, aids very materially in attaining 
these. All of us who labor on the farm, in the 
shop, factory, kitchen or elsewhere, know- 
that the material among which we work very 
often gets out of place, becomes dirt, sticks 
where it should not, and though water alone 
be applied ever so freely, the " spot will not 
out," and our only chance of preventin.i; an 
immaculate appearance after oiu: work is done, 
is by the application of soap. 

The quantity of soap used by the people of 
a country, it has been said, is a measure of 
their civilization. A proper use, of course, is 
meant ; and there is truth in this. Habitual 
personal cleanliness is as sure a sign as one 
can be named by which to recognize the man 
or woman living under the influences of civ- 
ilization. 

Chemically, soap is the union of fat or oil 
with an alkaline base, either potash or soda 
The alkali on which its cleansing action de- 
pends, used alone, would tend to destroy the 
substance to be cleansed ; this is why wash- 
ing powders are injurious to the textm^e of the 
clothing on which "they are used, and the use 
of the fat or oil in making soap is to neutral- 
ize this tendency, and to act as a lubricant. 

There are many extensive soap factories in 
the country, and those housekeepers who wish 
can be supplied with €very kind and quality 
by the soap, grocery and country stores ; 
but many — the majority in the country— yet 
prefer that made by themselves. They have 
the fat necessary in the shape of refuse lard, 
tallow, bacon skins, etc., and the potash or 
soda can now easily be obtained for use with 
much less labor than was formerly required, 
when the potash had to be extracted from the 
pile of wood ashes at home. Where wood is 
used for fuel this is yet done ; but we flunk 
nothing is gained by it ; the unleached ashes 
can be profitably used on the farm and gaixlen, 
and there is always so nuicli to be done, es- 
pecially about a farm-house, that no extra la- 
bor should be engaged in where it can be 
avoided without loss. 

We would then say, if you want to make 
soap (and tliis is generally one of the first jolis 
in order on the approach of spring) go and liuy 
caustic soda — you can get it at an apothecary 
if nowhere else — and use it in this way. For 
hard .soap, take to one pound of caustic soda 
three pounds of fat, or five or six pounds of 
ordinary soap fat, and three gallons of water ; 
put all together in a kettle over the fire and 
boil, adding three or four handsful of salt be- 
fore the boiling is (pnte finished ; from two to 
three hours boiling will l)e necessary. The ex- 
perienced soap boiler will know by its appear- 
ance when it has boiled sufficiently. The no- 
vice will soon learn. 

Where caustic soda can not be obtained, get 
common washing or sal-soda, and by the ad- 
dition of lime make it cai(.st/c, after the Pjllow- 
ing plan, wliich is the one generally in use at 
present, and wliich makes an excellent soap : 
Take six pounds of washing soda and tlu'ec 
pounds of fresh, unslacked lime ; place to- 
gether in any water-tight vessel — an iron ket- 
tle is best — and pour on two gallons of boiling 
water ; stir occasionally until tb.e lime is 
slacked and the soda is dissolved ; then allow 



it to settle. Take the clean lye from the top 
and pour it on the fat — of which three pounds 
common scrapings are to be taken, and com- 
mence boiluig ; then add another gallon of 
water to the settlings of the soda and lime, 
stirring as before. This lye is then to be added 
to the other while boiling', also thi'iiw in about 
six single handsful of salt about half an hour 
before it is done boiling. Boil two hours 

Without the salt either of these methods 
will make a semi-soft soap ; but for a real 
soft soap potash must be used. This you can 
buy for the purpose ; or if you prefer, extract 
from vfood ashes by simply mixing a little fresh 
lime with them and pouring on water. An 
old barrel or tub will do to hold them, if there 
is a hole in the bottom for the liquid to drain 
out. The ash hoppers fonnerly used for tliis 
purpose are yet standing alongside of some 
outhouse on many farms, but seldom used 
now. 

For toilet pui-poses a soap made with a 
vegetable oil is to be preferred — castile, jialm 
or cocoa, rather than those highly perfumed, 
but which are sometimes made from the most 
impure materials. If perfumed soap is wanted, 
the common soap above can be melted, and per- 
fume of any desired kind can be added ; but it 
will be rather strong for delicate skins, and 
castile is much to be preferred. 

Soap-making need no longer be dreaded by 
the woman to whose lot it falls, as by the 
methods we have given, as well as other simi- 
lar ones, all the soap needed in a family for 
six months can be easily made in a single day. 

It is sometimes said that home-made soap 
costs more than it could be bought for. Per- 
haps it does ; but then you have the satisfac- 
tion of knowing from what it is made. 

We would specially recommend the first 
method we have given on account of its great 
convenience ; but if there are any readers of 
this who know of a "better way," we are 
sure they cannot do better than to make it pub- 
lic througli The Farmeb. JEi. 



MOUNTAIN TEA. 



The Beading Times, some time ago, pub- 
lished an article on "Mountain Tea," and 
spoke of a Mr. Hearsing as a veteran Tea 
merchant, selling his tea in Berks and Lan- 
caster counties. Mr. H., I believe, was never 
known to visit old Warwick township, in 
Lancaster County. 

But the tea was well-known in this part of 
the county for upwards of forty years or more. 
Between the j'ears 1815 and 1820, a man by 
the name of Jacob Mauss, a German, lived in 
IMillport and ]5runcrsville, but left abruptly, 
without paying all his liabilities. The neigh- 
bors never knew what had become of him un- 
til about 1830, when he "turned up," with a 
large cargo of tea, contained in a muslin bag, 
holding al)out fifty pounds, transporting it on a 
wheelbarrow. Thus he would travel from 
five to ten miles, occasionally taking out a quan- 
tity and putting it into a smaller bag. He had a 
light-weighing steelyards, almost worn as 
white as silver from constant use, in weighing 
out his tea in small quantities — from an eightli 
to a pound. He represented himself as own- 
ing large tea farms in the vicinity of Cold 
Siirings, Lebanon county, and also in Dauphin 
and Schuylkill counties. He gathered tea and 
sold it, for many years, and, after his deatli, 
his sons followed the same business for some 
time. 

After they quit the business, a man in Ra- 
pho township took it up, and journeyed north- 
westward, as far as Northumlierland county, 
to gather tea. He carried it in packages of 
difi'ercnt weights to suit customers, "it is 
called tlie "Fragrant Goldenrod," (Solidago) 
of which genus there are over thirty species in 
the United States. "Goldenrod" comes from 
an old Latin word which me<ins, to vutki: rolioU, 
or, uirite, from the supposed healing qualities 
of tlie tea. They llower from August to Oc- 
tober, and have a rich, golden yellow color. 
The loaves are lanreolnte, or willow shaped. 
Tlie fall, or "Bitter Goldenrod" is very a- 
bvndant throughout Lancaster county. Some 



of it, in the leaves and flowers, looks like the 
genuine Goldenrod, and can only be distin- 
guished by tasting. The " Fragrant Golden- 
rod " has been reported as existing on the hills 
between Neftsville and the little Conestogo. 
I noticed it in several counties west of Elmira, 
in Kew York, and through Bradford and Ly- 
coming counties, Pennsylvania. In passing 
along the railroad, I could not ascertain whe- 
ther it was the fragrant or the commoner 
kinds. 

I have examined the localities where it is 
supposed to exist in our county, but I found 
nothing but a kind of mint, and tlierefore it 
has probably become extinct in Lancaster. It 
makes a very pleasant tea, and if we could 
habituate ourselves to it, we would like it as 
well as Black or Green Tea, and would save 
the vast amount of money we send annually 
to China for tea. L. S. R. 

P. S. — Dr. Wood gives 48 species of Soli- 
dago for North America, but neither he, nor 
Dr. Gray, makes any allusion to a fragrant 
species, or that it is ever used for tea. Surely, 
a plant used for this purpose these fifty years, 
or more, must have been specifically identified 
by Botanists long before this time. Can my 
friend S. give the species, from its history a- 
lone,and without having a specimen before him? 



THE GREAT LILIUM AURATUM. 

One of the most magnificent specimens of 
this gorgeous flower ever seen, was exhibited 
at the show of the Barnstable Agricultural 
Society in September last. When the fact 
that it bore no less than 61 perfect blossoms 
at the time of the fair, and that three or four 
others li.ad dropped off' in transjiorting it to 
the show, was brought to the notice of the 
State Board of Agriculture by Hon. J. F. C. 
Hyde, who reported upon the exhibition as a 
delegate from the board. Col. Wilder thouglit 
it must be a mistake, so large a number of 
blossoms never having been known. Major 
Phinney, of Barnstable, amemljerof the board, 
therefore addressed a note of enquii-y to Col. 
Perkins, and received the following reply, 
which we find in the 3Iassackusetts Plough- 
man: 

My Dear Sir : In accordance with my promise to 
you, I herewith give you the statement regardiuff the 
growth of the Lilium Auratura at Cotuit, 187i, aud 
other circumstances wliich seem to bear upon the 
case. 

Mrs. Augustus D. Perkins began to cultivate the 
Lilium Auriitum in her garden at Sandanwood, so 
early as 1871. The position of the garden is on a bluff 
fifty-five feet high, overlooking Cotuit Bay to tlie 
southwest, and distant from the edge of the bank 
about forty feet. The garden is surrounded with yel- 
low pine trees. The original soil is merely sand, pro- 
ducing nothing but pine and dwarf oak. After the 
garden was laid out the sand was removed from the 
beds to the depth of two feet, leaving the spaces round 
them for paths. The beds were filled with a compost 
made of black mud dug from a pond, mixed with the 
sand taken from the beds, and enriched with manure 
from stables near at hand. All the bulbs did well, 
some reaching three and four feet in height, and hav- 
ing from fifteen to twenty-five flowers on the beet 
plants. 

The lily which has caused some attention owing to 
the size it attained in the autumn of 1874, and whicli 
was exhibited at the fair at Barnstable, threw up 
those shoots which still stand (February 17th, 187.5) 
and by careful measurement now reach the extraor- 
dinary size of seven feet eleven inches. When in ex- 
hibition it had sixty-one flowers, and Capt. William 
Childs, who prepared it for the fair, says that it has 
already lost three, and that it bore sixty-four flowers 
in all. 

The well at Sandanwood, which is near the garden, 
is dug through fifty-five feet of clear sand, free of 
stones, but with faint traces of iron in it. This shows 
the character of the soil to its whole depth. > 
Yours very truly, 

A. T. Perkins. 

The above is not only interesting as an in- 
stance of floral proliflcation of an unusual oc- 
cin-ronee in the lily family, but also as involv- 
ing tlie suliject of soil, and as such we com- 
mend it to the notice of our correspond ent in 
anotlier part of this paper, and especially since 
tlie extraordinary result seems to have lieen 
cftectcd through "the intelligent culture prac- 
ticed by a lady. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



59 



TIMBER FOR FENCES. 

This qiK'stiiin Wils, or was to liiivo bocn, dis- 
ciisscil at a luoi'tiiig of the Ayrindlural and 
HorlicullKntl iSiiriiii/ of Lnwd.tlrr Count;/. 

I believe the riiiestioii was ''what kind of 
timber is (luiel^est and easiest raised for feuc- 
ma purposes." 

I would answer, the willow, the ailantus 
and tlie loeust. Willows can be raised in from 
twenty to tliirty years. I planted two willows 
twenty-live years a>;o, and eut them into rails 
last summer. I made fourteen panels of 
"worm fence" from the rails of these trees, 
and mitrht, no doulit, have made twenty-live 
panels of four-rail post-fence. Willow rails 
are as lasting as chestnut rails, when cut at 
the proper time. I have some on my place 
that were cut forty years aijo, and they are 
still sound. I tliink the proper time to cut 
them is when the saii is u]) — in May lor in- 
stance — in order to facilitate the peeling oil' 
of the bark. 

The ailantus is a very rapid growing 
tree — almost as much so as the willow. If it is 
well sea.soned, it will last as long and as well 
as locust, and it is also very good for fuel. 
There may be a doubt about its durability as 
a post, but it is worth trying. The locust is 
also a fast growing tree, when planted in 
favorable ground, and free from the "tree- 
borer" (Cli/tvs rohinm). At twenty years 
growth you can make from live to six posts, 
b\it at ten years longer, you can make from 
fifteen to twenty posts out of a single tree. 

I believe, however, that locust timber ought 
to lie well seasoned before it is used for fencing 
and especially trees that had been growing 
very rapidly. 

Another word about willows. They can be 
raised on any kind of waste ground, but moist 
ground .is preferable, and they ought to be 
raised in thick groves, in order to make them 
grow straight. Xast spring I planted some 
sixty young willows along a small water 
stream shaded more or less on both sides by 
forest trees, and at a place too where the 
cattle have access the whole summer, thinking 
at the time, that the cattle, by rubbing them- 
selves against them might possibly retard 
their growth more or less. I planted at the 
same time some lifty in a low, wet place in a 
corner of a field which had been intended for 
corn, sujiposing those in the field would be 
midisturbed, and would all grow, l)ut to my 
suriirise the reverse was the case. Of those 
shade<l and exposed to the cattle, nim out of 
ten grew and thrived, whilst of those in the 
open field and in the wet ground, nine out of 
ten died. 

Planting trees is mie thing, and getting them 
to grow jiroperly is another thing. 

It is the same in planting fruit trees. They 
are too often planted, left to take care of 
themselves and perish from neglect. — L. S. R. 
Warwirk, April. 187.5. 

[In .iddilion to tlic trops above n.iinofi, wp would 
mention a kind of poplar, known as the "Balm of 
(iilead," as a more rapitl trrowpr than anj' of them, 
if that fdcl has any merit in relation to fpncinf; 
material. Ed. J 

LETTERS, QUERIES, AND ANSWERS. 



The Flower Garden. 

^fr. Kditor: Can we not have a Floral Dppartmint 
in your exeellent paper? I have just read the Mareh 
number of the Farmer, and your eordini invitation 
to lady eontriliutors has prompted me to use my pen ; 
hut rather for the i)urpose of ftu-itlmi information, 
than for communieatini; it . I want some helpful smr- 
pestions as to.tht; ease of my Ilower garden. I am 
not a farmer's wife or daughter, elsp 1 should blush 
for the confessions of in;noranee I must make. I live 
in the eity, and have a small flower t'arilen ; I liud 
niueh pleasure in the pare of plants and tlowers, and 
deliirht preatly in their fragranee and beauty, but I 
do not always have the gooil Hucrt-KX I desire. I want 
now to solieit from yourself, or your readers, sueh 
instruetivc suggestions as 1 need to beeome a better 
gardener. 

In the first place I want to enquire alx)ut the soU. 
What is necessary to secure a good soil for flower 
beds? Mine does not look right, or net right! It is 
hard, light colored, and when watered, in the sum- 
mer, gets packed and unmanageable. While visiting 



at the West, last fall, in Illinois, I was so delighted 
with the appearance of the soil there in its native 
stale, that I briMight a pint of it home, in a box, to 
show to my friends. It was very dark, nullow, anil 
rich l(H)king; and it was really mortifying anil dis- 
eoiirjiging to compare the soil of my garden with this 
tieauliful loam. 1 decitlcil then that 1 wouM certain- 
ly change the color of my soil, at any rate, l)y adding 
imlverized charcoal to It., this spring. Will some on<; 
inform me whetluT this would be a prudent course? 
I should like to know, also, whether soil, such as Is 
found under Ibrcst trees, in tin; country, is suitable 
for garden plants. 1 have been iuforuied that it is not 
so good as " made " soil. 

You will see, .Mr. Kilitor, that I certainly jwcd In- 
formation, anil 1 trust that some of y*»ur readers who 
have had superior advantages in such matters, will 
gciuTously aid me. If they will ilo so I shall, in an- 
other letter, apply for help in regard to the culture 
of roses and otlier tlowers and plants. 

Eaknestine. 

In reply to our "fair correspondent," we 
would say that w(^ U^lieve we oi(<//(( to have a 
"lloral deiKirtment, " and can have one if our 
florists will assist us with their contributions 
on FhriaiHure. The mo.st beautifid results 
incidental to tilling the soil are those which 
perttiin to the cultivation tjf llowering plants, 
and in their sphere they occupy a plane of use 
not inferior to anything that " mother earth " 
produces, albeit tuey cannot be converted into 
Suur-Krdut. 

As to the proper kind of soil, we would spe- 
cifically refer her to the article on "Ko.se Cul- 
ture," in this number of our journal, as com- 
ing from "one who knows." Of course, 
different kinds of plants require a somewhat 
dilleicnt kind of soil. Proliably, her garden 
is not dug deep enough, h;is not enough of 
vegetable manure, and too much lime and 
sand. Lime and sand, with the addition of 
water, are the elements of mortar, which, as 
soon as the water evaporates, results in a 
htirdened tind ailhesive mass, and there are 
.approximations, more or less, to this condition 
in the soil of many gardens. Note the follow- 
ing selection : 

SOOT AS A GARDEN KERTU.IZER. Perhaps it may 
have occurred to some of our lady readers that the 
refuse soot of our chimneys is one of the most valu- 
able stimulants and fertilizers they can have for their 
garden llowcrs. The following iueict^-nt of practical 
experience is from a lady contributor to the Uurnl 
Curolininn: During two seasons we nursed, fed and 
petted the Hartford i)rolifie graiie vine — as much for 
its sliade over the winilow as for its fruit — but it [)er- 
si.sted in remaining a stunted cane, yellow, and refus- 
ing to climb. Despairing a shade, grapes and ropes, 
we finally iicthought ourselves of soot as a manure, 
and forthwith made a "soot tea" l)y steeping a tea 
cup of soot in a quart of water. This we adnnnistered, 
two doses each, to both the trees and the vine. The 
vine grew six feet in height in the space of six weeks, 
the rose bush four feet in the same length of time — 
both therefore rejoiced in living green. 



The Chinese Yam. 
Prop. S. S. Rathvon : 

Dear Sir ; Can you itiffirm me where I can get 
Chinese Yams (Uioxeorea Bnlaliis) . In view of the 
Potato Bug pest, we thiidi of giving them a trial if 
thi'y can lie got at a rea.sonablc rate. I sec one seeds- 
man advertises at the modest rate of .?'2.0II per oz. 

Would it be too late to have an artrcle on them in 
The Farmer? I am under the impression you know 
all about their culture and merits. — A. B. K., ,Siife 
J{art>or, JMiicnuler county^ /'«., Mareh oti. l.S7o. 

We know of no place within the county of 
Lanciister nmn where the Y;im is kept for Siile, 
btit we presume they can lie obtained fromaiiy 
of the seedsmen of Philadelphia, ISallimore or 
New York. It is very likely, however, that 
the price will be comparatively high wherever 
they may be olitiiined. VVe admire the 
" pltick " of om- correspondent, and we wish 
we could encomtige him in his efforts to 
"head off" the potato-beetle liy planting the 
Yiun instead of the potato, but really we 
fear it would result in failure. 

According to observations made in various 
parts of the country, the "Colorado Potato- 
beetle " has been seen to feiMl on Jiotatocs, 
tomatoes, eggi)lants, night .shade, corn leave.s, 
lambsquarter, amaraiitlius, lettuce, ciibbage, 
thistles, .strawberry, currant and rasplx'rry 
letives, plantain, potfito tubi'rs. and sundi'y 
other vegetable substances, but its preference 
is the potato. 

But, under any circimistances, we think the 



cultivation of the yam should not have been 
discoirtinued. Previous to the, "rebellion "it 
wa.s cultivated by a immber of per.scuis in thif 
county, iind especiallv in and about Marietta 
— .ludge Libhart, II. M. Kngle, anil others — 
iind its yield and (|tiality were genenilly ap- 
jiroveil, but the great objections were the great 
labor in digging out the crop, on .acciiunt of 
the grciit deptli to which the roots and tubers 
IH'nelrated. We have always considered Ihein 
excellent — to our tasle at least — tmd we should 
like to see their cultivation resumed, as a 
change in the productions of our soil. 

They are easily rai.sed, for once plaiit,ed they 
will not need to be planted soon again. Every 
root fibre will send out a shoot iit the following 
yi^ar ; moreover, the vine it.selfiirodiices .small 
inters from which the plant can Ik- grown. 

In looking over our exchtmges We were 
rather suriiri.sed thiit so little is said about 
did.sri/rea. Hut a single tirticlc on the subject 
has cotne under our observation for months, 
and that writer gave them a high edible, pro- 
lific, ecimiimic, aiul healthful chtiracter, tiiid 
slated that when they once became domiciliated 
they are like the artichoke, (tomiiig up every 
year of tluur own accord, liut unlike that tuber 
they are as good the si'cond year as they were 
the first, and therefore absolutely need no 
gathering and housing as other tubers do ; 
but he al.so deplored the great distance they 
travel towanls their antipodal origin, and the 
labor involved in unearthing them. Of course, 
the snrlace of the soil where they grow should 
be kei)t<:lear of weeds, but they grow .so deep 
that a surface cro)) can also Ik; grown on the 
same ground, if necessary. Some years ago 
we cultivated them in boxes, but t"liis would 
be imi)racticable oti a large scale. Oin- boxes 
were square, and the tubers got down its low 
as th<\y possibly could, llattenifigand penetrat- 
ing the corners and even the fissures in ihe 
boards. As the tubers increased in size they 
heiived the ciirth upward, .so that the boxes 
which were not qtiite full of soil in the spring, 
were heaped full ;uid riuming over in the fall, 
and the yield was good, but they had all sorts 
of shapes and many angles. 



The Persimmon and the Scuppemong Grape. 

Our genial friend, the Editor of the Lancaster 
F.XRMrR, it appears, cannot comprehend what is 
meant when writers say, "Persimmons as large as 
an apple," whether they mean "a Siberian crab, or a 
jiound apple," and, after quoting some writer who no * 
ilouiit mistakes the Chinese Ilioxiii/rux Knki, for JJiuit- 
pyrnx .Taponiea, but not to commit hini.«elf tells us, 
"as forourself, we kick out of all individual respons- 
ibility — except the — it is represented." 

Now , a few words in furl tier explanation. I will just 
say that a friend in California wrote me some years 
ago, that 1h' saw a drawing in 8an Francisco of the 
.Japan variety, and that it, was "as large as your fist; 
or a large sizeil apple!" They hadn't it fruiting there 
then. "The man who had the drawings, also had 
four trees that his son brought ilircct from .lapan." 
From the above I think our friend will understand 
that the large fruited variety is really the .Japan va- 
riety, and not the Knl,-i, or Chinese — and that it is 
some trifle larger than a "erali apple ! " 

No, friend K., 1 did not sueccid in growing the 
Kaki, even as large as our wild Persimmons — and 
that variety never will grow larger than a small Si- 
berian cral', I venture to say, even in China. No, I 
did not succeed in growing the scuppemong grajic as 
large as I hey grow in the .South, for I failed to fruit 
it at all, and so will every one who tries to grow it 
north of" .Mason and Dixon's line." 

But as l« the Chinese variety of Persimmon being 
mistaken for the.Ja|iaii variety — any person who can 
see them both, will at once see llie dltt'crenee — the 
Chinese plant being small, with thin branches and a 
yellow bark, while the .Japan variety is of nuire uj)- 
right growth, stronger and thicker branches, and the 
color of tile bark dark lirown, so that the very ap- 
pearance of the plants will at once convince the most 
skeptical that it is the .Japan variety that bears the 
largest fruit. Then Mr. Hogg, of Brooklyn, having 
the trees bearing fruit, would certainly i»ot have in- 
vitcil C. Downing and others to eome, see, and lest 
It, if it were no larger than a Silierian crab apple ! 
Kespcctfully 

J. B. Gaurer, 

Columbia, Pa., Ifareh 20, 187.5. 

Of course, this ditcu.fion iibout exotic |)cr- 
simmons is not onr.s, but tetweeii a foreign 
writer and tin American experimentalist. 
Under any circumstances, it illustrates that 



60 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Mr. Rind — the only authority on foreign bo- 
tauy_ to which we have access — could not have 
known anything about Biotipyrus Japonica, or 
that he got the Kaki strangely mixed up with 
it in his brief description, all of which may 
be interesting to the readers of the Fabmer. 

We have such confidence in the experimental 
knowledge of our venerable friend, that we are 
willing to concede that he is in the right, even 
if he were not backed up by such authorities 
as Downing and Hogg ; for we happen to know 
that, in many instances, two or more subjects 
of the mineral, vegetable, or animal kingdoms 
may be confounded, even by writers of ac- 
knowledged general merit. His remarks on 
the Chinese persimmon and the scuppeniong 
grape, are of undoubted value to those who 
may have been hankering after foreign varie- 
ties, or those not locally adapted to our soil. 
Nevertheless, we must still insist that "big as 
an apple," or "big as fi fist" even, are not 
very definite illustrations of size. They might 
answer if a particular kind of apple, or a par- 
ticular person'' s fist were mentioned, but other- 
wise, they approach the category involved in 
— "big as a piece of chalk." 

In conclusion, we thank our correspondent 
for his interesting strictures, and we can assure 
him that nothing emanating from his pen will 
be consigned to tlie waste basket, only because 
it seems to run "athwart" the statement of 
the Editor. 



of sulphur would give the airculios their quie- 
tus, if it should reach them, but can we be 
quite sure that this would be the case with this 
remedy ? We see that the remedy alluded to 
by C. 11. has been questioned in a Western 
journal, by a writer who has tried it, but he 
may also disapprove of the sulphur remedy, 
on the ground we have mentioned. 



Remedy for the Curculio. 

Dear Editor : It is with the greatest of pleasure 
that I affain resume my pen to write a few lines for 
The Fakmek, which is growing dearer to me with 
every number. 

I can hardly wait till it gets printed, so eager am I 
to read its contents. 

I think T. M., of Mereersburg, " flings " his com- 
pliments too high. I don't deserve them. But if he 
comes to our neighborhood this summer, and deems 
it worth while to come to see me, I shall cook him a 
good dinner. I thought he had lost sight of me en- 
tirely. 

I have read C. H.'s letter on the "Plum Turk," 
and I can give you a better way to clear him out, and 
not quite so offensive or expensive. 

It is simply this : Take a wire, about 34 inches long, 
bend it in half moon shape, or a little closer. Insert 
them into dry corn cobs. Now sprinkle theiu with 
flour of sulphur, then set them on Are in the grass, 
around under your trees — see that the smoke gets to 
every part of the tree. 

Do this from the time that the buds begin to bloom 
till the danger is over, twice a week. Take fresh cobs 
every time,"and I tell you you will have more plums 
than you know what to do with. 

MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS. 

I am not quite ready yet to satisfy T. M. as to my 
housekeeping, but will do so in time. "Duty before 
pleasure." 

Already Spring is here, and the farmers have done 
very little out of doors ; and when they get at work 
they must work all the harder and faster, to make up 
for lost time. Why should they not have a good word 
every month through the P'ahmer? It gives them 
food to study, as they follow the plough or harrow 
day by day — 

" A little kinduess every day, 
To help your neighbors on the way." 

A little about seed and then I will close for the 
present. 

Peas should be planted as soon as you can get the 
ground in order, 3 inches deep, the rows 6 inches 
apart. 

Sugar peas should be planted 8 inches apart, as 
they grow taller and need more room. 

Onion seed ought to be sown \y, inches deep, and 
not too thick, and covered lightly. 

Sweet marjoram should just be sown on the surface 
of the ground, and then pressed down. It is a very 
fine seed, and planted like tol>acco seed. — Leoline, 
ElizabethtoH'n, Pa., March '»1, 187.5. 

We think, with Leoline, the corn cob and 
sulphur fumes far preferable to whale oil soaji, 
for anything that can stand ' • biu-nt brimstone ' ' 
with impunity must belong to "goblins 
d d," but we confess that her communica- 
tion is not quite clear to our comprehension. 
Is any special virtue claimed for the corn cobs, 
other than that their rough surface may hold 
the particles of sulphur better than anything 
else? Wliat use of the bent wires V Are 
they hooked on the brandies of the trees ? 

Wovdd not a windy day defeat the effects of 
the remedy y We are satisfied that the fumes 



The Potato Beetle and Early and Late Potato 
Planting. 

To the Editor of The Lancaster Farmer: 

In the discussion following the report of the com- 
mittee on the Colorado Potato Beetle, at the last 
meeting of the Horticultural Society, the speakers 
were all in favor of planting potatoes early, and rec- 
ommended the Early Rose as the variety to plant. I 
fully agree with them as to the variety, but my ob- 
servation of the habits of the beetles the past season, 
and experience in planting, have led me to believe 
that a late planting for the main crop would be advis- 
able. 

No matter how early in the season you may plant, 
the over-year beetles will be waiting for the potatoes 
to come up to make the attack. In the early spring 
the ground will be cold, and the vines will grow 
slowly, and the potatoes will not mature in time to 
escape the second crop of beetles, and you will have 
to contend with these and their brood to raise your 
crop. If you leave planting till later, say the 20th of 
May, or near the time when the over-year beetles 
cease flying and laying eggs, the ground will then 
be warm, the vines will grow rapidly, and will be in 
bloom before the first brood of the season make their 
appearance as perfect beetles in search of new fields, 
and you will only have to contend with these and 
their brood to raise your crop of potatoes. — L. P., 
Ohrititiana, ith mo. oth, 187.5. 

We place the above on record, upon the 
principle that "In a multitude of counsellors 
there issiifety," and because every new fact 
in regard to the habits of this loathsome pest 
is of interest to the potato grower and con- 
sumer. Perhaps the proper mode of circinn- 
venting it, inider all circumstances, is yet to 
be discovered. — Ed. 



OUR PARIS LETTER. 



Peonies and the Rosebug. 

Prof. S. S. Katuvon — Dear Sir: Please inform 
us through The Farmer whether the White Peonies 
( Chinicse doubly) are a benefit in grape gardens, on 
account of the rose bug. As I have one large double 
plant close to my grape vines, which is very full of them, 
in their season, and not many on the grape vine, might 
the peonies attract rose bug or slug from the vine, or 
is it merely a breeding place? A Subscriber. 

Aiiril 8., 187.5. 

What is commonly called the " Rosebug " 
(Macrod<i.ctijlu:i suh^ipdnosus) is a coleopterous 
insect, and belongs to the family Mklolon- 
TiiiD^, all of which arc partial to sweet- 
scented flowers — the higher the fragnince, the 
more is that partiality manifested. The peony 
is l)y no means the " breeding place " of the 
rosebug (a Slug is a different insect) but, by 
ifsfragriince, its nectar, and its pollen, attracts 
the insect to a sumptiieus feast. The grape 
itself is fragrant when in bloom, and if the 
peony, or any other llower, can draw the rose- 
bug from the grape, that fact is suggestive. 
This insect (more properly Rose beetle) de- 
posits its eggs in fissures in the ground, and 
the larva, or "grub," feeds on the roots of 
vegetation. 



Appreciation of The Lancaster Farmer. 

Office of the State Extomolooist, 
St. Lovis, Mo., March 2-:d, 187.5. 
Dear Sir : I found the' March number of The Lan- 
caster Far.mer you sent me quite interesting, and 
am glad you are doing such good editorial work. 
Shall be pleased to receive the paper regularly. — C. 
V.R. 



Rochester, N. Y., March atth, 187.5. 

Prof.S.S. Rathvon — Dear Sir: I have to acknow- 
ledge the receipt of a copy of The Lancaster Far- 
Mi)H sent by you, or some other kind friend, and for 
which I return thanks. I also desire to congi-atulate 
you an<l the publishers on the su]3eriority of its eon- 
tents and genei-al appearance. A piililieatiou of its 
impress is certainly deserving of a wide circulation. 
— Yours, &e., William Weilster, Garden Artixt. 

Such testimonials from leading men are very'en- 
couraging to both editors and publishers. Our aim 
shall be to continue to deserve them, by making each 
number of The Farmer better than its predecessor. 



Farming on the Continent of Europe. 

Correspondence of The Lancaster Farmeb, 

Paris, March 30, 1875. 
preparation of food for cattle. 
Closely connected with the production of meat is 
the selection and preparation of food for cattle. At 
Berlin " loaves " for live stock are sold, and are com- 
po.sed of different species of grain, according to the do- 
mestic animal to be nourished or fattened. The 
" bread " for horses is a compound of oats, rye, 
maize and beans ; and besides analysis, experience 
attests the value of this food. The same bread is 
manufactured for pigs, less the oats, and all is sub- 
ject to oilicial supervision. Since several years dogs 
have had biscuits specially fabricated for their use. 
It is a true adage, " that it is not what one eats that 
nourishes, but what one digests ;" hence the value of 
those processes which aid in the digestion of aliments. 
Professor Colin, of the Alfert Veterinary College, has 
stated as the result of his experiments, that he did 
not find that chopped hay or bruised oats digested 
better than these substances in their natural state. 
But a horse does not utilize so perfectly its food as an 
ox or a ruminant animal. Some agriculturists de- 
mand that since pigs thrive so rapidly on a cooked 
dietary, the same care ought to be bestowed on the 
preparation of food for cattle. In the latter case fer- 
menting can take the place of cooking. By mixing 
cut hay, straw, roots, etc., in a vat, and pouring 
thereon l:)Oiling water, the mass, after some hours, 
will emit an odor like sour-kraut, and be highly rel- 
ished by the animals. The mass is warm, and this 
economizes the natural heat of the body in the work 
of digestion, and the woody tissue of the aliments is 
softened in advance — equal to a residence of some 
hours in the digestive tube, while exacting less of the 
juices of the stomach. At the end of the winter sea- 
son horses, it is well known, are liable to deranged 
stomachs, owing to the prolonged and large demand 
of a continued dry regimen on the digestive juices. 

PHOSPHORUS AND NITROGEN IN OIL CAKE. 

Prof. Sansen, of the Grignon Agricultural College, 
assures French farmers that the surest, cheapest and 
most economical plan to secure a supply ' of phos- 
phoric acid and nitrogen for their fields is, not to pur- 
chase these valuable fertilizers in* the form of com- 
mercial manures, but in that of the various kinds of 
oil cake. He has already shown that, except in the 
case of horses, wheat, barley and oats ought not to 
be employed in the formation of wool, -eiilk and melt. 
In the ease of adult animals, where the skeleton is 
formed, analysis of their excretions proves that phos- 
phoric acid is not retained in the system, and in the 
case of growing animals, according to H. Weiske, 
only 05 per cent, of the phosphoric acid in the food is 
appropriated by the economy ; consequently, in both 
cases the phosphate of potash, so assimilable by 
plants, passes into the manure, and by purchasing 
oil cakes the nitrogen and phosphoric acid they con- 
tain are secured almost for nothing, while the animal 
appropriates their fattening ingredients. An estab- 
lishment in the vicinity of Paris, which manufactures 
yeast from barley, rye and maize, sells the malt resi- 
due to cattle rearers, at the rate of fr\ per 33 gal- 
lons. M. Grandeau has analyzed the mash, and as- 
serts three gallons of it to be equal to one pound of 
meadow hay. 

FERMENTATION IN AIR-TIGHT TRENCHES. 

The same gentleman has also analyzed maize, cut 
green and preserved in trenches for winter feeding. 
This operation now becoming so general in dry maize 
growing regions, concentrates the elements of nu- 
trition by the fermentation and diminution of the 
mass, and it seems this fermentation takes place, first 
at the expense of the sugar in the plant, which sugar 
itself ultimately aids in converting the starch and cel- 
lular substance into sugar, and later, into alcohol, 
while increasing the fatty and nitrogenous elements. 
In the progressing plan of preserving green maize in 
air-tight trenches, there is nothing newto record, save 
that the trenches are now made in masonry instead 
of being excavated in a field ; that the maize is 
chopped along with straw — one part of the latter to 
five of the former, and well trodden down. The 
giant, or Caragua, maize is that generally preferred. 
An ox consumes about one-tenth of its weight of 
this preserve daily. It is essential to have the 
trench about two yards wide, the same in depth ; 
the sides to be vertical, according^nome, a^^d- 
mitting of a more equal pressure ; tn^whgth iwfrle- 
pend on the quantity of fodder to be stored—, JjiPlude 
air and water ; and after transporting for consumption 
the quantity necessary for the day, hermetically close 
the opening. Maize being considered an exhausting 
crop, the land receives 25 tons of farm yard manure 
per acre in autumn, and a top dressing of 3 cwts. of a 
mixture of supcr-pliosphate and sulphate of ammo- 
nia in spring; the maize succeeding winter rye. In 
parts of Bavaria a mixture of tares, peas and maize is 
also preserved in trenches, and where maize alone is 
cultivated, the cattle receive two or four pounds of J 
oil cake daily with their rations, maize being regardj^ 
ed as poor in nitrogen. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



61 



SYSTEMATIC FAUMINO IN FltANCE. 

What prosiTBsivc asrriculturcniostrefiuriesls, facts 

well piTsi-rvi'il ;iiid riTciriU'iI willi iiri'cit-imi ; it is thus 
lliat sui-li :i plain, iiMvaniislicd tali' as lliat (if M. 
ISiOiajrue's plan of farniiiif,- ili-s.Tvcs to lie wrlcomcd, 
so as to I'licoiiraKe ollirrs to piibiisli tlic liistory <>f 
tlioiroponilions. M. Bi>liaj;iii' is one of tlii' leadini; 
pcntlcnian farnirrs of Kranir. His I'statc nimiiriscs 
4,KIMI atTcs, of wliicli '.'17 an- in irrass. l,ir,4 in i-iilti- 
valion, and tlic rt-inaiiuliT iindiTWooil, ponds and 
lawns. He has ercotcMi hie castle, piirehased half of 
his estate, acenmulnted the two-thirds of his im- 
mense fori nne o\it of landed prollts, and considers 
nothintr as prolil that is not represented at the end of 
the year by hard cash, lie keeps one set of hooks 
likea retailer, and another wherein is recorded tlic 
" matters" of the faivn, as mannre, fodder, to'., and 
which serves him as a i;nidc. The soil is anythim; 
hut rich, it is i;ravclly, thin and cold, hnt ever tend- 
ins; hy enltivation to'trrcater fertility. His workmen 
—some M, have each a eottaire on the estate; there 
are two tile liclds, a lime kiln ami sawing machines. 
His sales of wood, cither in planks or for hurniuL'-, 
yield him a net prolit of fril per acre and the pines, 
liy their resin, somewhat less; his ponds bein.i; well 
stocked with fish, are also a source of revenue, hut 
■wood and lambs are the two jiivotsof his farming. 
After years of cxpcrinii>nts, he gave up rearing meri- 
nos for their wool, linding the price of meat to be 
more luci-ative : he succeeded in obtaining a renumer- 
ative race of sheep, liy crossing a bcrrichou ewe with 
a Soutlidown ram, and his practice consists in breed- 
ing ami fattening otf lambs, the issue of these cross- 
ings, when eiglit or ten months old, and selling them 
at some ;"/-t(l each ; he thus disposes of 1,0(10 lambs 
])er annum. The ewes arc also fattened and sold 
after their third lambing. The arable portion of the 
estate nourishes about 170 pounds of live stock per 
acre. M. Behague does not regard this stock as a 
necessary evil, hut as a source of certain jirotit. 

CHEMICAL MANUKES IN IMPALPABLE POWDER. 

M. Menier draws the attention of farmers to the 
fact, based on his own experience, that they canefl'eet 
a great economy in the use of chemical manures, by 
always applying them in the form of an impalpable 
imwiier. The chemical action of a manure, its power 
of assimilation by the plant, increases in proixirtion 
to the surface in contact ; the more a mineral sub- 
stance is then pulverized, the greater will consequent- 
ly become that surface. In Britany the peasants con- 
fer much benefit on their land, by strewing therein 
the powder of ixirtious of rock specially crushed. 

FKENTII MOOE Ol' SELECTING HORSES. 

The purchasers of horses for the French army al- 
ways endeavor to obtain a first look at the animal 
when he is tranquil and in the stable; noting if the 
animal supports itself equally well on all its legs, and 
ifone seems to yield, to specially examine it ; atten- 
tion is then directed to the largeness of the pupil of 
the eye, which ought to be more dilated when in the 
stable, tlian when exposed to full light. After the 
ainmal has been led out of the stable, the eye ought 
to be again examined to observe if the pupil has con- 
tracted ; if not, the sight is feeble ; others, to test the 
power of vision, feign to strike the forehead with the 
hand. If the holhiw over the eyes be [irofound, and 
the temples grey, old age is to be concluded ; wounds 
about the temple suggest attacks of staggers, and 
when the end of the nose i)rcsents circular sears. It 
nniy be concluded the horse has been twitched with 
. a cord to ensure his ciuietuess while being shod or 
having had to sulimit to some painful operation. 

THE SEPARATION OF BUTTER IN CHrRNING. 

M. Limbourg, Veterinary surgeon and inspector of 
the abattoir, at Brussels, draws attention to the ditfi- 
culty loo Irequently encountered, for the perfect se- 
jiaration of the butler in the process of churning. 
This dilliculty presents many anomalies, and which 
arc attributed to a chcmieal alteration in the milk, to 
the existence of decomposing [irineiples, and the 
health of tlie cows. As a cow is estimated to yield 
from I'i to 1.5 quarts of milk daily, representing a 
Ijound of butter, a prolonged dilliculty, in connectiou 
with a large dairy, thus becomes serious. Some go 
to seek the cause, where only the cfl'cct is percept- 
ible, anil blame the vessels, or the atmosphere. M. 
Limbourg has no hesitation in attributing the cause 
of this non-separation of the butter in churning to the 
feeble liealth of the cow, to the ixnerly of the ani- 
nuil's blood, altlamgh thcaiumal presents at the same 
time all the exiernal appearances of health. The cow- 
is a machine for producing milk, and the organism 
can be deranged by excessive or prolongeil milking, 
or continuous breeding; the digestion is perforinc'd 
imperfectly, the blood is not enriched, and hence the 
animal becomes weak. Conueeted with this subji'ct 
is the remark, that cows badly h'd during the winter, 
rcllect this treatment by a diminished supply of milk 
during the summer, and in addition, suller mo.st w hen 
passing from a dry to a green dietary. An ill-fcil 
animal draws uponits system for the elements of its 
milk, and when sup|>licil with generous I'ood, first 
fortifies its economy, bcftjre yielding the expected iu- 
cruaec of milk. 

RIPENINO OF THE SUGAR BEET. 

The preservation of sugar beet occupies much at- 
tention; f^ pounds of beet yield i'i of sugar — or 



from .') to ten per cent. But this per eentage can fall 
too or 4. when I he beet has been thri'c or lour months 
stored in pits; lunce the importance of preserving the 
roots, so as to lessen this diminution. The beet ouglit 
never to lie lifleil till iierlictly ripe; to act otherwise 
induces a li'rnientation which changes the sugar from 
a erystalliiu- to an uncryslalline stale. In I be unripe 
beet also, llicre exist acids whicli favor rcrmenlalion. 
It is recoinmenilcd to lift the roots without bruising 
them, anil to stack them, leaves on but lurncd out- 
wards, in small bca|i» ; allow them to remain in this 
state till llie death of the leaves, when these can be 
cut olf and the roots placed in Irenches, covering 
with straw, which is a bad conductor of lieat. The 
root thus achieves its ripening ; by allowing the leaves 
to remain, the sap thickens by the evaporation of the 
water at the leaves and roots, and the latter dry, like 
preserved grapes, but withinit altering. 

THE NEW " ItUTCHER SHIP." 

M. Tellier has produced the model of his "butcher 
ship," for the preservation, by hie process of artificial 
cold, and the transixirt of meat I'rom Australia and 
South America. All that now remains is to aji/tly his 
invention. The engine room is very abaft in the ves- 
sel, and I he eold-produeing machinery is behind tliis 
room ; the remainder of the ship is divided into com- 
partmeuls, all fitted up with stalls, wherein the joints 
are suspended, with facilities for examining the meat 
throughout the passage. 

CAOUTCHOUC IN HARNESS. 

The idea ie being tried of introducing Caoutchouc in 
the harness of draught animals, so as to augment the 
strength of the cattle, on the prini'ipie, that a weight 
attached to a spring, can be raised more readily than 
if lifted without it, or like the elaetie union of a rail- 
way train. 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society. 

The Society met statedly in the Orphans' Court 
Room on .Monday, April .5, "at 3 o'clock, the President, 
Johnson Miller, in the chair. Present, .Messrs. John- 
son Miller, Henry M. Engle, Alexander Harris, .M. D. 
Kendig, Casper "Hiller, .John Staulfer, John Huber, 
Milton B. Eshlcmau, Jacob K. Witmer, S. A. Her- 
shey, Daniel Smeych, .John (irossman, Keubeu Wea- 
ver, -Martin N. Brubaker, Levi S. Keist, Henry Erb, 
J. M. W. t;eist,Ephraim Hoover, S. S. Kathvon, D. 
G. Swartz. 

.John (irossman, of Warwick, was elected a mem- 
ber of the Association; also Samuel A. Hcrshey, of 
Salunga. 

Condition and Prospects of Crops. 
Johnson Miller presented the following report on 
the condition of agriodtural matters in Warwick 
township, which was read : 

After the ground has been covered with snow for 
over one hundred days, and we have jiassed through 
a winter of unusual cold weather, it afi'ords me great 
pleasure to again make my monthly report to this 
society. The snow only a few days ago melted away, 
and w"ith this day commences the farmer's spring 
work, after having rested a season from out-door 
work, doing very little except feeding and currying 
the stock, of which a good deal has been shipped 
from our neighborhood and froju all over Warwick 
township. Some twenty-five ear loads of fat cattle 
have Ictt the Litiz depot within the last ten days. 
This sliows that farmers have jirepared to meet field 
work, and to-day we see the lioys who have been in 
the school rooms out in the field ]iieking stones. The 
farmers who have sjicnt the long and cold winler 
days and evenings in reading (and if they have not 
thus spent them it is time lost fiircver) are here and 
there lollowing the plow, making ready for another 
season and another crop; the gardeners are busy 
cleaning out things, cutting and trimming vines and 
trees, so that they will bein condition m bear another 
crop; Hie birds are singing, and everlhing ajipears to 
have awakened from the slumberings of a cold and 
hmg winter. This is a hu.sy season for all, as there 
are "so niany things that need looking after and re- 
pairing, tine great point sliould be well eoiisidired 
by every fanner ; Have the giound well tilled and 
in good condition before planting and sowing, as 
early as possible. This is a rule that is only not 
practiced in Warwick township, but should be followed 
all over the eountv. 

As reganls lhe"prcsent condition and prospects of 
grain, I'ruit and things in general, I would re|Hirt 
that wheat fields come out in about the same condi- 
tion as thev went under. Owing to the dry season 
last fall grain was short but well scl . The ice has in 
hiw places lolally destroyed the crop; but on average 
with a favorable spring, we will have a tolerably 
good crop. So far a.s grape vines aml^'ruit trees are 
concerned they have Millercd more or less, as was the 
ease two years ago. 1 noticed my peach trees a re frozen 
considerably, while raspberries and grape vines have 
shared the same fate. As to the fruition noihing can 
be said yet. Taking all ihings togelhcr we can only 
relv on an all-wise Provideiiee w ho directs all things 
properly. We have no reason to complain. As we 



have alwavs been abundantly blessed in the past, wo 
will no iloiilit be equally eared for in the future; for 
the iiromise is. If we sow we shall reap. 

Henry M. Engle, of .Marietta, nqHirted that pears 
and apples are all safe; but peaches arc somewhat 
iniurcd. Tender grapes have also been somewhat in- 
jured, but the hardy varieties are intact. Huspbcrries 
sullered some but not seriously. He suggested that 
the canes should always be laid down in the fall and 
covered, to insure their safety through the winter. 

Mil. TON B. Esuleman, of Paradise, gave it as the 
result of his observation that the wheat has norbeen 
injured, as it had been sown rather late In the fall, 
and appearances Indicate a good coming crop. Jlo 
had examined the peach buds, and thinks there will 
be a giMid crop of peaches in his vicinity. 

M. IJ. Ki;Niiiii. .Manor, reiiorted that farmers arc 
abmit beginning field operations. There was no oats 
sown in March this season, (irase and grain look 
better than could be expected. A little more sunshine 
and an oeeasional shower will give It a fair start. 
Some of the small fruits arc very muidi atlecled hy 
the severe cold ofthe past winter. Philadelphia rasp- 
berries are badly frozen. Doolittlc may I'omc out 
jiretty well, (irapcs materially injured, I'speclally 
the less hjirdy varieties ; Cornconl and Clinton make 
a toleralily fair show. Apples and [x^ars all right. 
Peaches somewhat damaged. Of the farm products 
of 1.S71 the bulk of wheat is on hand. Tobacco is 
selling from prices ranging at 8 to IS for wrapix;re, 
and :i to ."> lor tillers. Potatoes are scarce. 

Jacob K. Witmer, of Manor, reiKirted that the 
indicat ions were favorable for a g(H>d crop of peaches, 
cherries, and other fruits generally. Clover looks 
well, and the grape vines have not been injured. Ho 
had heard an old adage that icicles hanging on trees 
were generallv injurious and destructive to the crops. 

Levis. l<i;'isT'believed that the wheat, especially 
in fields that lie low, is entirely destroyed. They hart 
been covered with a crust of ice for a long time, and 
he fears whole fields arc destroyed. 

Hi-.NRV .M. Engle did not agree with the adage 
which predicted loss of fruit from icicles hanging on 
the trees. On the contrary, he believed that if the 
trees were even covered with ice they would still bo 
safe and vield gtxxl crops. 

Johnson Miller regarded the systematic report- 
ing of the condition of the cereal and fruit crops as a 
matter of great irn|iortance. 

The Association tlien took the the question — 

" What is the Best Mode of Wintering Cattle ?" 
Milton B. Esuleman, who had proposed this 
question, said he did not do so because he had any- 
thing new to sav on the subject, but simply because 
he wished to hear from others. He is a miller by 
occupation, and has often heard the question dis- 
cussed whether ground corn cobs eontaineiI.any nutri- 
tive or fattening |in>perties. He would be glad to 
hear this jioint discussed. 

The President 6tatc*llhat a friend of his, iiiF.phrata 
townsliip, fattened all his cattle on corn ground in the 
cob, and was quite successful in the production of 
good beef. 

Casper Hilleh said he had been giving this mat- 
ter some thought, and would read the following on 

The Comparative Value of Food. 

The majoritv of farmers feed their cattle just as 
their fathers did before them, and the idea, perhaps, 
never suggested itself to them that there might 
be ,some improvement— .some plan by which more 
stock can be kept, or more money saved. In countries 
with large populations this fiidder question is an im- 
portant One, not only in the way of supplying the 
people with animal food, but also in the making of 
manure for keeiiing up tlic lerlility of llie soil I o grow 
cereals to perfection. In Germany, this (picstion re- 
ceives a great deal of attention. The professors in 
their agrieullural eollegcs have made full and search- 
ing experiments on the comiiarativc values of different 
kinds of food, as follows: 

The basis of the comiiarison is the percentage of 
nutriment in 100 pi>iinds ofthe foods mentioned. 

100 POUNDS Ol' 

Corn contains 'X> iHiunds of nutriment. 

Oats " 70 

Clover hav " 55 " " " 

Wheat brin " 4H " " " 

Corn fodder " 20 

Wheat straw " U 

From this it will be seen that, to secure an equiva- 
lent to 1.(100 ths of corn, requires either 1,'1.57 tlis of 
oats, l,7'27lt,sof hav, l.ilHOlt.s of wheat bran, 4,7.50 lbs 
of corn fodder, or (l.'<00 llis of wheat straw. 

Assuming that corn meal is worth * Ulpcrton. oats 
J'll.'iS, clover hav *1.5. wheal bran *'i.5, corn fodder 
$S, wheat straw ?lll— then, if we accept the theory 
that an animal will require two [mt cent, of its live 
weight in hay, the feed of an ox weighing 1,000 lbs 
will be, per day either — 



30 

im 

Ht-a-7 

2! 



Ihs of 



n 



7S 



hay 

corn meal 

oats 

bran 

corn fodder 

wheal siraw 



valued 



at l.V 

" 17e 

o 2.5c 

" Site 



1 " !>a<r 

" ::!•<■, 
From these tables it would a|ipear that hay and 
vornmeal are the great staples upon which the farmer 



62 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



should depend for carrying liis stock cheaply and 
safely through the winter. But the less cost is not 
all that can be said in favor of hay and corn, for they 
have yet a greater proportional value in the manure 
made from them. 

It may be proper to say that the figures after the 
comparative nutriment table are my own, so that if 
the calculations are wrong tlie error may be placed 
to its proper credit. 

Mr. HiLLER further added that while hay and corn 
meal are the cheapest, straw is the dearest. Yet, you 
might as well talk heresy at Rome as to talk to Lan- 
caster county farmers about selling straw, although 
it commands a good price in the vicinity of paper 
mills which use straw stock in the manufacture of 
paper. 

Mr. Engle said it was comparatively easy to put 
these things on paper, but to his mind they were not 
altogether satisfactory. The analysis read may be 
correct, and no doubt it is, so far as it goes. It is 
said, so much corn contains so much nutrition. What 
is nutrition ? The carbonaceous foods are heat pro- 
ducing, and are the best for fattpning stock. Hence 
we use the yellow corn. But to produce muscle and 
bone the nitrogeneous foods, such as the white-flint 
corn, are preferable. We in the North often wonder 
why in the South they eat corn all the year round, 
while it is rejected in the North as summer diet, be- 
cause it is considered too heating. The reason is that 
in the South they grow the white corn, which contains 
more nitrogen and phosphate, and less carbon. For 
working horses the white is the best, as it produces 
more bone and muscle ; but to fatten hogs the yellow 
is the best, as containing more carbon. Hence it is 
important in estimating the value of such an analysis 
to know what kind of corn was experimented upon, 
and to what kind of stock it was inteudet to be fed. 
It was the same in regard to hay. It is an open ques- 
tion as to when is the best time to turn grass into hay. 
He gave it as his opinion that we cut it too late to get 
its full nutriment. If cut young, the cattle will relish 
it much better. It is not so much a question of what 
nutriment is in it as what the cattle can extract from 
it. Since we steam corn fodder, one load goes as far 
as a load of hay or as far as three loads of fodder fed 
in the usual way. In this connection he would not 
discuss the question of manure. 

Mr. Eshleman thought the low value of wheat 
bran given in the analysis could not be correct. 
Wheat is known to be the strongest of nutritious 
grains, and the more of the bran is worked into the 
liour thy more wholesome it is. 

Mh. Enole said he had seen it asserted by a chemical 
authority that there was more nutrition in a pound of 
bran than in a pound of flour. But it is an undispu- 
ted fact that the grain of wheat contains more nearly 
all the elements of healthy imtrition than anythingelse 
we can eat. To get all these eli'iuriils the grain and 
bran should be ground and used toixi'tlier. 

As this question was considered a little out of sea- 
son, further discussion was postiwned until fall. 

What Trees are Most Profitable for Fencing 
and Fuel ? 

This, another deferred question, was discussed at 
some length, Mr. Eshleman favoring locust (or both 
fencing and fuel ; although chestnut was better for 
fencing rails, it did not pay so well to plant it. The 
chairman considered locust most valuable for posts 
and many other purposes. 

Mb. Epuiuam Hhoveu said every farm has some 
corners and fence lines which can be best utilized by 
planting locust trees. Besides using it for fencing, 
tilt- porliiiiKs of the wood not suited lor that purpose 
makes excellent fuel, there being very little ditlerence 
between it and maple. Every farmer can raise 
enough to fence his farm without detracting' from his 
area of cultivation. A locust post lasts from twenty- 
five to thirty years. In twenty-Hve years he can 
easily grow enough from seed to renew his fencing. 
It may be said that while locust makes good posts it 
is not adapted for rails, and both are wanted. But 
we can sell the surplus locust posts to purchase 
chestnut or pine rails. He therefore preferred locust 
for fencing and fuel, as chestnut is not nearly so good 
for fuel. 

Mr. Hii.ler introduced a new competitor for the 
meed of profit, in the cherry tree. He had recently 
cut down a cherry tree twenty-five years old which 
made excellent fuel, aud the lumber obtained from it 
is valuable. 

Mr. Keist championed the locust as most valuable 
for all purposes. It can be raised sooner and cheaper 
than any other. Owing to the scarcity of other woods, 
such as oak and hickory, wheelwrights must use it 
for axles and other mechanical purposes for which it 
is well adapted. He would use locust for posts and 
willow f(jr rails. A willow tree in twenty-five years 
wiitild yield from 100 to l.'iO rails, and when cut in 
the proper season (which he thought is May) it will 
last as long as chestnut. The ailahtus was the most 
rapid of growers and would make good rails. He cut a 
cherry tree which he had planted 22 years ago which 
g.ave a valuable yield of boards; but for fencing and 
fuel his trio would be the locust, willow andailantus. 

Mr. Kenuu; said the locust is not adapted to all 
soils ; but where it will do well lie is in favor of plant- 
ing along the fences around the farm. Around a 
farm of IfiO acres, we would have 1,020 feet, which 



would accommodate 440 trees planted 13 feet apart. 
In twenty-five years these would yield 8,SS0 posts 
worth S+,440, which would be the amount the value 
of the farm would be enhanced in twent3'-five years. 
The wood cut in trimming from year to year would 
supply the family with fuel. Besides, it is a great 
pleasure to have the roadside lined with trees which 
afford a delightful shade in the hot summer when one 
is driving along. 

Mr. Engle, while he agreed with the other speak- 
ers in their estimate of the value of the locust, said 
he was looking to the day when fences would be 
altogether dispensed with. We don't need much 
wood for fuel when coal is so abundant and inex- 
haustible, for years to come. A very valuable tree 
had, however, been overlooked. The walnut will 
grow more rapidly than locust and is more valuable. 
You can sell enough of its fruit and lumber to buy 
your fencing material. The improved American 
chestnut is now extensively grown for its fruit., A 
gentleman in New Jersey annually cropped from $2.5 
to SSO worth of fruit from a single tree. The market 
for this fruit is never overstocked. But after all, he 
still desired to point public sentiment in the direction 
of doing away with fences altogether, which "good 
time " would certainly come. 

Varieties of the Tree-Borers. 

Mr. Kendig desired to know why the locust 
would not grow in certain localities. In answer, 
various theories and illustrative facts were given; 
some remarking that the locust flourishes in gravelly 
soil and does no good on limestone ridges — others 
that it is often killed by excessive and close pruning 
— but the locust borer was finally credited with all 
the trouble ; but why this insect was so destructive in 
some localities and never seen in others was not 
explained. In answer to a question as to whether 
the locust borer confined its ravages to that tree, 
Prof. Rathvon said, to the best of his knowledge it 
did ; that is the Clylus robinia does : but there are two 
species of Cli/tus so nearly alike that it is very difficult 
to distinguish between them — the one already named 
and the Clytws jncttis, which is a hickory and walnut 
tree borer. The former does not make its appearance 
until September, and then it is often found abundantly 
in the mature state, on the blossoms of the Soliilai/o. 
The latter appears, in the beetle form, in the month 
of June — sometimes even earlier. On one occasion 
hundreds of them came out of hickory wood in my 
cellar in the month of May, and two years ago John 
A. Hcistaiid, esq., gave me several specimens that 
came out of a piece of hickory wood in his office, in the 
month of April. But there is a much larger " borer " 
that infests thelocust trees — namely the larva of a 
moth (Xylen/tcn robinUe) which is capable of doing more 
damage tnan the Clylus. This insect also infests the 
chestnut trees. On one occasion I took the larva of 
our largest grey "snapping-beetle" (Alans occulatns) 
out of tile limb of a locust tree, although it more fre- 
quently occurs in the dead limbs or trunks of the 
apple. There is also a minute leaf miner {llispit) 
and a leaf puncturer {Ajnon) both of which infest 
the foliage of the locust in vast numbers, often leav- 
ing them as if they had been scorched by fire. [As 
soon as we can olitain accurate illustrations of these 
insects, we will publish detailed accounts of them.] 

Mr. Engle said the fact being admitted that the 
locust would not thrive in all localities, should teach 
farmers the futility of attempting to grow trees not 
adapted to the soil, or liable to be destroyed by the 
borer, but to select those which were best adapted to 
these conditions. 

Milk Cows — Cultivation of Corn. 

The questions as to the best food for milk cows, and 
what variety of corn produces the most bushels to 
the acre, were deferred ; and at the suggestion of Mr. 
Engle the latter question was put in tbis form — What 
variety of corn is most profitable, and what is the 
best plan of cultivating it ''. 

The Grashoppers. 
Prof. Rathvon said they had h.ad so much dis- 
cussion of the potato beetle of late, that he had con- 
cluded to say something of grasshoppers. In the 
March number of The Lancaster Farmer he had 
said something about utilizing potato beetles and 
grasshoppers. Since then he had seen an interesting 
account of the exhumations going on at Pompeii, 
where, among other things exhumed, was a table set 
for the meal, containing, among other edibles, a dish 
of stewrd f/rasshn/ipers. Although we might yet come 
to this mode of utilizing the grasshoppers, we would 
be still 3,000 years behind the fashions of the Pom- 
peiians ! He proceeded to read a very interesting 
article on The frrasshoppern, relating to their ravages 
in Nebraska, and discussing the probabilities and 
effect of a grasshopper raid in this county ; but owing 
to the crowded state of our columns we are obliged 
to defer its publication. 

Cropping Oats on Corn Ground. 

Mr. Grossman, of Warwick, inquired whether it 
would not be better to chanije the usual jjractice of 
cropping oats on corn ground preparatory for the 
wheat crop, by manuring for the corn and foUow'ing 
it with wheat, leaving the ground lie fallow during 
the summer. 

Mu. Hoover was opposed to manuring oats stub- 
bles too heavily for wheat. Corn could not be grown 



too rank, but there was such a thing as manuring for 
wheat so heavily as to cause it to grow to straw. 
Two successive crops of corn are too exhaustive on 
the soil. If he did not sow oats he would seed with 
clover. 

Mr. Kendig said the oat crop had been a failure 
for some years past, but it was a question whether 
this was not owing to want of manure. A friend of 
his had ground prepared for a crop of tobacco, but 
the person who was to have planted it failed to do so 
until too late. His only alternative was to plant it 
in oats, and he got a crop of 90 bushels to the acre, 
which paid him well. 

Mr. Engle said that oats is an uncertain crop in 
unfavorable seasons. We may, however, have favor- 
able seasons and it will again pay well. In dry seasons 
it fails, but if we knew what the season would be aud 
manured accordingly, it would pay. If manured, 
and a wet season follows, it will grow rank and run 
tostraw. He had known cases where, for this reason, 
it did not pay to harvest it. So he would not venture 
to manure oats as a rule. Owing to a large demand 
for other purposes, he had found it necessary to 
economize manure for wheat on oats stubble. He 
had it turned frequently to aid decomposition, and 
then put it on lightly as a top dressinj^ after plough- 
ing, stirring it in well, and had a good crop. 

Mr. Hoover thought that if it was not intended 
to follow corn with a crop of oats, the next best plan 
would be to set the corn in larger shocks than usual, 
and a greater distance apart ; then sow rye in the 
spaces between. In the spring break the stubbles off 
where the rows of shocks stood, and plant potatoes. 
He would rather do this than let the ground lie 
fallow. 

The Chairman endorsed this suggestion, having 
tried it successfully with five acres of rye in a twenty- 
acre cornfield. 

Mr. Engle said that sowing Hungarian grass 
instead of oats was successfully practiced by many 
farmers in Chester county, a yield of two tons of good 
hay to the acre having been secured. 

Mr. Eshleman suggested that crops were often 
spoiled by too deep plowing; but.Iohnson Miller said 
his rule for corn was to plough deep and plant shal- 
low, and he always has good crops ; and Mr. Engle 
said he had been harping on this for years. There 
was an exception, however, in soil where the fertility 
was shallow. There is nothing to be gained by 
turning up sterile soil. 

Native Seedling Apples. 

Mr. Grossman presented specimens of a seedling 
apple which he called his " Favorite," which was re- 
markable for being unpalatable when first cropped, 
but which kept well and grew into excellent flavor, 
and also for cropping most prolificly when other vari- 
eties failed. To our taste we never ate a better apple 
at this season. 

The same gentleman presented specimens of what 
he supposed to be the White Vandivere, but Mr. 
Engle said they did not correspond with his variety 
of that name. 

In this connection Mr. Engle, who is chairman of 
the General Fruit Committee of the State Fruit 
Growers Society, stated that they were desirofis of 
securing specimens and;deseriptions of all good native 
fruits in the county for notice in their annual report. 

The State Agricultural Fair. 

The chairman called attention to the fact that if the 
proper effort is made the next fair of the State Agri- 
cultui'ai Society can be sectired for Lancaster. This 
matter was earnestly urged by the chairman, Mr. 
Engle, and others, who commended it to the citizens 
of Lancaster as a subject which should engage their 
active co-operation. If the proper inducements are 
held out by hotel keepers and our business men gen- 
erally, there is no doubt that it will come here. The 
advantages arising from this will not end with this 
year. It has been the practice of the State Society of 
late years to hold their fair in the same town two 
years consecutively. If, therefore, we secure it at 
Lancaster this year, we can retain it next year also, 
which will be the great Centennial year. It requires 
no argument to illustrate the great advantages this 
would confer upon our county. Its near proximity to 
the Centennial exhibition would give strangers from 
all parts of this country and the world an opportunity 
to see something of the richest agricultural county 
in the nation, and we have no doubt hundreds of such 
would avail themselves of this opportunity. 

Native Flowers and Fruits. 

Daniel Smeych, of Lancaster, presented a num- 
ber of seedling geraniums — sub-genus Pelargonium^- 
of his own raising, in relation to which the botanist 
of the association, Mr, Staulfer, has furnished our 
reporter with the following paper : 

Do Varieties Die Out 1 The variety of plants of the 
stork, or cranesbill family, called Pelargonium, from 
pelargos, a stork, is extensive. Johnson, in his Gard- 
eners' Dictionary, has a list of ninety-nine species, 
herbaceous and tuberous rooted, and one hun'lred and 
sixty named evergreen shrubs, cultivated in the green- 
house. Superior varieties have been raised by seeds, 
by hybridizing and tricks in trade which defy all rules 
for classification. Mr. Daniel Smeych, No. I)3S West 
King street, this city, who takesa great interest in 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



63 



florii'ulluiv, li.id on ixliibitioii at llio mcetinc: of the 
Horticiiliunil Society, a scTiosorilowers and li'avos to 
ilhislralc tlio cliansi' liy cultiirc. No. 1, to lie-in with 
the orijriiial lliiwcr dl'tjiat tiriirlit, \nirr, ilccp crimson 
rcil species calleil " (iencral druiit," llowcrs larffc, 
leaves Willi the oriliiiary zonale or dark central riii^' 
(con.stantly present in these species and varietie.'s) ol' 
moderate size. The sei'dinir, No. 3, was rather darker 
in llie color, smaller, and the leaves reduced in size. 
No. :!, also a seedlim; from No. 'i, color yood. Mower 
rather less, Imt leaves much larirer in diameter. No. 
4, color of llower lietwecn a rosi' and oraiiin', leaf 
nearly as larire as in No. H, lloin- full size. No. ."i, a 
seedliii!; from No. 4, color oraiiL'e red, leaves much 
reduced in size — evidc'nily retnrnintr to its orisrinal 
type of I'lliiri/oiiinin //i^ii/i'o/i, introduced in l.SOd. 
Flowers were then I'... inch in diameter, of a brick- 
re*! color, ite., just what No. .5 is In its rcirular lin- 
eairc from No. 1, (iencral (irant, so lirilliantly red. 
IIow came it so? lint whence arises color, or the 
chanire of the rellectin:; anirles of liirht i Nay, what 
does'even the s;reat Tyndall teach us in the matter of 
(living us linht, on the nature (d' litjlit and floral 
colors? No doidtt then* is a law of forces designed by 
creative wisdom to act just so — nndersiu^h conditions 
— anil perhai'S it is onr business to find tliem out, if 
we wish to act by knowledge; yet a blind i>igcantinil 
tlie acorn. So we often stundile upon a truth, and 
produce results that astonish ns, if they do not edify. 
So gardeners jiotter around, and often bring about a 
grand change, bid for want of knowledge how tojjre- 
'eerve it or iinjirove it, they "go back on us," and 
ehow how little we know. 

I'uoF. Katiivon- exhibited a very fine specimen of 
the hmoii, grown by Mrs. C. O. Herr, of Crcsswcll, 
Manor townshij), Laiieaster county. 

TOI'II'S FOK niSCUSSIOX AT NK.XT MEETING. 

1. What is the best method of jncreasing the fer- 
tility of the soij ; 

3. What system of farming is best adapted to Lan- 
caster county ? 

."i. What variety of corn is most |irofltable to grow, 
and what is tlie best method of cultivating it ? 

The .Society adjourned to meet on Monday the third 
of May, at one o'clock, p. m., sharp. 



THE FARM AND THE DAIRY. 



The Lancaster Park Association. 

At the late amnial meeting of the etoi-kholders of 
the Lancaster Park Association, a large proportion 
of the stock was represented either in person, or by 
proxy. Mr. Robert A. Evans was called to preside 
over the meeting, and Messrs. H. '/,. Khoads and John 
T. Mctioniglc, to act as secretaries. The report of 
the board was read detailing its operations for the 
past year,, showing that the reeeijits from all sources 
had been $7,()W).:!1, and the expenses ?7, 410.74, 
leaving a balance of S'i4li.l'i3 after paying all the 
exi>enses, one year's interest, on the mortgage, insur- 
ance, taxes, t'te. The floating debts of the association, 
at the time when the board came into olHee, have 
been fnndeil by loan for which a ."iccond mortgage has 
been given \ipon the property of the ass(iciation, and 
I'rom the proceeds ot" which all these debts have been 
paid otf, and a balance of :?:H..V.I remains on hand. 
()u motion of J. L. Steinmetz, esq., the board was 
instructed to make an eflort to secure the holding of 
the next state fair in this city, and failing in this, to 
liold a general county fair. An election for directors 
for the ensuing year was thi'n held, and resulted in 
the choice of the following gentlemen : liobert A. 
Evans, II. Z. Klioads, .Jos. K. IJoycr, A. C. Kepler, 
C. Kine Baer, tk'o. Youtz, John II. .Miller, Levi Sen- 
senig, Sanniel Jetleries, Jas. Stewart, and L. Knapp. 

The voting waseonilueted on the cumulative plan, 
and 3,79.S votes were east. As there are only :^>3l 
shares of stock, each entitled to eleven voles, or S,.5-il 
in the aggregate, it will be seen that a large propor- 
ti*>n of stock was rei)resented. 

The exhibit of the atl'airs of the association was, on 
the whole, favorable, and \nider the disadvantageous 
circumstances which attcinled its labors, more could 
not have been reasonably exi)ected. 

Let them try to get the state fair, by all means. 



A Little Advice to Farmers. 

Help your wives in every way you can, trivial 
though it may seem to you. For instance, keep an 
extra pair of shoes or slippers in the bailor entry, 
anti always reinendier to change your dirty boots 
before entering her clean rooms. Then you may be 
sure of a smile of welconn^, as no dirt will be left 
after you for her to clean up. In the evening comb 
yonrhairas carefully as you ever did in your courting 
days. Put on a clean coat or ilrcssing-gown, ami 
when you take your paper to read, do not read to 
yourself and leave her to lonesome thfuights while 
sewing and mending, but remember that she, too, has 
been working haril all day, and is still working. 
Ki'ad to her whatever interests you, so that her 
interests and opinions may grow with yours, and that 
she may c(nnprchend something besides love stories, 
winch too many have read more than they should. 
You will both l>e happier, and being a farmer's or 
mechanic's wife will not be such a dreadtid tiresome 
and lonely life as many girls have every reason" to 
think it is — especially if he reads The Fak.mek. 



Successful Sale of Short-Horns. 

The Bclh'view herd, owned by William Stewart, of 
Dixon, III., was recently sohl at auction. A large 
mindicr of buyers were present, and eighty head 
brought over ?3tl,(KH). The following is a list of the 
highest ]irices ol" the day, with [lurchascrs: 

Lady of Itaeine, one of thi' lini'st .Miss Wilysonthis 
continent, to Col. K. H. Austin, Sycamore, 111., $1,- 
.''ilill. Miss Wily, of Helleview, her" calf, same, •*7(lll. 
They arc hotli gram! animals. Lord \N'ily, another 
id' Lady's calves, to A. Powers, Dixon, 111., ?1,4.SI). 
Du<*hess Loinm, said to be one of the tinest Lomins, 
went to Col. H. II. Austin, at ?1,!MK). Louan's Thorn- 
dali', N. Cornell, Dwight, III., .?"(l(l. Bloom 13lh, J. 
V>. L ah man, Praidvlin (irove, III., $;!('».'>. Karl Duchess, 
M. McWilhams, Darlington, Wis., ?:;(H). Caroline, 
II. F. Brown, Minneapolis, Minn., $.S1(). Moselle, I!. 
It. .Austin. .Sycamore, HI., *43.5. Hazel (Jneen, said 
to be one (d' the tinest show -cows in Aim'riea, $77.">, to 
(ireene A: .Morton, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Donna Lee, 
to William Chandlers, liochelle, Ill.,S:!2.'i. Boxy, to 
Mr. Van Patten, Stewart, 111., .?:i.50. Klsie, to W. 
Chambers, Koehelle, III., *41ll. Hannah, to Prince- 
ton, Hawks iV: .Moore, Polo, III., ?47l). Violet 3d, to 
William Chambers, Bochellc, 111., *4IM). Lily of the 
Valley, to AVilliam (.'hanihers, Boselle, 111., i.'idO. 
Josephine, to E. A. Snow, Dixon, 111., ?^:i3."i. Linlloa, 
to T. Hughes, Meriden, III., ^KIO. Cold King, to T. 
Hughes, Meriden, III., .*:ii«. Marv lltli, .?:!40, to W. 
W. Tilton, Dixon, III. Mai'ia,to Leonidas C. Dement, 
Dixon, 111., $:'>0d. Hope, to Col. Austin, Sveaniore, 
III., $:!.■«. Tanv, to W. Chambers, liochelle. 111., 
«!:i.5.5. Vi(det, to C. Dement, Dixon, III., -^-OO. Flo- 
rence, $"(111. Duke of Thoriidale, to William Nael, 
Paxton, III., S47.5. Champion of the West, to (ieorge 
Dealand, Dixon, 111., #1,00(1. 

The above includes the most of the sales, except a 
few old cows, and young male and female calves, 
which sold at from .?"l)0 to S12-5. Few more success- 
ful sales have been madt^ in America, everything con- 
sidered, and it gives a glorious prosi)ect to tlie great 
sliort-horn future. 



FARM AND DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



Valuable Milk Cows. 

The Chambersliurg liepoaitonj claims that Dr. Ed- 
mund Culberlson, President of tht^ First National 
Bank of that place, has the mo.st valuable cow in the 
county, if not in that section of tlie .State. This cow 
had a line bull calf, aliout four weeks ago, and since 
tliat time has been giving large quantities of milk, 
the average being XfP^; lbs per day. The cream from 
this cow was preserved for one week, and on being 
churned yielded the large amount of seventeen and a 
quarter pounds of btitter. This is an unusually large 
yield. The butter is of a rich yellow color, and is 
very sujK'rior in quality. The cow is an Aldi'mcy, 
and was imported from the island of .Terscy, by Mr. 
William .Massey, of Philadeliihia. Dr. Culberlson 
bouglit her from Mr. Massey when she was liftecn 
months oBl, for *300. Slie now has her third calf and 
is a tine animal. We mention these facts for the ben- 
efit of farmers wdio are interested in im|iroving their 
stock, as they know it costs no more tfi keep a thor- 
ough bred animal of any kind than it does one of an 
inferior breed . 

A. F. Boas, of Reading, recently imrehased (luern- 
sey stock from K. W. Coleman's heirs, at Cornwall, 
Lebanon county. He has since reported tliat he Inul 
a yield of 1.5 poimds of a No. 1 butler in one week 
from one of the cows. This speaks well for that breed 
of Cattle. 

Henuy Geist, of Point township, Northumberland 
county, iirodueed from three cows, of ordinary grade, 
in thirteen weeks, between December 4th and Febru- 
ary 37th, last past, theexiraordinary amount of3il2'.i 
pounds of butter, or about I wenty-one pounds per week 



Setting and Skimming Cream. 
Cream rises because of theeomparatively liglit spe- 
cific gravity of the butter globules. Tlie cream ar- 
ranges itself upon the surface according to the size of 
the globules, tin' largest globules being at or near the 
top. Cream is, therefore, an uneven product, rising 
in layt'rs. Eatdi layer is ditlerent, and prtiduces adil- 
ferent r|nality of butter, and one layer is better for but- 
ter-making than another. The cream rising first is 
the richest, proiluces the best Imtter, and churns 
ipiickest. The second skimiidng is poorer for manu- 
facture, and the third may be worthless for firsl-( lass 
butter. Hence, in practice, a dairynnin may obtain 
too much butter from his milk, the increase in <pian- 
tity not suHiciently compensating for the deerea.se in 
quality, brought about by the (diuniing of globules 
which should have been left in the liullermilk. Dr. 
Sturtevant argues that the value of a cow or a'breed 
cajuiot be determined by the percentage of cream in 
her milk, as milk yicdding but ten per cent, of cream 
may furnish nioi-i' butter than that yielding thirty per 
cent. He sugges's that shallow selling would prolia- 
bly yield the most butter, and deep setting that of 
best quality. 

A Dollar spent for Tht^ Lancaxtfr Fanner is money 
well invested. It will "pay" — ask your neighbor to 
try it. 



The Nutrition of Oatmeal. 

Liclilg lias shown tliat oatmeal Is almost as nutri- 
tious as the very best English beef, and that it Is 
richer than wheaten bread ill the elements that go to 
form bone and muscle. Prof. Forbes, of Edinburgh, 
during sonic twenty years, measured the breadth and 
height, and also testei! the strength of both the arms 
and loins of the students in the university — a very 
numerous class — and of various uatioinilitles, drawn , 
to Edinburg by the fame of his tea<-hing. He found 
that in height, breadth of chest and shoulders, and 
the strength of arms and loins, the Belgians were at 
the bottom of the list ; a littli' above them the French ; 
very much higher, the English ; and highest of all, 
the Scotch and Scoth-Irish from Ulster, who, like the 
natives of Scotland, are fed. In their early years, with 
at least one meal a day of gofid milk and oatmeal 
pcirridge. .Speakiiigof oatmeal, an exchange reniiirks 
that a very good ilrink is made by putting alMiut two 
spoonsful of the meal Into a tumbler of water. The 
Western hunters and trappers c<(nsider it the U'st of 
drinks, as it is at once nourishing, unsliinulating, and 
satisfying. It is jHipular in the Brooklyn navy-yard, 
two and a half pounds of oatmeal being put Into a 
pail of moderately co(d water. It is much better than 
any of tin* ordinary mixtures of vinegar and inobuises 
with water, which farmers use in the haying or har- 
vest field. 



Now For House-Cleaning. 

Fi.OKA, in the fierinantown Tihqrnjih, thus dis- 
courses on a topic of prevailing Interest at tliis season 
of the year : The season will .soon be upon us to begin 
the worrying but indispensable spring house-cleaning. 
Strange to say — at least it will no doubt tie strange to 
many of the masculine style — we housekeep<'rs do not 
dread — or allow me to jiut in a somewhat out-of-the- 
way wiird — we do not nhirl; this inevitable semi-annual 
overturning and refurbishing of the domeslh' para- 
phernalia. It has really a pleasure in it, in so far that 
it precedes a brighter day for us, that is, u reclaimed, 
renovated castle — for a Iiouse ix one's castle — and 
therein lies the jileasurable anticipation, and smooths 
away any rough edges which house-cleaning might 
seem to have to some who give no assistance to It per- 
sonally. 

It has been said, and very truly, that every husband 
shoiih! be out of the lumse at least six hours daily, 
as an ordinary rule. But he should be away a mck 
during these (himestic ojierations, for then we should 
avoid sour looks, <Toss remarks, grumbling at meals, 
and complaints at the overturning of things generally. 
Still, I don't mind this little " spatting." 1 just go 
on as if I heard nothing, until the dondcile is as bright 
as a new cent from garret to cellar, when I present 
my jewels to my lord, anil demand an apology in view 
of the charming picture iiresented, am! always get It. 



Parasites in Bird-Cages. 

Many a person has watched with anxiety and care 
a i)et canary, goldfinch, or other tiny favorite evi- 
dently in a state perturbation, plucking at himself 
conlinually, his feathers standing all wrong, always 
fidgetting aliout, and every way looking very seedy. 
In vain is bis foml changed, and in vain is another 
saucer of clean water always kejit in his cage, and all 
that kindness can suggest for the little prisoner done; 
but still all is of no use, he is no better — and why? 
Iiecanse the cause of his wretcbcilness has not lu'cn 
foiiiiil out, and until it is, other attempts are but vain. 
If the owner of a pet in such dillieullies will take 
down the cagi' and ea.st his or her eyes up to the roof 
thereof, there will most likely be s«en a mass of stuff 
looking as much like red rust as anything; and from 
tlicnee comes the cause of the jwior liinl's uneasiness. 
The red rust is nothing more nor less than myriailsof 
parasites infesting the bini, and for which water is no 
remedy. There is, however, a remedy, and one easily 
procurable in a moment — fire. By proi uringa lighted 
candle and holding it under every ]iarticle of the top 
of the cage, till all ciianec of anything being left alive 
Is gone, the remedy is eomplete. The pet will sixin 
brighten up again after his " house-warming," and 
will, in his cheerful and ileliglitful way, thank his 
master or mistress over and over again for tills, 
though slight, to him, imiKirtant assistance. 



About Housework and Help. 

It is the iioorcst of economy for a mother. If she can 
atfonl to have help, to slave and fag herself out day 
after day, besides working far into the night, for the 
]iurpose of saving cxiiense. True, as many mothers 
say, "help is a nuisance," or, "I would rather my 
work was half done than botlnr with a girl," etc. 
But we must not be too partiiular. Heminiber, we 
cannot lind perfcelion in any one, and while girls 
cannot do just as well as you do, or as you think they 
ought, they do the best lliey can. Sjieak pleasantly 
fo them, aiid whinever they do right, do not fail to 
sneak of it, and let thcin know that you appreciate 
their etlorls to please. In fact the lady of the house 
is not always an angel, and a gri'at deal deixnds 
u|Kin the example she makes of herself. Poor help 



64 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



annoys us fearfully, but a tired, half-sick, worn out 
mother puts a whole household out of sorts, and to 
the children home ceases to attract when mother is 
always scrubbing-, scouring, seoldinj; and Krumbliug. 
Try to be cheeri'ul. If you have so much to do, that 
you scarcely know where or how to begin, do not talk 
of it, but do what you think you onght to do, and let 
the rest go. 

Home Interiors. 

Domestic miseries cannot always be concealed by 
the victims of them; they lie open to the gaze of all 
who cross the afllicted threshold. But they do not 
concern the outer world, and the outer world has no 
right to look on tliera. Visitors ehould not see them, 
even when their dismal forms come boldly into view; 
and visitors should bear ofl' no memory of them to ex- 
hibit to others. The joys of a household may be pro- 
claimed far and wide, its weakness, its affections, its 
sorrows, and its misery, possess a bitter sanctity that 
every sensitive and honorable soul will religiously 
respect. _^_^^_^^___________ 



INFORMATION ABOUT BEES. 



The Honey Bee in Farm Economy. 

Agriculture and bee culture bear a very close relation, 
and the bee plays a very important part on every 
farm ; for in the springtime they are ever ready and 
anxious to perform their part, visiting the blooms of 
the forest field and orchard, gathering the pollen 
trom petals, and sipping the nectar from the cells of 
the flowers, and bearing it home to their hives as a 
treasury for the support of the little colony, turning 
over the surplus to the farmer for his family, for the 
trouble of furnishing them with a house and looking 
after them. The bees, in gathering the pollen from 
the blooms, carry it from one to another, thus more 
thoroughly mixing and fertilizing them than could 
possibly be done by any other plan. Thus it is seen 
the bees perform their part in the farm economy, 
and they deserve to be recognized and fully cared for 
by every farmer. When we consider the honey, it is 
found to be one of our finest luxuries on the family 
table, aside from its medical uses. Then let every 
one give the honey bee a place in the yard or orchard 
If it be but a single colony, and keep an account of 
the expenses, and after comparing it with any other 
product on the farm it will be found to pay better by 
four-fold than anytliing else invested. 

On the first warm open days the bees will be flying 
out, and you ought to set some rye meal, unbolted flour, 
cornmeal or flour, and shorts mixed, in a shallow 
box or vessel where the sun can shine down in it, and 
you will see the bees bobbing in it, filling their little 
baskets and legs and bearing it away to their hives 
for feeding the young ones." You should open the 
hives, take out the combs, brush out the dead bees 
and all trash from the boitom of the hive, and be 
certain to examine carefully to see if they have a 
queen; and if none is fdund, take and unite them 
with a weaker stock that has a queen. Attend to 
this late in the evening, after sprinkling each hive 
with sweetened water, perfumed with essence of cin- 
namon or peppermint, and then brushing each into 
one hive together, setting in the comb that has the 
queen in it first. By morning they will be all right 
and ready for l)usiness. 

These suggestions may be of use to those beginning 
bee culture, by giving them some idea of managing 
■ the "little busy bee." 



Queries Answered. 

The Bee-keepers Magazine gives some valuable 
information in its answers to the following queries : 

1. "Can I buy a pure queen (Italian), put her in 
a colony of black bees, Italianize the stock, and 
rear queens, so as to Italianize all I have, and could 
such queens be called pure Italians? and can I do 
thus and change ten or twelve hives of black bees 
from the one queen I buy, and that by keeping them 
60 near together?" 

You can Italianize one stock in this manner and 
rear queens from it, but they would be very liable to 
mate with black drones from the other stocks, and 
all thus mating would produce hybrid progeny. 

3. " Can black l)ces be transferred from old hives 
during winter? If so, how can I move the comb and 
make it stick? Would beeswax do to cement the 
comb to what I-wish to fasten it to?" 

Not with safety; wait until fruit trees blossom. 
Melted beeswax not very hot, mixed with resin, will 
do, but we use fine wire to wrap around the combs 
and hold them in until the bees fasten them to the 
frames, then the wire is removed. 

3. "What hive did the N. A. B. Society adopt as 
a standard, or did they not adopt any at their meeting 
in Pittsburg?" 

They did not adopt any hive, but most speakers 
favored a hive with frames about 13x12. 



Hereafter we propose to devote some attention 
to the interesting and profitable subjectof the Apiary; 
and we invite facts and suggestions from practical 
bee-keepers. 



The Cotemporary Press. 

The Aghicultukal .\nd Floral Guide. An 
illustrated demi-quarto of 20 pages. Mexico, Mo. 
Monthly, at SI a year, with extra premium induce- 
ments to clubs, paid in nursery stock. 

The Bee-Keeper's Magazine, an octavo monthly 
(illu.strated) of 30 pages. An ably conducted prac- 
tical journal on the subject indicated by its title. W. 
B. Cobb, publisher, 76 Barclay street. New York. 
$1.50 a year. 

The Weekly Fancier's Journal and Poultry 
Exchange. A royal octavo magazine of 30 pages, 
finely illustrated and printed, and devoted almost ex- 
clusively to the chicken and pigeon trade. Philadel- 
phia. S3.50 per annum. Joseph M. Wade, editor 
and proprietor, No. 39 North Ninth street. An ex- 
cellent journal for those interested in this specialty. 

The Pioneer. We have received the February 
number of this journal, published at Omaha, Neb., 
apparently in the interest of the "Union Pacific Rail- 
road Land Company." It is a large folio, illustrated, 
with a very significant " head " and maps, and con- 
tains much useful information for the instruction of 
emigrants. 

The Colorado Agricultural and Stock Jour- 
nal: devoted to "rural and home all'airs, arts, sci- 
ence, literature, and the material interestsof the great 
west." A double folio, illustrated, and in fair type. 
Denver, Colorado. Weekly, at S3 a year, by James 
B. Hill. Emanating from almost the outer verge of 
civilization, it would be a credit to the centre of the 
nation. 

The Pacific Rural Press comes to us from San 
Francisco in the form of alarge imperials vo. weekly, 
published by Dewey & Co. It is in its ninth year, and 
bears all the marks of prosperity which are apparent 
in the business enterprises of the Golden State. The 
publishers get S4 a year for the paper, and 3.5 
cents a line for their advertising, of which there are 
over twenty columns in the number before us. 

The Canada Farmer, published monthly, at 
Toronto, Canada, is the leading agricultural journal 
over the line. It is an imperial 8 vo., of 30 pages, 
with cover, somewhat larger than The Lancaster 
Farmer, and furnished at $1 a year. It is ably con- 
ducted and is standard authority on the topics it dis- 
cusses. Three numbers came to us under a three cent 
postage stamp, only one half what Uncle Sam charges 
to carry The Farmer to Mountville ! For many 
years the Government of Canada permitted all agri- 
cultural journals published in the province to pass 
through the post-office free of postage. 

The Colorado Horticulturist : How rapidly 
the New West is being developed is shown by the 
establishment, in that far Western Territory of Colo- 
rado, (on the Western verge of the so-called Great 
American Desert,) of a quarterly journal devoted to 
Fruits, Flowers and Gardening, a specimen copy of 
which has been received. It is a handsomely illustrated 
quarterly. From it the people of the East can learn 
how garden. crops are grown where rain^ll is not 
depended on. The July number is to contain an 
illustrated article on the subject of Garden Irrigation. 
The home of the enterprise is at Greeley, a town but 
five years old containing 1,.500 inhabitants. This is 
the town founded by Union Colony, to which 
Horace Greeley stood as god-father ; the temperance 
town of Colorado, wherein no man looketh upon the 
wine when it is red. The paper is furnished at the 
low price of fifty cents per annum, with a premium 
of a plant of the Rocky MontUain Jlcd liaxpbur ry , 
(price 35c.), and a packet of seed of an ornamental 
climber, the ^ylhl Vucainher Vine, (price 10c.) . 
Foster & Co., Greeley, Colo. 



Catalogues of Seeds, Plants, &c. 

The American Booksellers' Guide, published 
montldy, 119 and 131 Nassau street, New York. 

" How to make S3.50 a Year by Bees," J. W. Pag- 
dcn, Sussex, England. A 24 mo. volume of 45 pages, 
in paper covers. Lorinu, publisher, Boston. 

Centennial Address to the people of New York, 
by prominent citizens, and the " United States Cen- 
tennial Almanac " for 1875. King & Baird, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

D. L. Resh's Susquehanna Green-Houses and Plant 
Nurseries, Columbia, Pa. This handsome 12 mo. 
" Catalogue and Annual Report " came to hand too 
late to be noticed in our last number. 

Webster's Lanthcapeand Oniamental Gardener, 
containing hints and plans for laying out and orna- 
niciitinLT grounds in accordance with the principles of 
an and taste. An octavo panijjhlet of ;i4 pages. Roches- 
ter, N. Y. See advertisement. 

International Exhibition 1870, Fairmount 
Park, Philadelphia, Pa. A beautifully executed 
royal octavo j)aiuphletof 53 pages, with several band- 
some maps, and finely executed architectural illus- 
trations relating to the " Centennial." 

BtHLDiNG As.^oiiATiox JOURNAL. The Organ of 
the Building and Loiin Associations. As its name 
implies, it is an 8 paire quarto, devoted to an interest 
of no ordinary importance. Philadelphia. H. A. 
Mullen, 730 Chestnut street. 50 cents a year, 



THE PROGRESS OF INVENTION. 



Official List of Patents, 

Relating to the Farm, the Dairy, Apiary, &c., 
For the month, ending April 1st, 1875.* 

Apparatus for Pisciculture; A. Bond, Vernon, Conn. 
Horse Blankets and Pantaloons Combined; C. Franke, 

New York, N. Y. 
Grain Separator; J. H. Locke, San Francisco, Cal. 
Hay Loaders; Frank Marion, Tremont, III. 
Rein Holders; Carmi Osgood, East Hardwick, Vt. 
Jump Seats for Carriages; N. Starkey, Amesbury, 

Massachusetts. 
Machines for Packing Tobacco; H. Winterweber, 

Offenbach, Germany. 
Check-Rowers for Corn-Planters; Geo. D. Haworth, 

Deeatiir, III. 
Windmills; A. & G. Raymond, Wampun, Wis. 
Harvester Reels; G. G. Read, Russellville, Ky. 
Sulkies; Peter Soule, Colesville, N. Y. 
Pump Suckers; I. M. Springer, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Plows; C. R. Dugdale, Dixon, Pa. 
Transplanting Boxes; P. Eby, Lancaster countv. Pa. 
Butter-Workers; J. L. Englehart, New York, N. Y. 
Automatic Clock operated Horse-Cribs; W. R.Grib- 

bin & Augustus McMillan, Portland, Maine. 
Plows; A. Hampe, Staunton, 111. 
Horse Powers; E. J. & J. W. Hovle, Martins Ferry, O. 
Gang Plows; J. B. Hunter, Ashley, III. 
Pruning Shears; W. H. Johnson, Springfield, 111. 
Pruning Implements; W.H.Johnson, Springfield, 111. 
Grain Separators; W. M. Koppers, Seville, Ohio. 
Cotton Scrapers and Choppers; Wm. A. McClaug- 

hertz, Seguim, Texas. 
Animal Traps; I. V. Newsom, Eatonton, Ga. 
Green-Corn Cutters; W^m. J. Potter, Mount Lebanon, 

New York. 
Land Pulverisers; A. Underwood, Carrollton, HI. 
Animal Hopples; J. D. Wilson, Round Grove, Kan. 
Chums; D. C. Bailey, South Salem, Ohio. 
Cultivators; Jacob Behel, Rockford, 111. 
Horizontal Hay and Cotton Presses; T. P. Bennett & 

E. J. Riincier, Belton, Texas. 
Land Rollers; P. Bilzen, Moveagua, III. 
Horse Shoes; S. B. Henry, Farmwell, Va. 
Fertilizing (Compounds; C. H. Hoffman, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 
Stacker Attachments for Threshing Machines; Levi 

Kittinger & J. K. Koutz, Massillon, Ohio. 
Wagon Brakes; R. I. Knapp, Half Moon Bay, Cal. 
Cultivators; L. L. Lawrence, Dublin, Ind. 
Wind-Wheels; Newell P. Mix, Avenue & William C. 

Jacobs, Columbia, Ohio. 
Milk Safes; J. F. Pool, Monroe, Wis. 
Vehicle Springs; J. M. Pressey, Salineville, Ohio. 
Plow Carriages; D. W. Ralston, Rockford, 111. 
Wind-Mills; G. F. Rounds, Benton Harbor, Mich. 
Interfering Boots for Horses; A. Westbrook, Astoria, 

New York. 
Dough kneading boards ; L. L. Black, Lowell, Mass. 
Sheaf Droppers" for Harvesters ; S. G. King, Round 

Grove, III. 
Milk Coolers; E. McEwan & Chas. 0. Gibson, Derby 

Line, Vt. 
Sulky Plows ; Wm. B. Quick, St. Louis, Mo. 
Churns ; J. W. Simmons, East Monroe, O. 
Butter Workers- F. B. Aldrich, Chicago, 111. 
Hog Trajis ; J, F. Cooper, Frankton, Ind. 
Colters ; A, M. Davis, Jerseyville, 111. 
Horse Collars; L. W. Harbaugh, Muscatine, Iowa. 
Thrashing Machines ; T. Harri.sou, Belleville, III. 
Sod Cutters; R. Hinkson, Buft'alo, N. Y. 
SadiUe Horse Apparatus; A. Hitt, Flora, III. 
Feed Cutting Machines ; W. J. Jones, Hamilton, Ohio. 
Sulky-Harrows ; J. Kimbell, Pleasant Home, Neb. 
Fruit (iatherers: M. McDevitt, Hampton, Va. 
Corn Shellers; S. H. Moore, Chicago, 111. 
Cultivators ; P. D. Rogulmore, Panola county, Texas. 
Draft Equalizers; L. J. Seely, Waldrou, Ind. 
Grupe and Flower Pickers ; L. B. Snow, Cleveland, O. 
Fruit Driers; T. C. Walter, San Francisco, Cal. 
Fruit Driers; H. J Allen, Sturyis, Mich. 
Plows; Wm. Bradford, Valdosta, Ga. 
Horse Hay Rakes; S. H. Bushnell, Fairport, N. Y. 
Pruning Shears ; J. Chase, Orange, Mass. 
Bag Holders ; Leonard Crolbot, Pavilion, N. Y. 
Cider Mills; Enos Curtis, Traverse City, Mich. 
Grain Samplers; F. A. Furst, Baltimore, Md. 
Straw Cutters ; Warren Gale, Chicopee Falls, Mass. 
Churns; D. W. George, Pulaski, Iowa. 
Lawn Settees ; H. H. Gratz, Lexington, Ky. 
Grass Cultivator Teeth ; E. Leonard, Akron, Ohio. 
Bag Fasteners ; A. M. Miller, Sturgis, .Mich, 
Pruning Implements ; C. .Miller, Boonville, .Mo. 
.Motors for Churns, &c. ; H. Odell, Peekskill, N. Y. 
Cheese Safes ;W. P. Quackeiibush, HoUey, N. Y. 
Preserving Apparatus; J. P. Schmidt, San Francisco, C. 
Grain Conveyers; Wm. Stanton, Erie, Pa. 
Machines for Subsoiliiig and Digging Vegetables ; T. 

L. Webster, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Housemaid Pails ; EnimaC. Wooster, New York, N.Y. 
Garden Sprinklers ; Frank M. Gray, Norwood, 111. 
Road Scrapers ; A. MeCall, Saratoga, Cal. 



• Prepared expressly for The Lanoasteu Faumeb by 
Louis B.igger & Co., Solicitors of P.iteutB, Wasbii)gton, D. 
C, frciiii whom complete copies of the Pateuta uud Druwiugs 
may be obtaiued. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



V. 



Wi'fil Cutlfrs anil ITillcrs ; .Tup. Kohson, Osci'oIh, Wis. 
Wlicc'lM l(ir Ilarvfsti-is; (i. 1). Howell, .VppU'tin, Wis. 
Slip Ti'clli for Sirilcrs; (i. 1). Howell, Appleton, Wis. 
Rut ter Workers ; Oi\n. Siifrcr, Helviciero, 111. 
llav Loiidcrs ; L. I'lKlcrHdoci, Otlawa, 111. 

(iniiu Separators ; Orville K. \V 1, West Cliazy.N Y. 

rniiiiiiij: Shears ; C. II. Billinf.'s, La (iraiii^e, Iiiil. 
Horse Shoes ; Thomas B. Bishop, Washint'ton, U. C. 
Brixiin Ba^s; E. I). Bronson, Amsterilam, N. Y. 
Uraiii and Straw Lifters ; 0. Kraiie, Kiiij^hls Lamliinr, 

C'al. 
Hay and Cotton Presses; B. J. Day, Evansville, Ind. 
Fruit Driers; Levi A. lionld, Santa Clara, Cal. 
Windmills; A. & W. firaf, Bernard .Innetion, Wis. 
Bag Fasteners; C. W. Harvey, Waterloo, Iowa. 
Seed Drills and I'lanters ; L. L. llaworth, London, O. 
Potato Diirnini; Machines; T. Head, Copetown, Can.. 
Wind Wheels; .1. .M. Kautlnian, (loshen, Ind. 
Cultivators; P. F. I.andphere, Mason, III. 
Cliineh Biiir Gatherers ; K. 11. Marsh, Usage MiSBion, 

Kansas. 
Drv Measures ; D. M. Metford, Toledo, Ohio. 
Windmills ; P. Sheekler, Orangeville, 111. 
Comltiiu'd H()rse Hoes and Plows; A. D. Sim<jns, 

Windsor, Conn. 
Wagon Seats ; W. H. H. Suollhaker, Chicago, 111. 
Side Hill Plows; C. 11. Stratton, Mouroeton, Pa. 
Presses ; C. S. Swan, Tamaroa, 111. 
Karth Augers; K. Whitney, Marysville, Cal. 
Gate Latches; H. C. Bei-nartl, Hocky Mount, Va. 
Earth Augers; F. J. Clarke, Sit. Pli-asaiit, Iowa. 
Feed Batrs for Horses ; Henry Engelhert, Kutherford 

Park, N. J. 
Dredging Boxes ; Jos. S. Field, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Grain Thrashers and Separators ; David Lippy, Maus- 

tield. Ohio. 
Horse Hay Kakos; Bcnj. Mellinger, Mt. Pleasant, Pa. 
Bee Hives; N. C. Mitchell, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Iinjilemcnts for BindingGrain ; William A. Patterson, 

Juniata county. Pa. 
Seed Planters ; H. E. Pennypaeker, Phoenixville, Pa. 
Spring Vehicles ; Jas. H. Phoenix, Cinciimati, 0. 
Portalilc Penecs ; H. Priekett, Edenlon, Ohio. 
Grain Binders ; Charles S. Travis, Great Valley, N. Y'. 
Seed Sowers ; Alex. Walker, Mornington, Canada. 
Grain Separators; Wm.S. Cly mans, Burnt Cabins, Pa. 
Harness Clips; F. Conway, Butlalo, N. Y. 
Steam Plows; James Fogartv, Newark, N. J. 
Potato Diggers; M. W. Knox, Sheridan, N. Y. 
Straw Twisting Machines; S. Kuh, Jellcrson, Iowa. 
Wagon Covers; E. M. Saunders, Sangus, Mass. 
Stumii Elevators; J. II. Barnes, Baltimore, Md. 
Grain Drills; Bcnj. Kuhns, Davl<iii, Ohio. 
Plows; J.O. Minor, Beilford, idwa. 
Swinging Gates; F. Kaymon<I, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Harvesters; C. D. Schrailer; Lancaster, M'is. 
Lifting Jacks; J. J. Adirate, Stevensville, N. Y. 
Dumping Carts; J. J. Adgate, Stevensville, N. Y. 
Windmills; O. B. Blakeslee, Hankin, 111. 
Chain Pump Buckets; A. L. Cory, Ypsilanti,Mich. 
Gang Corn Planters; S. P. Evans, Ash Kidge, Ohio. 
Top Supports for Carriages; A. Goodyear, Albion, 

Mich. 
Harvesters; M. L. Gorhani, Kockford, 111. 
Carriage Tope; C. lleergeist, Cinciimati, Ohio. 
Cotton Seed Planters aud Fertilizer Distributers; J. 

B. Legg, Rome, Ga. 
Windniilis; Geo. 11. Lucas, Pekin, 111. 
Corn Drills; J. B. LudU!W, Muncie, Ind, 
Harrows; W. T. MeGee, Wheeling, Mo. 
_ Cotton Choppers; J. G. Mickle, Fosterville, Tenn. 
Farm Boxes; -M. M. Murray, Ciiu-innati, Oliio. 
AVindmills; A. iN: (i. Havmond, Wuupun, Wis. 
AVater Wheels; K. K. Hoyer, Ephrata, Pa. 
Axle Skeins for Vehicles; B. Snyder, Johnson's Cor- 
ners, Ohio. 
Grain Bands; C. L. Travis, Great Valley, N. Y. ' 
Cotton Planting ,\ttaehmcnts to Harrows; S. H. 

Wade, Chapel Hill, Miss. 
Hay Presses; Chas. Wa.ste, Galeshurg, 111. 
Unloading and Dumping Grain; J. B. Whitcomb, 

Farmer City, 111. 
Machines lor Distributing Compounds for Destroying 

Cotton Worms; Wm.T. Willie, Breuhara, Texas. 
Doors for feeding Straw to Furnaces; AVm. F. Mor- 
gan, Oswego, N. Y. 
Journal Bearings for Harvesters; E. S. Herrington, 

West lloosiek, N. Y. 

REI.'SSIES. 

Lawn Mowers; E. G. Passniore, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Patent No. S7,iS(l; dated Feb. 2'ld, ISfiil. 
Grail) Drvcrs; J. B. Whecic, Bolton, Mass. Patent 

No. ;;s,'l91; dated April Uth, 18li:i. 
Plows; John Lane, Chicago, 111.; Old Patent No. 

111,8.54, jlated Feb. U., 1.S71. 
Harvester: C. W. A W. W. Mar.sh, Sycamore, TIL, 

Patent; No. 31,201, dated Aug. 17, LS.W. 
Harvesters; C. W. A W. W. Marsh, Sveamore, 111., 

I'atent No. 21,21)1, dated Aug. 17, 185S. 
Mowing Machines: A. B. Allen, Toms Hiver, N. J. 

Patent No. 2il,22.S; dated July 24th, LsliO. 
Harvester Kakes; Andrew A. Henderson, Brooklvn, 

N.Y. Patent No. 2'.),.5!I4; dated Auir. Uth, bStld. 
Drills for Well Boriuir; John .M. Mav, Cedar Hapi<ls, 

Iowa. Patent No. 49,120; dated Aug. 1, l.Sfi.->. 
Harvester Kakes: Walter A.Wood & Co., lloosiek 

Falls, N. Y. Patent No. 1S,009; dated Aug. IStli, 
1857; extended seven years. 



Powell's I'atent Wheel HarrowlGrainCoverer. 




Tliis Ilitnow, for PiilvcrizjitiDii, Covcriiif; Seed, C'<miii;ii:itivc Eiisp of Draft, Simplicity, 
Durability, and General I'ractlcabtlliy, lsunsurpa.ssed hy any other Harrow or Pulverizer In use. 

IT IS ADAPTED TO EVERY KIND OF SOIL! 

stony. Rooty, Clayey, Loamy or sandy, being supplied with f'a.st Iron or steel Teeth. It never catehi^s upon stone 
or roots, nor turns up the sod on newly plowed sward land, owing to the peculiar construction ol the Teelli. It 
does the work ot four plows on old potato land by properly adjusilng it. 

A SEED SOWER, now ready for use. can be attached when dc'slred. 

MANUFACTURED BY THE NATIONAL WHEEL HARROW COMPANY, 

L. C. DODGE, General Agent, Burlington, Vt. 



FARMERS, CALL AND SEE THE GREAT HARROW. 

Being itssiircd tlKit this, tlic only Wlicol Harrow in tlif world witli ;i wlictd draft, wlnrli 
works vertically. Independent of the main axle. Is on.' of the mosi Imporiant agricultural Impleincnis of ih.. day, 
the publishers ot Thk Farmi-:p., have made arrangements wllhlle' Mauutacturers to hrln^' It to the at lent Ion of the 
Farmers of I'ennsvlvonta liy pliulns one of the Harrows and Si-cd Sowers comMned on extilbltlon at the olllee of 
Thk Lancaster Fakmek. wh.re thos.' Interested tn this tTeai Improv.iiicnt are invited to call. This will be the 
first one seen in the state. It was awarded the (JRVND MEDAL OK PROGKESS by the New England ACTleultural 
Society, at Boston. 1ST:), and at Providence, In lsT4; also the First Premium by the American Institute, \sTi. and 
First at all state and Couniy Fairs wherever (Xblblied. ("-1.1m. 



m%u 





No. 1. The old Nursery at 
Sevenlh-st. and Borougli limits, 
with '.M\ acres of Kround, live 
large flreeii and Hot-houHee, and 
a loug line of Cold Fninies imd 
Hot Beds, etc., where stock ia 
grown for whoJefliiliuK, 

No. 2 Is 11 Uetail Gieen-housc, 
over one hundred feet loug. 
Packing Hoiihc and Office. 



largost nn'l moHt comjlete 



Establimiment in the State, Philiid'a and vifinity cxeoi'ted. 

Stock etteraud I'lic-cs lower than any other reliablo es- 
tabliubment in any State of the Union. 

SEND FOR MY DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 

Pealcrs ami Planters will save and iniikc money by calUug 
to examine ni.v stocli before i.uri>li;tsii]g elsewhere. 

LANDSCAPE GARDENING 
I> I- A. N T I N C3- 

DONE IN THE BEST MODERN STYLE. 

Decorating Assemlly Rooms, 

and PfTTINO VV ANY STYI.K OF I'LOWIiR DKSKINS, 
done in the most Arlistic Wt.vie, ou Short Nolioo, aud at 
ReaBunuble Rates. Address, 

s. II. ^'TJurr.io, 

Cor. Third and Cheslnut Sts-, 

7-4-lnil ron'MniA, im. 

MARIETTA NURSERIES. 

We invite the iiKcutiou ot I'lautcrs ton very large ind 
fine stock of 

APPLE, PEACH, PEAR, PLUM and CHERRY TUEES. 
Also, SHADE and ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Small Fruits. Kosea and aiecii-UouaeTlauts. 

Send your orders early. Prices very low. Descriptive 
Catalogue*! free. .-Vd.bess 

7-3-2m ENULE & BRO., Marietta, Pa. 



TRXSSS, Etc. 

We offer for SPR I NG i '75 , "" "" ''">'»"? 

large stock of well-grown, thrifty 

Ntnnilnrd ami Hwarf Frull Tree*. 
4i:ra|><< VliK'S. Siii.-ill I'rnils. 
Oriiainotilal Tr«'«'«. Mliriihs. Roion. 
New anil l(»r<> rrnil :>ii<l Oriiain<-n(al Trom, 
F.voricri'rii aiifl liilllxMix KooIm. 
Xen and Kar)- <.r<-rii aii<l il«l-ll»niio PInntn. 
Small pnrceh forviiriWd hi/ vmil irhcn demrcd. 

PROMI'T ATTKNTION OIVKN TO AT.I, ENQViniEfl. 

Descriptive and llhtslratfd I'rirrd CataluriiifM wnt prepaid, 
on rerfiiit of ntnmpn, ajt/oltntrn: 
Nn. 1 — Fruits, l<>r. No. 'J— Ornninental Tre,-a. lOC- 
No. »— flrecnhoUB-. lOr. No. 4— Wholesale, Frco. 



Addt-esB. 
KKtah'd 1S40. 
l-i-Sm] Mnvnl II. f' 



ELLWANGER & BARRY, 



RIM'IIKSTr.K. >•. T. 



SEEDS AND BULBS. 



ILLUSTRATED SPRING CATALOGUE FOR 1875 

>OW KK.IOY. 

Bent, with a specimen coyy of 7'hr Avi^rirnn fiardrn, a new 
IlhlHt rated Journal of (larden .\rt, edited Ity .Taroev Hogg, 
on re<'eii>t of teu cla. REAPH & SON. Seednnien, 

7-S-lf 71; Fiilion SI., Bro..ktyn. N. Y 



THOEOUGHBHED STOCE 

FOR SALE CHEAP. 



PURE AYSHIRE CATTLE and CALVES, 

PURE JERSEY CATTLE and CALVES. 

of all age«. all very choice ani! nicvl.v marked, from the 
clioic'Bt l>loo<l and'inilking faniibcH. AlHit, 

•■PRIZE CHESTER WHITE PIGS," 

of all ages. " UnanvpaBUcd." Tbeec P>ire-Bred Piga have 
no auj'erior on this continent. Rrcd from our pi-ize and pre- 
niinm atock. Alao, extra improved Pr.RKSHIRE and 
ESSEX PIGS. Order «oon. Addrco. 

CI.IPTON FARMS, 

KENNET SQUARE, 

7-2-3m CHESTER CUUNTT, PA. 



VI. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



WABI 



v^^nt 



II ||t€ 



CENTRE HALL, 

No. 12 EAST KING ST., 

Is now ready to accommodate the Public 
in the way of 

REAOY-MAEE CLOTIINi;, 



-FOR- 



MEN, YOUTHS & BOYS. 

Our stock is the largest in the 
City of Lancaster. We manufac- 
ture all our Clothing; we have 
them sponged, made up well, and 
use good irimmings. Our new 
Centre Hall is packed with goods 
from top to bottom. We are pre- 
pared to show to the public the 
largest, and one of the choicest, 
assortments of Piece Goods, for 
Spring, ever exhibited outside of 
Philadelphia, of every grade and 
shade, of both Foreign and Do- 
mestic mauufacture, all of which 
we are prepared to make up in 
the best manner, at the shortest 
notice, and at the most reasonable 
prices. We are also prepared to 
make up to order all kinds of 
Clothing for Children, and we 
keep them i-eady made. If you 
want to purchase goods by the 
yard, you can save money at 
CENTRE HALL, as we buy 
largely, and have an advantage in 
our large purchases. 

We keep a full line of Gentle- 
men's Furnishing Goods. We 
have a large lot of accumulated 
Stock of Keady-Made Clothing, 
Odd Lots, which will be sold 
without regard to cost. It will 
pay purchasers wishing Clothing 
to call at Centre Hall and be suit- 
ed, and save money, and you will 
say the half has not been told you. 
There are always ready hands 
waiting to show you through the 
immense stock. 

Waiting your inspection, we feel 
grateful to a generous public for 
the patronage heretofore extended 
to us, and hope by fair dealing to 
merit a continuance of the same. 

No. 12 EAST KING ST., 



T-4-3m] 



LANCASTER, PA. 




Passing them in. 

A well known drummer for a Boston dry goods 
house, who chanced, last summer, to be in a Maine 
town where the circus was to show that night, made 
a bet that he could pass every one of a party of thirty, 
who had come over from a neighboring town into the 
"show," without paying a cent. The wager being 
accepted, the party were marshaled, and proceeded 
to the tent, where the doorkeeper was busily engaged 
taking tickets from all who passed through the aper- 
ture in the canvas. Coming up with his crowd, the 
drummer rushed up to the ticket taker with his hands 
full of cards, and said : 

" Just count these men as they pass in, ending with 
the man in the straw hat." 

" Certainly, sir," and the cerberus went to work. 
" Five, ten, fourteen, eighteen," &c., as they passed 
in and mingled with the crowd, till the straw hat was 
reached, when he shouted "thirty-one," and turned 
round for the tickets. But the polite individual who 
had bade him enumerate had vanished, while the 
party who was crowned with the straw hat, the only 
one who was stopped before he had mingled with and 
melted into the indistinguishable mass of the crowd 
inside, proved to be an innocent countryman, who 
had legitimately procured his admission paste-board. 
The ticket taker couldn't leave his post, for the in- 
gress by regular spectators was pressing, so he made 
the beet of it, and said nothing. He had learned a 
lesson, however, that made him take tickets first and 
count afterward, for the future. 

A Yorkshire butcher was going to York with his 
son, a boy of eighteen. He took a ticket for himself 
and a-half one for the boy. When the train drew near 
to York the ticket collector came round, and ex- 
claimed at this half ticket, " Where's the child ?" 

" Here," said the butcher, pointing to the tall, 
awkward youth. 

" What do you mean?" asked the indignant ticket 
collector. " He ain't a child; he's a young man !" 

" Ah ! so he is, now," answered the butcher, " but 
that's thy fault, not mine. I know when we got in 
at Wakefield he were nobbut a bairn; buttha'st been 
goin' so confounded slow that he's growed sin' we 
started !" 

An Englishman dining in a Chinese village was 
greatly enjoying a savory dish, and would have ex- 
pressed his pleasure to the waiter, who, however, un- 
derstood nothing of English, nor could our friend 
utter a word of Chinese. The smacking of lips indi- 
cated satisfaction ; and then came the question, 
ingeniously put. Pointing at the portion of meat in 
the dish, and which he supposed to be duck, the 
Englishman, with an inquiring look, said, "Quack, 
quack, quack?" The waiter, gravely shaking his 
head, as much as to say "No," replied, "Bow, wow, 
wow ! " . . 

A PENUBious FELLOW,having buried his wife,waited 
upon the grave-digger, who had performed the 
necessary duties, to pay him his fees. Being of a 
niggardl}' disposition, he endeavored to get the knight 
of the spade to abate his charges. The patience of 
the latter becoming exhausted, he grasped his shovel 
impulsively, and, with an angry look, exclaimed, 
" Doon wi' another shilliu', or — up she comes 1 " 
The threat had the desired etfeet. 

"Why, you rascal," said Dr. Radcliffe, the great 
physician, to a pavior who dunned him, "do you pre- 
tend to be paid for such a piece of work ? Why, you 
have spoiled my pavement, and then covered it over 
witlv><!arth to hide your bad work." " Doctor," said 
the pavior, " mine is not^the only bad work the earth 
hides." "You dog, you," said Dr. Radclitt'e, "you 
are a wit : you must be poor. Come in and you shall 
be paid." 

A DEAF-AND-DUMB mendicant was suddenly startled 
by the rude shouts of some boys while wallcing down 
a city street, and in turning slipped on a banana skiu 
and fell. He gave the lads a severe lecture, much to 
the enjoyment of the blind beggar at the corner, who 
saw the whole occurrence through his green glasses, 
and was much amused thereat. 

".Jennie" said a venerable Camcronian to his 
daugliler, who was asking his consent to accompany 
her urgent and favored suitor to the altar — " Jennie, 
it's a very solemn thing to get married." "I know 
it, father," replied the sensible damsel ; "but it's a 
great deal solemner not to." 

ArniLosopHER borrowed adictionary to read, and 
returned it after he got through, with the remark 
that "it was werry nice reading, but it somehow 
changed the subject werry often." It was his sister 
who thought the first ice-cream she tasted was " a 
leetle touched with the frost." > 

The Lanoater Farmer : This agricultural news- 
paper is constantly securing increased popularity, and 
is well filled with instructive and useful reading mat- 
ter. Published by Pearsol & Geist, Lancaster, Pa.— 
York (/"a.) Telegram. 



JOHN M. CO^AAELL, 

Copeyaicer ani Seal Estate Apt, 

OFFICK IN LAW BUlLltiSQ, 

N. W. COR. DUKE AND GRANT STS., 

LANCASTER, PA. 

Real EHate of all deacription bought, eold and ex- 
changed on commission. 

L^ntns Negotiated. Mortgages bought and sold. 

fropt'rtiea taken in charge, and rents, interest, etc., 
coUected. 

I*articiilar attention given to matters appertaining to 
Real Estate Law, and Conveyancing. 

Drfdst Mortgagea, Briefs, Wilts and all other legal 
inetruments correctly drawn and handsomely and neatly 
engrossed. 

Maps of Properties, Lots, Farms, &c., and Draughting in 
general accurately and handsomely executed. [7-l-12m 



REED, McGRANN & CO, 

LANCASTER CITY. 



Execute orders for Stocks and Bonds, allow Interest on 
Deposits according to time, Loan Money, Make Collec- 
tions, Buy Gold and Silver, and transact a General 
Banking Business. 
Drafts and Passage Certlticates for sale on Europe, 
GEO. K. REED, A. M. McCONOMY, 

B. J. MCORA.NX, R. U. BRUB.\KER, 

PETER MCCOXOMY. JB. [7-3-3m 

OPENING OF THE NEW HOTEL. 



THE STEVENS HOUSE, 

COR. WEST KING & PRINCE STS., 

LANCASTER CITY, PA., 

IS NOW OPEN TO RECEIVE GUESTS. 

M. H. WILSON & SON. 

PATROSTAOE OF FARMERS SOLICITED. 

«Pft.COMMODIOUS STABLING FURNISHED ON 
REASONABLE TERMS. [T-l-«m 

PATENTS 

OBTAIED BEST AD CHEAPEST BY 

LOUIS BAGGER & CO., 

SOLICITORS OP PATENTS, 



U?" Address all letters to P. O. Box 444. 



AGRICULTURAL STORE, 

No. 320 North Qneen Street, Lancaster, 

(Near New Market House). 

The Improved Rockaway Grain Fan, Pnitt's Patent Hay 
Rake :vnd Corn Siiellers for Horse and Hand Power, 
Cutting Boxes, Corn Planters, and Improved 
Cider Mills 
of different kinds and sizes ; also, all kindb of Coach- 
makers' Stuff. 

Farmers, look to your interest before buying elsewhere. 
I can sell at small profits. The Shop is two squares 
northwest of P. R. R. Depot, and two squares south of 
Rending Depot. Hickory Lumber and Spoke Wood taken 
in exchange for Machines. 

PLANINQ AND SA^WINQ 

of all kinds at short notice ; and Castings kept on h;md for 
repairing Farm Machinery. Also, Agricultural imple- 
ments oi every description on hand. Wire and Sievea 
made to order for farmers. 

SAMUEIi KEELER, 

6-5-12m] Lancasteh, Pa. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



VII. 



J. B. KEYINSKI, 

Sole Agent for Lancaster City and County lor 

STEINWAY& SON'S 

WORLD RENOWNED PIANOS, 

AND 

MASON & HAMLIN'S 

CELEBRATED OEGANS. 

No. 8 Xorth Prince St. 

7-2-3m 

J. F. FRUEAUFF, 

Attorsey-at-Law. 

Ofiice-204 Locust-st. House-27 S. Second-st. 

coiaUrasBXA. ^a. 



Notes, Bonds, 

Mortgages, Wills, 

Deeds, Leases, 

Building Contracts, 

And all manner of AGREEMENTS motlyund pxicditiouBly 
drown. Cases carefully and thorougUly tried before 

JUSTICES OF THE PEACE, 

ARBITRATORS. ROAD-VIEWtRS. AUDITORS, 

Or in any Courts of Lancaster County. 
COUNSEL GIVEN TO 

EXECUTORS, ADMINISTRATORS & ASSIGNEES, 

Or Trustees of any kind. 

Collections, large or small, made upon a uniform table of 
rat^s, in all inirtH of the United States. 

Special facilities for Collections of Estates or Debts in 
Europe. 

Consultations and Correspondence conducted iu either the 
French, German or English lunguuges. 

J. F. FRUEAUFF, 

7-l-l*n] Columbia, Penua. 



DAVID BAIR. 



R. W. SHENK. 



BANKING HOUSE 

—OF— 

BAIR & SHENK, 

LANCASTER, PENN'A. 

BUSINESS PAPER Discountf-d. 
Loans made on Collateral Securities, 
Gold, Silver, Coui oni, Government and other Securities 
bought and sold. 
Interest paid on Def usits. 

*X I'^r cent. 3 nuinths, I 5)^ per cent. 12 mouths. 

5 per cent. 6 months, | 7-a.3m 

GEORGE D. SPRECHER, 

DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

EOOF1NC4 ISLA-TE. 

OFFICE : 

No. 15 EAST KING STREET, 

7-l-12m LANCASTER, PA. 

FINE GROCERIES, 

BAKING 1 GLASSES. 

PURE SPICES, 

Canned Vegetatles and Fruits, 



AT 
7-2-Sm 



HENRY FISHER'S, 

104 East King St. 




MODEL WIVES. 

Recently tlic Kubjicts of "Model Wives" 
and "Model Iluslumd.s" liiive been ventilated 
in lectures before the "Howard Association," 
but possibly tliey may not liave been entirely 
exhausted. The following is in point, and 
we liojie that some young lady reader 
t>f The FAit.Mi':i: will in like manner paint the 
jiortrait of a model husband, and endorse it 
by ail appeal to the " law and tlie testimony. " 
If furtlier elucidation should seem necessary, 
she might illustrati^ it by an appropriate little 
anecdote, of which there are no doubt an 
abundance to select from, and wliich cannot 
possibly do any harm: 

Model wives liki> city docks bIiouUI l)e, 

KxiK't to reifHliirity, 

Yet not like city clocks so loud 

As beard by all the vulji:ar crowd. 

Model wives, like echo, should be true, 

And speak when only spoken to ; 

Yet not, like echo, so aiisurd. 

Forever having the last word. 

Model wives like snails should be akin, 

And their own houses keep within : 

Yet not like snails and their lilthy pack. 

Wearing all their tcoodness on their back. 

Now, to the law and testimony we go, and 
from the sentence hereof there can be no 
appeal : 

Genesis, iii ; 16. 

1st Peter, iii ; 1—6. 

Proverbs, xii ; 4. > 

Proverbs, xiii ; 1 — 31. 

Ecclesiastes, vii ; 28. 

1st Timothy, ii ; 9—14. 

Ephesians, v; 22 — 24. 

Titus, ii; 3—5. 

^ 

Fond of Fishing. 
"I met, the other day," writes a foreign 
sportsman, "with an Englishman who travels 
some hundreds of miles every year to indulge 
in his favorite sport of trout-fishing. I believe 
that, provided his favorite stream was undis- 
turbed, this enthusiastic fishernian would be 
but little concerned if the whole world was 
submerged in a second deluge, as may be 
judged by the following anecdote: One day 
he was exploring the banks of his favorite 
sti'eam, accompanied by the landlord of the 
inn at which he was stopping. The latter 
happening to come too close just at the moment 
when his guest was throwing liis lly, the hook 
caught the poor wretch's eyelid, causing him 
intense pain. The sportsman coolly took out 
the hook, readjusted the tly, and, as the iiui- 
keeper continued howling at the top of his 
voice, ' You can,' said he, in a whis])er, 'put 
your eye down in your bill; but I'll trouble 
you to stop that noise, so as not to frighten 
mytish.'" 

^ 

A GOOD STonY is told of a little seven year 
old bfiy, at a juvenile party. He k(>iit aloof 
from the rest of the company, and the lady of 
the house called to him, .saying: "Come and 
play and dance, my dear. Choose one of 
those pretty little giiis f( r your wife." 

"Xot likely!" cried the youngster, "No 
wife for me ! Do you think I want to be wor- 
ried all my life like poor papa V" 



A Tau.or possesses the qualities of nine men com- 
bined in one, as will be seen by the following observa- 
tions : 

1. As an economist he cuts his coat according to 
his cloth. 

2. As a gardener, he is careful of his ca!>bage. 

.S. As a sailor, he sheers off whenever it is projier. 

4. As a play-actor, he often lirandislies a bare b(xi- 
kin. 

T>. As a lawyer, he attends many suits. 

0. As an executioner, lie provides suspenders or 
gallowses for numy persons. 

7. As a cook, he isgcnerally furnished with awarm 
g(X)8e. 

8. As a sheriff's ollicer, he does much at s|)onging. 

9. As a rational and Scriptural divine, his great 
aim is to form good habits for the benefit of himself 
and others. 



BOOKS ! 



JOHN BAER'S SONS, 

No. 15 Xorth Queen Street, 

LANCASTER, PA., 

Invite the attention of the public to their largo and well bo- 
locied stock of " 

Miscellaneous aiii Scliool Books, 

English and German Publications, 
BLANK BOOKS, 

Com))rlslug Ledgers, Day Books, Cash Books, Journals, 
Pas